Literature / Doctor Who Novelisations

During the 70s and 80s, in the days before video took off, the way to catch up on previous Doctor Who stories was by reading the novelisations from Target Books, which retold (and frequently expanded on) the stories on TV.

Notable authors included Terrance Dicks (who wrote more Doctor Who novelisations than anyone else), Malcolm Hulke, Philip Hinchcliffe, Ian Marter, and David Whitaker, all of whom had worked on the TV series in various capacities.

Target Books was established in 1973, publishing TV novelisations and other books for children. The Doctor Who line was its most successful, and in later years the two became synonymous: "Target Books" meant Doctor Who novelisations and vice versa.

Because Target's target audience was children, the novelisations used simplified language and were stuck with a maximum page count of around 150 pages, even for epics like the 10-part "The War Games". A special concession was made for "The Daleks' Master Plan", 13 episodes including the prologue, which was published in two volumes, although this was very late in the series where the books were being marketed to the adult fan-collector market as much as to the original child audience. The quality of the writing varies considerably, from thin Beige Prose to relatively sophisticated works that took time to fill out characters' personalities and backstories; Malcolm Hulke's novelisations, for instance, were notable examples of the latter type.

The first three Doctor Who novelisations, Doctor Who in an Exciting Adventure With the Daleks (based on "The Daleks" and reprinted as Doctor Who and the Daleks), Doctor Who and the Web Planet and Doctor Who and the Crusaders were originally published by Frederick Muller in the 1960s, before Target Books reprinted them and bought the rights to new novelisations. The Target series began with Doctor Who and the Auton Invasion, written by Terrance Dicks and based on "Spearhead from Space".

Almost every story from the classic series got a novelisation. The four exceptions were the two Dalek stories by Eric Saward, "Resurrection of the Daleks" and "Revelation of the Daleks", due to conflict between Saward and the Daleks' agent about the division of royalties; and Douglas Adams' two stories, "The Pirate Planet" and "City of Death", because Adams wanted the novelisations to be done by someone who could do justice to the material (namely, himself) but having hit the big time with The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy he was too busy, or too expensive, or both.

Circa 1979, ten of the novelisations were brought to America by Pinnacle Books. The reprints had a foreword by Harlan Ellison, some edits to make them US-friendly (jelly babies changed to jelly beans, etc.) and covers that never actually showed the Doctor or the TARDIS.

As the '80's wore on, Target began to branch out. It adapted the audio drama Doctor Who and the Pescatons into The Pescatons and another audio story, Slipback. It novelised K-9 and Company under the Companions of Doctor Who sub-series, which had previously included the original novels Turlough and the Earthlink Dilemma by Tony Attwood and Harry Sullivan's War, written by Ian Marter, the Target author who had played Harry on Doctor Who. Three novelisations of the original, cancelled Season 23 stories The Nightmare Fair, The Ultimate Evil and Mission to Magnus appeared under another sub-series.

In 1990, Target's parent company, W H Allen, became Virgin Publishing. They brought out the remaining unadapted novelisations under the Target imprint, and started a new line of original Doctor Who novels, the Doctor Who New Adventures. The last original Target novelisations, none of which carried the Target logo on the cover, were audio drama The Paradise Of Death and TV stories "The Power of the Daleks" and "The Evil of the Daleks". The final book under the Target imprint was a reprint of "The Talons of Weng-Chiang" in 1994.

In 1995, the radio drama The Ghosts of N-Space was novelised as one of the Doctor Who Missing Adventures. In 1996, BBC Books released a novelisation of the TV movie with Paul McGann, and in 2004 the animated webcast "Scream of the Shalka" was novelised by Paul Cornell, effectively part of the Past Doctor Adventures range. No post-2005 Doctor Who story has received a novelisation, although the BBC has published novelisations of stories from the younger-ages spin-off The Sarah Jane Adventures; the novelisation of the first episode was by Terrance Dicks.

In 2007, Telos Publishing published The Target Book, a guide to the history of Target and its Doctor Who novelisations.

In 2011, the BBC reissued six of the novelisations in new editions with introductions by writers including Neil Gaiman, Stephen Baxter, and Russell T. Davies. In 2012, they reissued six more. In 2013, when the BBC reissued a spin-off novel for each Doctor as part of the 50th anniversary, the first six were Past Doctor Adventures released in the late 1990s and 2000s, but the Seventh Doctor's was the 1990 novelisation of "Remembrance of the Daleks". In 2016, they reissued ten more novelisations, three of which were hardback facsimiles of the original Frederick Muller novelisations.

In 2012, the BBC published the first new novelisation in years: Gareth Roberts' novelisation of Douglas Adams' "Shada" (a story cancelled in mid-production by a strike at the BBC). Unlike previous novelisations, it was aimed at a general audience, and clocked in at approximately 400 pages. James Goss's novelisation of City of Death followed in 2015, with his novelisation of The Pirate Planet officially completing the set of Adams-related novelisations in 2017 (with copies available the last week of 2016).

In 2016, a podcast devoted to reading and reviewing the novelisations in story order launched. Called, not surprisingly, The Doctor Who Target Book Club Podcast, the series tackles the novelisations at a rate of one every two or so weeks with a panel consisting of the so-called "expert" host Tony Whitt and two panelists with little or no experience reading the books. The podcast itself can be found here.

These novels provide examples of:

  • Adaptation Dye-Job: The novelisation of "Tomb of the Cybermen" makes Victoria blonde.
  • Adaptational Ugliness: The book adaptation of "Invasion of the Dinosaurs" gives Butler (played by an unblemished Martin Jarvis on TV) a disfiguring facial scar for the purpose of a scene which called for the Doctor to observe him setting a bomb—the audience had to know the character was Butler, but the Doctor hadn't met him yet and didn't know who he was. Giving him a scar gave him something striking that the Doctor could describe him by.
  • Adaptation Name Change:
    • Susan Foreman becomes Susan English in "Doctor Who in an Exciting Adventure with the Daleks"
    • David Campbell is called David Cameron at the start of "Doctor Who and the Crusaders", predating the birth of the British prime minister of the same name.
    • Several novelisations present Telos as the Cybermen homeworld, and Mondas as a later colony, instead of the other way around.
  • Alice Allusion:
    • The novelisation of "Tomb of the Cybermen" makes Victoria blonde, to resemble the Tenniel version of Alice.
    • In the novelisation of "The Mind Robber", the Master of the Land dresses Zoe as Alice, so that the narrative sends her tumbling down a deep hole.
  • All There in the Manual: Some stories, particularly "Warriors' Gate" and about half of the Seventh Doctor's later adventures, are much easier to follow in the novelisations than they were on screen. One particularly notorious example is the novelisation to "Dragonfire", which in the TV version had a scene wherein the Doctor hangs off a cliff by his umbrella for what appears to be absolutely no reason whatsoever; the novel explains that the Doctor is using it to try and reach a ledge lower down, but slips and loses his footing.
  • Author Catch Phrase:
    • Terrance Dicks had many stock phrases that were repeatedly deployed in his novelisations; for instance, the Fifth Doctor was always "a young man with a pleasant open face", and that noise the TARDIS makes was invariably "a wheezing, groaning sound".
    • In Christopher Bidmead's novelisations, the TARDIS makes "a whirring, chuffing sound".
    • In two of Nigel Robinson's contributions to the series, he refers to Susan as looking "Oriental" or "Asiatic," which can be fairly jarring to readers several decades on.
  • Batman Gambit: According to the "Warriors' Gate" novelisation, Biroc set up the events of the entire story, simply by causing the TARDIS and the privateer to land at the gateway and then letting events take their natural course.
  • Beige Prose: Many of the less inspired novelisations.
  • Bowdlerise:
    • Doctor Who and the Sunmakers, novelised by Terrance Dicks, depicts the rebellious citizens as immediately feeling guilty and regretful after they throw Hade off the roof (as opposed to joyous cheering in the original "The Sun Makers") because Dicks felt that an all-ages show shouldn't condone the casual murder of helpless prisoners, no matter how villainous.
    • Dicks' Doctor Who and the Web of Fear removes the anti-semitic undertones of the first episode, mainly by changing the name of the avaricious Silverstein to something less obviously Jewish.
  • Bureaucratically Arranged Marriage: Doctor Who and the Doomsday Weapon, the novelisation of "Colony in Space", adds extra details about life on Overindustrialised Future Earth; one of the mining ship's officers recalls how the faceless megacorporation he works for "takes care" of its employees, arranging their accommodation, education, and, if the Company considers it necessary, marriages. They do try to arrange compatible matches, but probably only because unhappy employees are bad for productivity, and the matching process involves a stack of employee profiles and a computer in the personnel department, as opposed to, say, people getting to meet people. In his case, he agreed to be married as a condition of his next promotion, and then heard no more about it until he returned from a voyage to find his new wife waiting for him in the kitchen.
  • Character Name and the Noun Phrase: With occasional exceptions ("The Three Doctors", "Death to the Daleks"), every novelisation until 1982 was titled Doctor Who and the X. Disappointingly, the novelisation of "Doctor Who and the Silurians", the only TV story with that kind of title, was Doctor Who and the Cave Monsters, not Doctor Who and the Doctor Who and the Silurians. And, of course, the Doctor's name isn't actually "Doctor Who".
    • Oddly enough, it was the novelisations' constant references to the character as "the Doctor" that cemented the I Am Not Shazam viewpoint in fandom.
  • Composite Character: The novelisation of "The Invasion of Time" combines the characters of Jasko and Ablif into a single character. The character in the book is named, appropriately enough, "Jablif".
  • Compressed Adaptation: Any of the novelisations that tried to cram six or more episodes into less than 150 pages.
  • Covers Always Lie: The US Pinnacle covers featured more impressive versions of the sometimes feeble monsters in the actual stories (Target Books made sure not to do this). Doctor Who and the Day of the Daleks depicts a very badass UNIT spaceship, which never appeared in the show or anywhere else!
  • Death by Adaptation:
    • Luigi Ferrigo in Doctor Who and the Crusaders (based on "The Crusade").
    • Lolem in "The Underwater Menace" (he probably dies off-screen in the TV story but the novelisation makes sure).
    • Roberts in Doctor Who and the Cave Monsters.
    • Ahmed and the other workers in "Doctor Who and the Pyramids of Mars".
    • Zbrigniev in "Battlefield".
    • Vershinin and Bates in "The Curse of Fenric".
    • Harvey, Len and Derek in "Survival".
  • Derelict Graveyard: The novelisation of "The Mysterious Planet" sets the Time Lords' space station in one (following the original script).
  • Early-Bird Cameo: Those Doctor Who novelisations that were published some years after the TV story was broadcast sometimes added in references to later stories.
    • The novelisation of "The Time Meddler" has a notorious line where the Doctor refers to the Monk as a Gallifreyan, leading fans who relied on the novelisations to believe that the Doctor's home planet had been named eight years earlier than it was on TV.
    • The novelisation of "The Power of the Daleks" describes the space colony on Vulcan as being part of the Interplanetary Mining Corporation, the evil company in the later story "Colony In Space".
    • The novelisation of "The Mind Robber" makes reference to the Master, to clear up the oddity of that story also having an unrelated villain called the Master (or the Master of the Land). (This contradicts TV continuity, though, in that, when the Master first appeared onscreen, he had only recently adopted that name.)
    • In the novelisation of "Terror of the Autons", the bomb that the hypnotised Professor Philips uses to try to kill the Doctor and Jo was retconned into a Sontaran hand grenade.
    • In the novelisation of "The Time Monster", the device with which the Master pulls soldiers and weapons out of the past to attack UNIT is compared to the Time Scoop from "The Five Doctors".
    • The novelisation of "Shada" nods to The TV Movie (temporal orbit), "The Shakespeare Code" (Carrionites), "The Stolen Earth" (time locks), "The End of Time" (Visionaries), and "The Doctor's Wife" (the Corsair), etc.
    • The Doctor uses his sonic screwdriver in the novelisation of 1967's "The Faceless Ones"; on TV, the sonic wasn't introduced until "Fury from the Deep", a year later. The novelisation of the following story, "The Evil of the Daleks", also mentions the sonic screwdriver, this time with an excuse as to why the Doctor doesn't use it.
    • The novelisation of "The Evil of the Daleks" claims that the Dalek Emperor is the same Dalek who exterminated Davros in "Genesis of the Daleks", while the novelisation of "The Power of the Daleks" mentions UNIT and Sarah Jane in the prologue.
  • Early Installment Weirdness: Quite a lot of this. The three novels originally published in the 1960s weren't subject to the familiar Target rules; in particular, they're all well over 150 pages. While Doctor Who and the Zarbi is pitched at about the same reading level as Target aimed for, David Whitaker's two are aimed at adult readers, with developed characters, polished prose, and, it has to be said, a certain amount of child-unfriendly violence. The first one takes the form of a first person account by Ian Chesterton. Additionally, they sometimes refer to the Doctor (in description, not dialogue) as "Doctor Who". (The very first Doctor Who novelisation does not, though.)
  • Everybody Lives: Unlike in the original story, Gareth Roberts' Shada rewrites the ending of the story to achieve this.
  • Fourth Wall: Played with in the novelisation of "The Mind Robber", the adventure in which the Doctor and his companions visit the Land of Fiction. The novelisation is set entirely within the Land: it begins with the scene where the Doctor wakes up there (filling in earlier events through flashback), and ends when the Doctor and his companions leave.
  • Framing Device: Each of Donald Cotton's three Hartnell-historical novelisations: "The Myth Makers" has Homer deciding to tell, just this once, the story of what really happened at the Siege of Troy; "The Gunfighters" has Doc Holliday on his deathbed telling a journalist the story of what really happened at the OK Corral; and "The Romans" is presented as a collection of contemporary documents telling the story of what really happened in the lead-up to the Great Fire of Rome.
  • Good Scars, Evil Scars: In "Doctor Who and the Dinosaur Invasion" (based on "Invasion of the Dinosaurs"), the Anti-Villain Butler has a distinctive scar on his face (which he didn't have in the TV version; it was added because he shows up in several different scenes before being named, and the author needed a way to signal to the reader that it was the same character each time). The trope is played with: Butler is a Well-Intentioned Extremist, and when Sarah Jane remarks on his Evil Scar he reveals that he got it while saving somebody's life.
  • Grand Finale: The novelisation of "The Evil of the Daleks" can have this feel. It was the final TV story to be novelised under Target and makes references to earlier Dalek stories. The way it is presented can make it seem like this is the finale to the Daleks.
  • Iron Lady: The novelisation of "The Seeds of Death" gives a little of Gia Kelly's backstory:
    Even now, in the twenty-first century, the equality of women was still more theoretical than practical. It remained as true as ever that, to attain the highest rank, a woman had to be not simply as good as, but measurably better than, her male colleagues.
    Miss Kelly was as capable as she was ambitious. Her early promotion had been obtained by the stern repression of any softer, more human qualities that might get in the way of her efficiency. The opinion amongst T-Mat technicians was that Gia Kelly was a cold-hearted witch, and you'd better not slip up while she was around.
  • Long Title: The first-ever Doctor Who novelisation was titled Doctor Who in an Exciting Adventure with the Daleks (with Doctor Who in big letters). This was shortened to Doctor Who and the Daleks on subsequent editions.
  • Lost Common Knowledge: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is not known to anyone in Zoe's city, according to "The Mind Robber" novelisation.
  • Mucking in the Mud: In "The Curse of Fenric", Ace has a harder time helping Kathleen and Audrey to escape from the haemovores than in the televised episode, because the Land Rover they're trying to escape in is stuck in mud and won't move until they put sacks under the wheels.
  • Named by the Adaptation:
    • The novelisation of "The Silurians" gives the names Okdel, Morka and K'to to the characters who appear in the cast list as Old Silurian, Young Silurian and Silurian Scientist.
    • The Mutt in "The Brain of Morbius" is given the name Kriz, and his species - which had been a mistake - is not mentioned.
    • The novelisation of "Shada" gives a name to the man Skagra murders to steal his knowledge of 1970s Earth - David Taylor. It also expands on his character and gives him a small role in the ending.
    • In "Battlefield" Ace befriends a Chinese girl named Shou Yuing, but the serial doesn't make clear if 'Shou Yuing' is her full name, or a double familiar name like 'Sarah Jane'. In the novelisation it's stated to be the latter; her full name is Li Shou Yuing.
  • Pastiche: In an attempt to salvage the novelisation of the notoriously bad TV story "The Twin Dilemma", Eric Saward wrote the book as a pastiche of Douglas Adams, complete with irrelevant comic digressions. It still wasn't very popular.
  • Pie in the Face: In the novelisation of "The Daleks' Master Plan", the Doctor is the originator of this timeless gag. Having started a pie fight, he is, of course, the one person to escape unscathed.
  • Promoted to Love Interest:
    • Doctor Who and the Crusaders (based on "The Crusade") gives Ian and Barbara a romantic relationship that is much more overt than the heavy hints in the TV stories.
    • The novelisation of "Remembrance of the Daleks" adds a wartime romance to the backstories of Group Captain Gilmore and Professor Jensen, which is renewed over the course of the book.
  • Scrapbook Story: "The Romans" is presented as a collection of contemporary documents that were gathered up and suppressed to avoid embarrassing certain powerful people depicted therein.
  • Sdrawkcab Name: In the novelisation of "The Happiness Patrol", the human who became the Kandyman is named as Seivad.
  • See the Invisible: The novelisation of "The Daleks' Master Plan" adds a scene where the Doctor and his companions render one of the invisible monsters on Mira visible by throwing it in a swamp.
  • Series Continuity Error: The novelisations weren't really intended to be read end-to-end as a series, and attempting to do so will turn up some interesting continuity anomalies.
    • The earliest, and one of the most famous, is that Ian and Barbara meet the Doctor for the first time two novels in a row: Doctor Who and an Unearthly Child is the novelisation of the first TV story, and includes the scene of their first meeting; Doctor Who and the Daleks, the novelisation of the second TV story, was the first novelisation actually published, and was consequently rewritten to as Ian and Barbara's first adventure, with a new first-meeting scene at the beginning.
    • The second most famous example was that Doctor Who and the Doomsday Weapon, based on the TV story "Colony in Space", has the Doctor and Jo meeting each other for the first time at the beginning, reusing not their actual first meeting from "Terror of the Autons" but the scene later in that story in which the Master hypnotises her and sends her into UNIT HQ with a bomb.
    • The novelisation of "The Faceless Ones" has the Doctor use the sonic screwdriver in a scene where he didn't in the TV version. In the novelisation of the following story, "The Evil of the Daleks" — which follows on immediately, without the Doctor having been back inside the TARDIS in the interim — the Doctor notes that he hasn't got his sonic screwdriver because he left it in the TARDIS.
    • The novelisation of "The Dominators" faithfully retains the serial's cliffhanger ending, in which the TARDIS is threatened by an erupting volcano on the planet Dulkis. The novelisation of "The Mind Robber", which immediately follows, relocates the volcano to Earth. In turn, "The Mind Robber" novelisation ends with four people on board the TARDIS; by the start of "The Invasion" novelisation, which again should follow without a break, there are only three.
    • Doctor Who and the Space War, the novelisation of "Frontier in Space", removes the cliffhanger ending of the Doctor being shot... but he's still injured at the start of Doctor Who and the Planet of the Daleks.
  • Shout-Out: In the novelisation of "The Daleks' Master Plan", two policemen (who were unnamed in the TV episode) are named Welland and Blessed, after Colin Welland and BRIAN BLESSED, two of the stars of Z Cars.
  • Spared by the Adaptation:
  • Time Skip: When "The Daleks' Master Plan" was adapted, it was turned into two books due to its length, and a six-month gap was placed between them to allow for possible future stories featuring Sara Kingdom.
  • Tyop on the Cover: The novelisation of "Delta and the Bannermen" has a typo on the spine, where there is only one Bannerman. (This is nothing to the typo that occurs within, at a point where one of the characters is supposed to be peering over a shelf.)
  • Unreliable Illustrator: The 1960s and 1970s novelisations were published with illustrations, which, although they didn't contradict the text, had clearly been made by somebody who'd never seen the television versions. (In some cases, not only were the details of the scene different, so were the faces of the characters.) This wasn't all bad, though. Some of the monsters are much more convincing in illustrated form than they were on the TV.
  • Watch the Paint Job: In "Battlefield", it's mentioned that Shou Yuing's 2CV had been repainted only the previous week. As in the TV serial, it gets damaged beyond repair when Morgaine's troops ambush it.
  • Writing Around Trademarks: In "The Green Death", the name of the evil chemical company was changed from the original Global Chemicals to Panorama Chemicals, due to legal threats from a real Global Chemicals.
  • You Gotta Have Blue Hair: In Doctor Who and the Doomsday Weapon, Malcolm Hulke's novelisation of "Colony in Space", it's mentioned in passing that a young woman had dyed her hair "dull blue, as was the fashion that month".