Wanted: Dead or Alive. One of the stock Western Characters, a fugitive from justice into the wilderness. The term "outlaw" reaches back to at least Old Norse; it denotes a person who has been declared guilty of a crime in absentia and has chosen to escape for whatever reason, and is thus placed outside the protection of the law. Members of the community were forbidden to aid or abet the outlaw in any way lest they suffer the same punishment as the outlaw, and as they were outside the protection of the law, they had no legal rights, meaning anyone could kill them with impunity. Thus, the outlaw could not live in the community, but was forced to flee to the wilderness or another country to try to survive until their sentence of outlawry expired or their relatives could somehow lift it. At the time, there were no established prisons or dedicated police, so long-term imprisonment was rare. In the medieval age, an outlaw was called a "wolfshead," meaning that he or she was equated to a wolf in the eyes of the law, and was to be hunted down like one. Several of the Icelandic sagas have outlaws as main or supporting characters, and some versions of Robin Hood will have this be the explicit status of the Merry Men. By the time of The Wild West, prisons and organized law enforcement were in place, so the old practice of outlawry was obsolete, but the term continued to be used for those who chose to flee into the wilderness or other jurisdictions to escape punishment for their crimes. In The Western, the outlaw is not completely removed from the protection of the law, but is wanted for crimes that make it impossible to stay in the community. Often, he will have a price on his head, making him the prey of the Bounty Hunter. Most outlaws will continue to lead lives of crime while in the wilderness, unless unjustly accused. An individual outlaw, or the leader of an outlaw gang, will often overlap with The Gunslinger. Other members of an outlaw gang will generally be the Western's equivalent of the Mook. If the Outlaw is the protagonist, or otherwise meant to be sympathetic, expect them to be either shown as having a Robin Hood-like code of ethics as to who they rob, being an innocent person falsely accused, or an Anti-Hero who does "what he has to do" to survive in a lawless land. The outlaw and the lawman weren't entirely separate, either; some outlaws eventually settled down and tried to go straight, and their gun skills made them useful as law enforcement in particularly violent communities. As of the Twenty-First Century, the meaning of "outlaw" has continued to suffer linguistic decay; now it is often used by media to mean any criminal, or to add a "rebel" cachet to something (like "outlaw country music" or "outlaw motorcycle club").
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Anime and Manga
- By the futuristic setting of Outlaw Star, the term has decayed even further. "Outlaws" are independent spaceships and their crews who have no formal allegiance to the government or pirate guilds.
- Berserk has the Band of the Hawk being declared outlaw (in the classical sense of the word) by the King after Griffith's indiscretion with Princess Charlotte gets him thrown into the Tower of Rebirth to be put to the torture.
- Terra-Man, a Silver Age foe of Superman, combined the trappings of a Wild West outlaw with alien technology, since he was actually born in the appropriate time period.
- Lucky Luke: The Daltons are the most typical example of outlaws on the loose in this comic strip and that's saying something, because Luke has also combatted Billy The Kid and Jesse James.
- Every western depicting Billy The Kid or Jesse James.
- Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid: About the real-life The Wild West Hole-in-the-Wall gang consisting of Butch, Sundance, George "Flat Nose" Curry and others.
- The Outlaw Josey Wales: In which Clint Eastwood plays an outlaw who managed to remain out of the clutches of the law.
- Aussie and Kiwi cinema also features outlaws as anti-hero protagonists. These include the bushrangers in Jesse James, Captain Thunderbolt, The Outlaw Michael Howe, The Proposition, Mad Dog Morgan, Van Diemens Land, Wolf Creek, and the fugitive Maori protagonists of Utu and DeadLands''.
- Robin Hood and his Merry Men are perhaps the most well-known medieval outlaws in fiction.
- Famous heroic outlaws from the Sagas of Icelanders are Grettir Ásmundarson (The Saga of Grettir the Strong) and Gisli Súrsson. Grettir supposedly survived almost 20 years as an outlaw, Gisli twelve years, before they were tracked down and killed by their enemies. Outlaws also occur as villains in other sagas, as outlaws often would turn to robbery, waylaying or even murder to feed themselves.
- From the Icelandic Völsunga saga (a legendary saga): Sigi, the ancestor of the Volsungs, is outlawed in his home country for murder. Generations later, his descendants Sigmund and Sinfjotli, on the run from villainous King Siggeir, live as outlaws in the forest for years.
- Túrin Turambar from The Silmarillion and The Children of Húrin and his Gaurwaith gang are modelled after medieval outlaws.
- The Seablite gang in Dark Life are undersea outlaws who prey on ocean-floor pioneers.
- The Jon Shannow books by David Gemmell, being set in an After the End western, has a lot of them, like Daniel Cade. They're usually the main antagonists of the book until the real Big Bad shows up.
- The heroes of the classical Chinese romance Outlaws of the Marsh.
- The Death Eaters in Harry Potter are a band of pureblood supremacist wizards and witches. In the war that forms the backstory of the series, Head of Magical Law Enforcement Barty Crouch, Sr. published a writ of Outlawry against them, authorizing the use of Unforgivable Curses against them, when their use would otherwise send the caster to Azkaban for life.
- The heroes of Wild Boys are all bushrangers.
- Played with in Alias Smith and Jones: Kid Curry and Hannibal Heyes were guilty of the crimes they were accused of, but they were on a conditional amnesty. The condition being that the amnesty was a secret until the governor deemed it politically opportune to publicize it - and the two still had to behave as good citizens until then.
Jed 'Kid' Curry: I sure wish the governor'd let a few more people in on our secret!
- Cactus Canyon is full of them, most notably the three Bart Brothers (Big Bart, Bandelero, and Bubba Bart), who must be defeated to qualify for High Noon.
- Irregulars from Tower of God who broke the rules of the Tower by entering it on their own volition. But because they were capable of doing that, nobody feels an ounce of urgency to pursue them.
- Cwynhild in the Cattle Punk webcomic Cwynhild's Loom is on the run from the military.
- The Pirates in Quentyn Quinn, Space Ranger set out to be this. They learned why you want the law to protect you.
Real Life (may overlap with Folklore)
- Billy The Kid, perhaps the most notorious outlaw of The Wild West.
- The Jesse James gang, of both Real Life fame and many, many movies.
- Wyatt Earp was an example of an outlaw becoming a lawman.
- It seems as though many if not most renowned gunfighters have spent some time as both outlaws and lawmen.
- Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid tried going straight in Real Life as well, working as guards. It was the first time Butch Cassidy had ever killed anyone. In The Movie, they're given the Robin Hood treatment.
- Australian example: Ned Kelly, infamous for the home-made suit of armour worn in his last stand. During Australia's colonial days, outlaws were known as 'Bushrangers', and there's a number of songs about them.
- Lampiao: An early 20th century Brazilian outlaw.
- In the old days, pirates. Governments of England, France and Spain essentially declared open season and many of them were executed with out so much as a trial or legal protection, they were declared "Hostis Humani Generis" - "Enemy of all Mankind". Things improved later under Governor Woodes Rogers who tried a more moderate approach but even taking the pardon didn't prevent Blackbeard from being killed. The only ones with an actual duty to try and get them to surrender before exterminating them were the captains specifically ordered to hunt them down, as some pirates had been forced to join and freeing them was a priority.
- The term regained currency during The French Revolution and The Napoleonic Wars, mostly because of the political instability and the question of legitimate authority, at various times French heads of state found themselves declared outlaws:
- In the lead-up to the trial of King Louis XVI, Louis Antoine de Saint-Just stated that the King was essentially "Hors la loi!" (Outside the Law). The King had earlier sworn, in public, to uphold Constitutional Monarchy in 1791. Yet shortly after that, he along with Queen Marie Antoinette plotted the failed conspiracy known as the Flight to Varennes note . In 1792, after the Palace insurrection, the constitutional monarchy declared itself a Republicnote , effectively annulling the earlier constitution (which provided immunity to the King), which the King himself rendered illegitimate by his treachery. Saint-Just and Robespierre pointed out that the National Convention can't possibly consider itself(as representatives of the Revolution) and the King legitimate at the same time and so called for the death of the King without trial as an outlaw. The King did get a trial however, but in the end the legislators agreed that the King had essentially put himself outside all legal protections and further evidence revealed his bad faith, with most of them in favor of summary execution.
- Of course, turnaround is fair play. During Thermidor, Robespierre, Saint-Just, George Couthon, members of the Committee of Public Safety, the governing body at the time, were arrested and detained. However, the Paris Commune released them from government custody and Robespierre's faction holed up in Paris' city hall. The National Convention feared another popular insurrection or a coup, and so declared Robespierre, his friends and the Paris Commune outlaws. Whether Robespierre did plan a coup is fuzzy (it is known that he fatally delayed taking action and that none of his actions were violent on that night), but in the end Robespierre and his allies were executed without a trial. Indeed, the day after Robespierre's downfall, 77 members of the Paris Commune were executed by guillotine (without trial), with more than hundred dead in the course of three days, becoming the largest mass execution during the Reign of Terror.
- Napoleon Bonaparte struggled for legitimacy for most of his reign, since as a Dictator who came to power with a coup d'etat, he had no legal and popular legitimacy, but as a beneficiary of revolutionary reforms and meritocracy, he was seen as "Robespierre on Horseback" by other European powers, an upstart and conqueror rather than a true sovereign on the levels of other royal families. On his first defeat, the allied nations stated after several early peace deals rejected by Napoleon, that France would be granted peace and favorable treaties if the Emperor was exiled and his heirs disinherited. When Napoleon returned during the Hundred Days, the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw, who "has placed himself without the pale of civil and social relations; and that, as an enemy and disturber of the tranquillity of the world, he has rendered himself liable to public vengeance."