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"It's a context issue, because not every sample is a huge chunk of a song. [...] An example that's often brought up in court when we get sued over sampling is a Biz Markie track where he more or less used a whole Gilbert O'Sullivan song. Because it was such an obvious sample, it's the example lawyers use when trying to prove that sampling is stealing. And that's really frustrating to us as artists who sample, because sampling can be a totally different thing than that."
"If creativity is a field, copyright is the fence."
Taking a portion of an existing musical work, and putting it in a show, video, or another musical work. Not to be confused with interpolation, which is replaying
the said portion.
If it's in a show or movie doesn't count if it's meant to be part of the soundtrack. It has to be lifted from something else.
It's mostly associated with Hip Hop
and other types of music (such as industrial rock, and electronic music), but it can appear in some Fan Work
, like Abridged Series
(as long as there is no profit, it can fit under fair use laws).
Now it's unoriginal by definition, but it's not copyright infringement, as long as the source is either public domain or properly licensed out. And done right, it can be a great way to add mood to an extra work. Sadly, copyright law is still extremely murky in this area, as most rap producers in The Eighties
ignored the laws without consequence, and only a few landmark lawsuits, such as the Grand Upright Music Ltd. vs. Warner Bros. Records Inc.
case of 1991 established that sampling must be approved by original copyright owners.
There are many methods of sampling, but the most widespread nowadays and the one attracting the most Hatedom
is the "loop-it-and-leave-it" method, which basically implies sampling a part of or a whole song, repeating it, and then rapping over it. This often attracts criticism because of its "lazy" and "unoriginal" nature. Compare, for example, "I'll Be Missing You"
by Puff Daddy, with its telegraphed-from-a-mile-away easily recognizable sample (from "Every Breath You Take"
by The Police
), or the Bomb Squad's work with Public Enemy
, with its dense layers of samples that aren't easily recognizable
If you're interested in lists of who sampled what and where, The-Breaks
and Who Sampled
are great reference sites.
Rock Me, Amadeus!
is a Sub-Trope
. Sampled Up
is where the sampler eclipses the samplee.
Examples should be either non-straight, due to the widespread use of it, or particularly notable:
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- Speaking of which, they got in trouble for sampling U2. The album with songs sampled from such band would get re-released 10 years later as These Guys Are from England and Who Gives a Shit.
- Casey Kasem was probably less than thrilled with the use of some of his swearier outtakes— one of which provides the album title above.
- Radiohead makes some interesting usage of samples:
- "Idioteque" samples "Mild und Leise" by Paul Lansky and "Short Piece" by Arthur Krieger. The Lansky sample was so vital to the song that the band sent him a letter telling him they'd sampled him for the track and wanted to make sure it was okay with him.
- The song's bizarre beat and the background chirps were reportedly created from playing a ton of records all at the same time (creating white noise) and feeding them through a drum machine.
- "Kinetic" samples the drums from "Miles Runs the Voodoo Down" by Miles Davis.
- "Cuttooth" samples the bassline from "If I Needed Someone." This is speculated to be the reason that the track (well-liked by the band and a favorite among fans) was left off of ''Amnesiac'' and relegated to the "Knives Out" single- Beatles samples are notoriously expensive, so hiding the track someplace where only hardcore fans would find it would get the song out there, but decrease the likelihood of the band from being sued.
- "Dollars and Cents" samples an Alice Coltrane song for the bass.
- There's a very well-hidden sample in "The Amazing Sounds of Orgy." The recurring downward melody appears to be played by a keyboard or distorted string instruments- but if you speed the song up, it's revealed to be a loop of a choir doing vocal exercises.
- "Motion Picture Soundtrack"'s harp parts are sampled from various old Disney movies.
- "Give Up the Ghost" and "Codex" feature sampled bird noises, which serve to transition from the former to the latter.
- Pepe Deluxe began their existence as a sample-heavy trip hop ensemble. Over the years, they transitioned to psychedelic pop, and various licensing hassles convinced them to stop using samples. However, they like the sampling aesthetic so much that they continue to record and mix so their (original) songs sound like they were built from samples.
- The album version of "U Don't Know Me" by Armand Van Helden contained a sample from (of all things) a Dial M For Monkey cartoon.
- Virtually every track from the Goa Trance and Psychedelic Trance genres samples a movie, usually a sci-fi one.
- The JAMS got in trouble for sampling ABBA. So they burned the albums in a field.
- "Cola Bottle Baby" got sped up and sampled into "Harder, Better, Faster, Stronger" by Daft Punk. This wouldn't be notable, except that that song got sampled into Stronger by Kanye West, slowing back down in the process.
- Kanye himself is one of the most prolific samplers in the industry; see his page.
- Although West only sampled the new Daft Punk vocals, so the original melody is kind of lost.
- Daft Punk also deserves an award for Most Unlikely Techno Sample: "Superheroes" is based around a sample from Barry Manilow (the song "Who's Been Sleeping in My Bed").
- Daft Punk does a lot of sampling, actually. It's fun to try to figure out which parts are samples and where the samples came from.
- In fact, the reason their album Discovery received the nicknames veryDisco and Disco? Very! was partly because of the sampling on the album.
- Most of Fatboy Slim's best work is the sample-based You've Come A Long Way, Baby era. Later, as part of settlement over a dispute of whether he actually had the rights to one of the samples or not, he released a compilation album consisting of sixteen of the tracks he sampled. It's actually quite freaky in places.
- The only thing that wasn't sampled in The Residents' The Tunes of Two Cities was vocals and guitar.
- Girl Talk has released two CDs of mashup songs each composed solely of a dozen or so samples each. A whole host of music users thank the fair use doctrine for allowing him to do so.
- The French group Justice do microsampling (Using split-second samples). Their first album has over 400 samples.
- The Avalanches are this trope personified, using sampling in all of their songs with varying success.
- Their album Since I Left You used over 3500 LP samples to make a pièce de resistance of sampling.
- Sampling video game music is surprisingly more common than one would think. "Diplo Rhythm" takes its beat from a most unlikely source: Ocean's NES game based on Platoon.
- The "cosmic forces beyond all comprehension" line from Buck Rogers in the 25th Century was sampled in the Mixe Plural mix of Stephen "Tin Tin" Duffy's "Kiss Me", and later, Freaky Chakra's "Hyperspace".
- Basshunter based "DOTA" and "All I Ever Wanted" on Daddy DJ's self-titled song, and sampled Reel 2 Real's "I Like to Move It" in "Saturday", his latest single.
- As a meta-example, "I Like to Move It" samples the "yeaaaaaaah" vocal from Sylvester's "You Make Me Feel".
- Covenant's "Shelter" is built around a sample from The Atomic Cafe: "The atom bomb explodes again!" :nuclear explosion:(several times) "Atomic energy." :sirens: :birds chirping: :explosion: :explosion: :explosion: for the rest of the song.
- The Atomic Cafe was also sampled on KMFDM's Don't Blow Your Top album, particularly in "Oh Look".
- Todd Edwards' M.O. is taking various samples from different songs - many of them less than a second long - and creating new melodies out of them. The result is something like this.
- The main riff of "Together" by the House duo of the same name lifts its main riff from the theme song to Beverly Hills 90210. The vocal clip in the beginning is taken from the movie Pleasantville.
- Reportedly, Sufjan Stevens' album Enjoy Your Rabbit had extensive sampling... from songs that Stevens had recorded himself and never released.
- Arguable Trope Codifier - The KLF, which stands for Kopyright Liberation Foundation. They were art-terrorist types who built a musical career on silly, blatant sampling done with no permission, upsetting a lot of people. Particularly ABBA.
- The groups which have used this technique to most critical acclaim are: the Beastie Boys (''Paul's Boutique'', produced in collaboration with the Dust Brothers and sampling a whopping total of 105 songs/movies), Public Enemy (the Bomb Squad were famous for creating noisy, intense songs from lots of samples at once), DJ Shadow (''Endtroducing....'') and Esham (''Judgement Day'').
- The Wu-Tang Clan loved using clips from old Chop Socky flicks.
- A rare example of a song from an anime being sampled in a Western track would be a sample from "Rain by Yoko Kanno sped up to produce "The Rain" by indie hip hop artist TechN9ne. At the very end, the clip slows down and Mai Yamane's distinctive voice can be heard.
- Another example can be found in Fat Jon's "Talk To Me", which samples "Melfina's Song" from Outlaw Star. Granted, this is the guy who later went on to co-write the soundtrack for Samurai Champloo...
- Das Racist sampled the closing credits theme to Samurai Champloo in their song "Rappin 2 U". Apparently rappers love Shinichiro Watanabe (which isn't really that surprising).
- MF DOOM (as one of his many alter egos King Geedorah) sampled incidental music from Gatchaman in his song "The Fine Print".
- Plies' song "Bust It Baby Pt.2" sampled Janet Jackson's song "Come Back To Me".
- Wiz Khalifa's song "Never Been" samples "Schala's Theme" from Chrono Trigger.
- As mentioned above, Kanye West is practically sampling's poster boy.
- He outdid himself when producing "Comfortable" for Lil Wayne, which sampled "You Don't Know My Name" by Alicia Keys. The catch being that Kanye also produced "You Don't Know My Name", sampling "Let Me Prove My Love To You" by The Main Ingredient. In other words, he sampled a track HE made using a sample.
- "Dark Fantasy" has Nicki Minaj reciting the spoken-word poetry of Roald Dahl's "Cinderella".
- Mr. Scruff likewise builds a great deal of his music out of samples. Probably his best-known — since it was used in several commercials — is "Get A Move On", which tears down and reconstructs an old Moondog track, "Bird's Lament".
- The "Oh-wha-oh!" from The Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" was sampled for "Check It Out" by Nicki Minaj featuring will.i.am.
- Also in Orbital's "Don't Stop Me".
- Puff Daddy and his Bad Boy record label often get the worst criticism for simplistic sampling methods. One example is "Come With Me", which samples from "Kashmir" (and correspondingly credits Jimmy Page), and "I'll Be Missing You", a sample from the Police's "Every Breath You Take". A oft-repeated joke theory is that Puff Daddy - or whatever he's going by this month - keeps changing his nickname so he can steal his own music.
- Rapper A-1 did an album, After School Special, where each song samples the theme song of and is about a show he used to watch as a kid, including Reading Rainbow, Nickelodeon's All That, and Pokemon.
- Rapper Fabolous samples "Dance of Curse" from Vision of Escaflowne in the song Body Bag.
- Producer The 45 King sampled the chorus "It's a Hard Knock Life" from The Musical Annie for Jay-Z's song "Hard Knock Life". He also turned the first two lines of Dido's "Thank You" into the chorus of Eminem's song "Stan".
- Flo Rida garnered a truly legendary amount of backlash and hatedom over his songs "Right Round" and "Sugar", which shamelessly sample Dead or Alive's "You Spin Me Round (Like a Record)" and Eiffel 65's "Blue" respectively.
- Flo Rida also has sampled 3 songs in a row twice. Etta James' "Something's Got A Hold on Me" was sampled by DJ Avicii in "Levels", which Flo Rida sampled as "Good Feeling"; and Brenda Russell's "Piano in the Dark" was sampled by DJ group Bingo Players in "Cry (Just A Little)", turned by Flo Rida into "I Cry"
- Rap group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony samples fighting game Eternal Champions for the song "Eternal"
- Play the Public Enemy instrumental "Security of the First World" to anyone who was alive and listened to radio/watched MTV in 1990. Ask what song it's from. Don't be surprised if they say it's from Madonna.
- Eminem samples Soul Calibur's "Cervantes’ Theme" for the song "Hellbound"
- Kool G Rap sampled the Final Fantasy VII battle theme in "We Gs". Yes, really.
- Another FFVII example, rapper Cam'ron samples "One Wing Angel" in "Troublemakers".
- This rap samples the track "Star of Darkness" from Secret of Mana.
- Eminem has done 2 songs sampling the Batman theme - one (with 50 Cent) is called "Gatman and Robbin'".
- Jay-Z samples Justice in "On To The Next One".
- Busta Rhymes has a few: "Touch It" famously samples "Technologic" by Daft Punk; "This Means War!!!" samples "Iron Man" by Black Sabbath; and "Dangerous" samples the first four lyrics from "We're Not Candy", a 1983 Long Island Regional Poison Control Council Public Service Announcement warning children that pills are not candy.
- "Technologic" is also sampled by Nicki Minaj in "The Boys".
- Childish Gambino sampled "Slow Moon Theme" from Streets of Rage 2 in "Hold You Down."
- A couple of examples from producer Friendzone:
- G-Eazy's "Lost In Translation" samples "PONPONPON" by Kyary Pamyu Pamyu.
- Ur-Example - The Amen Break from an otherwise unknown song "Amen Brother". Used many times in underground techno,and rap.
- Another Ur-Example: The Funky Drummer break, used an insane amount of times, and which also managed to spread beyond hip-hop and into pop.
- John Bonham's drum break from Led Zeppelin's "When the Levee Breaks" is a perennial favourite with samplers, as is the synthesizer riff from Tubeway Army's "Are 'Friends' Electric".
- Panic! at the Disco sampled a clip from an old Sesame Street episode for the song "Vegas Lights" (one can just make out the end of The Count doing his signature laugh right at the song's start).
R & B
- Jason DeRulo's "Whatcha Say", as the title would imply, samples the famous "Mmm whatcha say" part of "Hide and Seek" by Imogen Heap.
- "Don't Wanna Go Home" interpolates the chorus from "The Banana Boat Song" and samples the backbeat from Robin S.' "Show Me Love". It also throws in a random Lil Jon line for good measure.
- "Fight For You" heavily samples "Africa" by Toto.
- The Verve: "Bittersweet Symphony", sampling an orchestral rendition of the Rolling Stones' "The Last Time". The Rolling Stones' manager sued, won, got royalties and credits on the album. The band broke up shortly thereafter because they'd made no profit after the lawsuit.
- On two separate occasions, Eels have sampled themselves: "Efil's God" is largely based around backwards loops of earlier track "Dog's Life", while a short violin phrase in "Selective Memory" later was prominently looped in "Fresh Feeling".
- Mark De Gli Antoni of Soul Coughing built his keyboard lines entirely out of samples from multiple sources, some from his own work pre-dating the band itself. At least two Soul Coughing songs ("Bus To Beelzebub" and "Disseminated") are built almost entirely around Raymond Scott samples.
- Space absolutely loved doing this, particularly in the early days. Spiders is very heavy on samples - the one that stands out the most being the Elephant Man sample on 'No One Understands' - as are several B-sides.
- Sublime was notorious for sampling, not just actual parts of songs but lyrics as well, most famous example: "Doin' Time" ("Summertime" from Porgy and Bess), but most of their songs had at least one sample.
- Fastball's ''"The Way" begins with a series of sampled clips amidst the sounds of a television changing channels. One of the sampled sounds is a vocal clip from Jewel's "Foolish Games".
- "Acid Drops" by Public Image Ltd. samples "God Save The Queen" by The Sex Pistols, John Lydon's previous band. The effect is sort of interesting - because the vocal sample is being used in a song with a slower tempo and a different chord progression, it can sound like John Lydon has just started singing the line "no future" towards the end as a self-reference... Then the rest of the music drops out and it becomes apparent that it's a loop taken straight from the Sex Pistols song.
- Paul Kantner's 1970 science-fiction concept album Blows Against the Empire features sampling from George Pal's The War Of The Worlds 1953 during the part where the starship is being hijacked.
- Lynyrd Skynyrd's, "Sweet Home Alabama" basically samples the entire melody from Warren Zevon's, "Werewolves of London".
- Possibly the weirdest example ever: the opening theme song to the Hellsing OVA, "A World Without Logos," samples from "When You Wish Upon a Star." It's nigh-impossible to pick out unless you know exactly what you're listening for.
- More specifically, listen for the flute sample at about 2:10 into the song. The surrounding strings are also part of the sample, but the flute melody is particularly distinctive.
- Here's an obscure one for you: "Hick It Up" from the Bubblegum Crisis Tokyo 2040 soundtrack. That drum riff sound familiar? You'd half expect it to turn into a ballroom blitz.
- The Drakengard soundtrack is actually almost entirely sampled from various classical pieces, then chopped, cut, distorted, and mashed back together to make one utterly abstract and cacophonous (but very awesome) body of work.
- Hideki Naganuma's video game soundtracks tend to be quite sample-heavy.
- The soundtrack to the game The New Tetris for the Nintendo 64, composed by Neil D. Voss, has an impressive amount of this for being cartridge-based game. This ranges from drum breaks (you'll hear that one in particular being used a lot), to vocals, and even to melodies. One song even samples De La Soul's "The Magic Number" (in turn sampling "Three is a Magic Number" from Schoolhouse Rock) as (in his own words) a tribute to the group's producer, and one of Voss' favorites, Prince Paul. Here's some more examples.
- The song that plays whenever Izaya is causing mischief in Durarara!! contains many samples, including Daffy Duck and some suspicious moans.
- One of the very few actual hits that Baha Men actually had, "You All Dat", features a sampling from The Tokens', "The Lion Sleeps Tonight", specifically the, "Ee-e-e-um-um-a-weh" line.