Yellow Magic Orchestra is a hugely influential early Techno band that has been called the Japanese equivalent of Kraftwerk
, while their influence inside their home country has been likened to The Beatles
. They helped pioneer synthpop, modern J-pop, techno, and house music. The band was one of the first to use Sampling
, with their 1981 album Technodelic
being primarily composed of samples.
Core members Haruomi Hosono, Yukihiro Takahashi, and Ryuichi Sakamoto had worked together off and on throughout the 1970s, and each had worked with early electronic instruments. However, it was Sakamoto's introduction to Kraftwerk, as well as a desire to make music that didn't ape Western musicians, that pushed them to create their own band. Shortly after Hosono's 1978 exotica-tinged album Paraiso
(credited to Harry Hosono and the Yellow Magic Band, which featured Sakamoto and Takahashi contributing,) they decided to use the name Yellow Magic Orchestra, parodying a fascination with the black magic fad in Japan at the time. Their debut album was intended to parody Western stereotypes of Asia while also exploring Asianness and the use of synthesizers.
Intended mostly as a joke, the album was a surprise hit, prompting the band to go on tour. One of these live performances was seen by an American A&M Records executive, and by the end of 1978 they had an international record deal, prompting the three to shift from solo careers to full support of YMO.note
Over the next few years, YMO was the most popular band in Japan, and was regularly charting in America and Europe, with sold-out tours in all three areas. For 1979's Solid State Survivor
, the band brought in Chris Mosdell to write English lyrics, producing the song "Behind the Mask", which would later become a hit for Michael Jackson
and Eric Claptonnote
. Both it and the follow-up, ×∞Multiplies
, were on the Oricon charts at the same time for seven weeks, a record that still stands. The band's music became a major influence on early Techno and Hip Hop pioneers, with Sakamoto's solo piece (and YMO live staple) "Riot in Lagos" is seen as one of the first songs to have a "techno" beat. After sampling "Firecracker" for his song "Death Mix," Afrika Bambaataa jokingly claimed YMO "invented Hip Hop." Their later albums shot straight to the top of the Oricon charts, and their 1983 single "Kimi ni, mune kyun." was the highest charting technopop song in Japanese history at #2 — a record the song held until technopop idol group Perfume
released "love the world" in 2008.
After making the music-based movie "Propaganda," YMO "spread out" in 1984: although they shifted back to solo careers, the members would frequently perform with each other. They briefly reunited to record Technodon
under the name of Not YMO (or "YMO" with an X through it) in the early 90s (as Alfa Records owned the YMO name), and occasionally performed live as Human Audio Sponge. They officially reunited in 2007 as HASYMO, first for a Kirin beer commercial and single "RYDEEN 79/07," and then live at the Live Earth, Kyoto event on July 7, 2007. The band officially reverted to the name YMO in 2009 and released the single The City of Light / Tokyo Town Pages
that same year. No new recordings have been planned, though the band members have continued their touring schedules, up until Sakamoto was diagnosed with throat cancer in 2014.
- Yellow Magic Orchestra (1978)
- Solid State Survivor (1979)
- ×∞Multiples /増殖 (Multiplation) (1980)
- BGM (1981)
- Technodelic (1981)
- Naughty Boys (1983)
- Service (1983)
- Technodon (1993)
- The City of Light / Tokyo Town Pages (single, 2009)
This band provides examples of:
- Bilingual Bonus: Their song titles are printed in both Japanese and English, such as "東風" (Tong Poo; "East wind".) Several song titles gain more context from their Japanese names: particularly, "Loom" becomes "来たるべきもの" (Kitaru beki mono; "What should come"); and "Seoul Music" becomes "京城音楽" (Keijou ongaku) which means the same thing, but refers to Keijou, the Japanese name for Seoul when the Japanese occupied it.
- Chiptune: Trope Makers in their self-titled debut album. The first side featured the two-part piece "Computer Game", in which the band recreated classic arcade game sounds with their own synthesizers. The effect is indistinguishable from the real thing.
- Cover Version: Almost to the point of Pop-Cultural Osmosis in the case of "Firecracker" (Martin Denny) and "Pocketful of Rainbows" (Elvis Presley). There's also "Tighten Up" (Archie Bell & The Drells) and "Day Tripper" (The Beatles).
- Cut-and-Paste Translation: Since their album Solid State Survivor was not originally released in the US, the US version of ×∞Multiplies dispensed with the comedy routine tracks and padded the record out with songs from Solid State Survivor. The European version went further, by adding additional songs from their debut album.
- Dragon Lady: The title character of "La Femme Chinoise", who is called "the mistress of the Orient".
- Fake Radio Show Album: ×∞Multiples.
- Genre-Busting: The band made their own style of Synthpop, J Pop, Chiptune, New Wave and lots more.
- Gratuitous French: "La Femme Chinoise". A small part of "Ballet" has this as well.
- Japan Takes Over the World: Their first US tour was advertised as "See Japanese people play all those synthesizers they're building."
- And yet any synth anorak worth his salt can tell that the bulk of the synths they used back then were made in the US.
- Japanese Tourist: Referenced in their cover of "Tighten Up."
- Long Runners: YMO has performed almost continuously for almost 30 years.
- Lyrical Dissonance: "Rap Phenomena" is a pretty badass techno-rap song about...unified field theory.
- "Taiso" is Japanese for "calisthenics", which are broadcast daily in Japan. The English lyrics refer to them earnestly, but the Japanese lyrics that are also sung refer to dislocation of limbs and convulsions as a result of all the stretching.
- Neoclassical Punk Zydeco Rockabilly: One of the members described their music and its mix of influences as the equivalent of a Bento box.
- New Sound Album: BGM (solidification of their style and an absence of covers), Naughty Boys (a leap into radio-friendly pop), Service (a further leap to adult contemporary), Technodon (a shift into ambient techno and world music, as they were unable to use samplers.)
- Ode to Intoxication: "Radio Junk".
- Piss Take Rap: "Rap Phenomena" with MindScrewy lyrics.
- Pop-Star Composer: All three members in their later careers.
- Rearrange the Song: Some of the band's songs came from Ryuichi Sakamoto's solo catalogue and were adjusted accordingly. The band has, due to their now-nebulous nature, re-arranged many of their own works as YMO, their YMO works as solo artists and YMO songs as YMO, mainly for live performances. The "Rydeen 79/07" single, in which the raucous techno song became a lush, ambient piece with an off-kilter live drum kit, was the only time they officially did it to themselves on a record.
- Shout-Out: The song titles on side B of their debut album are titles from Jean-Luc Godard films.
- Sixth Ranger: Longtime producer and collaborator Hideki Matsutake, who frequently performed as part of the band's live ensemble and is largely credited with "computer programming" on their albums, is usually thought of as the fourth member of YMO.
- Something Completely Different: The original versions of "Multiples" and "Service" are half comedy, half music album.
- Special Guest: Technodon has two:
- Sampling: One of the Trope Codifiers. Some sampling was used on 1980's BGM, but 1981's Technodelic was nearly entirely created out of samples.
- Ska: Attempted an electronic version with "Multiples".
- Spelling Song: "T-E-C-H-N-O-P-O-L-I-S."
- Synth Pop: Trope Codifier. There is some debate by music critics whether they or Kraftwerk are the Trope Maker.
- Take That, Us: Virtually every television performance, especially "Propaganda."
- Textless Album Cover: Subverted with Technodon. A polarized lens is required to read the text "SLIPPING INTO MADNESS IS GOOD FOR THE SAKE OF COMPARISON" emblazoned on the cover.
- The Band Minus the Face: Averted. Although the members will frequently play YMO songs at their own concerts, they only advertise as YMO if all three core members are present. Hosono and Takahashi will also advertise themselves as Sketch Show when performing together; the two were even credited as such when they appeared on some of Sakamoto's albums.
- Those Wacky Nazis: "Propaganda" is heavy on fascist imagery, including red armbands.
- Visual Pun: The artwork for ×∞Multiples features hundreds of each member of the band standing on a baseball field.
- Word Salad Lyrics: Averted, thanks to English lyrics written by regular collaborators Chris Mosdell and Peter Barakan.
- Still played straight on "Music Plans", as it reads very much like an abstract poem.