Literature / Ulysses

"It is the book to which all of us are indebted and none of us can escape".

The book was first published in serialized form from 1918 to 1920, then collected in book form and republished in 1922. The actual story can be jotted on the back of a matchbox. Taking place in a single day - June 16th 1904 - in Dublin, Ulysses follows the daily routine of three people: young and jaded would-be artist Stephen Dedalus, passive outsider Leopold Bloom and his sensual, unfaithful wife Molly. As Stephen and Leopold wander the streets of Dublin, Molly lies in bed all day and cheats on her husband. Eventually, Leopold saves Stephen from a beating at the hands of British soldiers and invites him home to recuperate. Stephen visits his home, but declines to stay the night and Leopold joins Molly in bed.

The End.

The treat of the novel is in its style and the rendering of the characters in remarkable detail, often using their direct Inner Monologue, or having their style of thought influence the third-person perspective. Their meals, visits to the bathroom, work, affairs, prejudices, fantasies, are all recorded. Nothing is spared. Every chapter mimics, parallels and/or parodies a section of Homer's Odyssey (for example, Ulysses' battle with the Cyclops becomes the Jewish Leopold debating religion and politics with a raving, bigoted nationalist with a glass eye). Every chapter is also a literary experiment, where Joyce breaks every rule of novel writing.

The full novel is public domain, and can be found here.

Ulysses uses the following tropes:

  • A Date with Rosie Palms: On a public beach, no less.
  • Abusive Parents: Simon Dedalus: neglectful drunk (based on Joyce's own Dad).
  • Affectionate Parody: The Oxen of The Sun chapter, which spoofs the styles of Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe and Charles Dickens amongst others.
  • All Jews Are Cheapskates: Played straight in-universe, but subverted for the reader, with Bloom. Early in the book he makes a chance remark to an acquaintance, Flynn, who mistakenly interprets it as a racing tip. Flynn bets on the horse, which wins. Later, Bloom is in a pub and when he goes out for a moment, another character (who's heard from Flynn about Bloom's supposed racing tip) says that Bloom's won a pile of money at the races and must have gone to collect it. When Bloom returns and doesn't stand everyone a round of drinks, it's assumed that he's being a cheapskate, causing mayhem to break out. In fact, Bloom is generous with money and completely oblivious of the whole business with the horse.
  • Anti-Hero: Leopold Bloom. While he is very pleasant, nothing about him is classically heroic. This was of course, Joyce's intention, in the modern world, one has to be as smart and wily as Odysseus to make it through a single day with health and sanity intact.
  • Author Avatar: Stephen Dedalus. Joyce's first book (which centered around Stephen) wasn't called A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man for nothing, though Joyce is very critical of his avatar. Also worthy of note is the enigmatic man in the brown mackintosh.
  • Badass Boast: Arguably, saying that you've read it.
  • The Bard on Board: Scylla and Charybdis implies a connection between Bloom & Stephen and Hamlet & his father. Things get significantly more complex when Joyce compares Bloom to Shakespeare himself, and Molly to Shakespeare's wife, Anne Hathaway. Then he compares Stephen to Shakespeare & Hamlet, Hamlet to Shakespeare & his dead son Hamnet (through Stephen's Shakespeare Theory) and Hamnet to Bloom's dead son Rudy.
  • Big "YES!": The very last word, as Molly recalls when she accepted Leopold's proposal.
  • Bomb Throwing Anarchist: Averted. Leopold expresses anarchist views, but is unlike this trope being a mild mannered person. However, this trope may be connected to Leopold's fear of his views being discovered. If he were seen as this trope, he would be in peril.
  • Country Matters: Complete with related wordplay.
  • Covert Pervert: Leopold does not come across as a pervert, but see the headings under A Date with Rosie Palms and the Peeping Tom. Leopold is also a transvestite in the sense that Sigmund Freud used the word.
  • Creator Provincialism: All of Joyce's work is set in Dublin or the surrounding area.
  • Deconstruction: Novels as an art form, and English as a language.
  • Does This Remind You of Anything?: The riffs on Homer's The Odyssey.
  • The Everyman: Deconstructed. Bloom has some weird trains of thought.
  • Evil Brit: The soldiers in Circe.
  • Fan Disservice: A court of law, exonerated this book of pornography charges because if you the entire work it will act as "not an aphrodisiac but an emetic." The court ruling is contained in the introductory section of most editions of the book. While it is somewhat explicit, the very frank and unusual way sexuality is presented would bother most readers who read the entire book. Individual passages taken out of context are sometimes viewed as fan service.
  • Foil: The title, general plot contrasts Modern Ireland with Ancient Greece, Leopold Bloom with Odysseus, Penelope with Molly Bloom and Stephen Dedalus with Telemachus.
  • Gender Bender: In one of Bloom's masochist fantasies, he is turned into a woman and raped by the Brothel Madam, who has turned into a male ringmaster.
  • Genre Roulette: the Circe chapter is written as a play, Ithaca like a catechism, Aeolus like a newspaper column, and the final chapter is a punctuation free list of the thoughts going through Molly's mind as she has tries to fall asleep next to her husband. There are too many examples to list here.
  • Gross-Out Show: the book doesn't need pictures to gross out its readers. Frequently.
    "O, the night in the Camden hall when the daughters of Erin had to lift their skirts to step over you as you lay in your mulberrycoloured, multicoloured, multitudinous vomit!"
  • Guide Dang It: A rare literary example. Spoilers and annotations are often necessary to get what the hell is going on, especially in the eye-watering "Oxen of the Sun".
  • Heroic Bystander: Bloom is this to Stephen, during Stephen's encounter with the British soldiers.
  • Innocent Bigot: Played with throughout the book, with almost all the male characters displaying various kinds of more or less kneejerk anti-Semitism in the presence of Bloom, who's Jewish and too polite to call them on it.
  • Irishman and a Jew: Played straight, and also subverted in the case of Bloom, who's both Irish and Jewish, although some of the less sympathetic characters regard him as the latter rather than the former.
  • Jews Love to Argue: Almost entirely averted with Bloom, who hates confrontation; except just once, when he calls the Citizen on his anti-semitism.
  • Jigsaw Puzzle Plot: Debatable. The actual plot is fairly straightforward, but we get so much insight into the minds of the characters and the themes and allusions are just so dense that the reader can draw an almost infinite number of connections and interpretations from the novel.
  • Kangaroo Court: Bloom fantasies being 'tried' by all the women he has ever lusted after.
  • Kavorka Man: Blazes Boylan.
  • Leaning on the Fourth Wall: In the last Chapter, Molly thinks "O Jamesy let me up out of this pooh" and may be referring to James Joyce. Or something else. It's not really explained.
  • Loads and Loads of Characters: Most of them only mentioned once explicitly, and then brush into the narrative several hundred pages later, usually in a completely different presentation.
  • Mad Artist: Carl Jung read the book and concluded that Joyce was schizophrenic. Joyce retaliated by calling Jung an incompetent psychologistnote .
  • Meaningful Name: Stephen Dedalus.
  • Mindscrew: The Circe chapter where Bloom roams the red light district, hallucinating.
  • No Punctuation Period: The entire final chapter contains only three punctuation marks.
  • Oireland: Every cliche is averted, except for the ones Joyce confirms.
  • Only Sane Man: Usually Bloom, but Martin Cunningham becomes this in the Cyclops episode where Bloom lets himself get into an increasingly vicious argument with the Citizen.
  • Outliving One's Offspring:
    • Leopold is still grieving for the death of his son Rudy, who died years ago. He and Molly have a daughter Milly who has left home to study photography leaving them alone and childless. His marriage to Molly became strained after the loss of their boy, they haven't had sex for ten years. In the Night-Town episode, he briefly hallucinates seeing Rudy.
    • In one episode, Stephen discusses William Shakespeare with his friends and expresses his belief that Hamlet was written by Shakespeare as an outlet of grief for the death of his only son, Hamnet Shakespeare.
  • Parental Substitute / Replacement Goldfish: Stephen Dedalus becomes this for Bloom, especially after he rescues him from some thugs.
  • Parody: The Oxen of the Sun episode is written as a series of parodies of different English literature, beginning with ritual chanting and direct translation from the Latin via parodies of writers from Geoffrey Chaucer to Thomas Carlyle all the way down to early 20th century Bowery slang. In chronological order.
  • The Peeping Tom: One of Leopold's hallucinations in the Circe chapter involves him watching Molly and her boyfriend through a keyhole. It is not a real event, and in the hallucination the couple is willing. But, this qualifies as a zigzag of this trope because it implies Leopold does have a desire to be a peeping Tom.
  • Pink Elephants: The whole of the Circe chapter.
  • Power Fantasy: Bloom has a very long one in Circe, which, like his other fantasies, eventually descends into a Nightmare Sequence.
  • Precision F-Strike: The thuggish British soldiers who attack a drunk Stephen. Incidentally, Ulysses is the first work of "serious" literature to use the F-wordnote .
  • Purple Prose: On purpose in the antepenultimate chapter. Justified because it's the early morning and the characters have been on their feet all day, so the prose style is correspondingly filled with tired cliches and rambling sentences.
  • Real Place Background: Joyce claimed that if Dublin was destroyed you could rebuild it from the detail provided in this book. The Dublin of 1906, bear in mind, the city had changed, already between that time and when Joyce wrote the book. For his research, Joyce looked at phone directories, old maps and pestered his friends for information about Dublin for him to use in his books, making it a highly researched and detailed portrayal of the city.
  • The Reveal: In Nausicaa, when we find out Gerty is lame in one leg, to hilarious effect.
  • Riddle for the Ages: The identity of the Man in the Macintosh.
  • Rule of Symbolism: In spades.
  • Shout-Out: To almost every major novelist and poet in the history of Western literature.
  • Slice of Life: Possibly the ultimate example of this trope.
  • The Snark Knight: Stephen lives this trope with a vengeance; he's so snarky that he can't even bothered to snark out loud, preferring to do it in his Inner Monologue. As the book continues and his alcohol intake increases, he loosens up and starts speaking his mind, climaxing when his snarkery offends a drunk British soldier so much that the soldier knocks him down, thus attracting the attention of the local police - but then Bloom, who Stephen hardly knows, steps in and defuses the situation, resulting in a Crowning Moment of Heartwarming.
  • Small Reference Pools: Averted. In a big way. The scope and quantity of Joyce's references is so vast that there are guides available to help the reader decipher them all. In particular, Ulysses' period detail (Joyce started writing it around 10 years after the novel is set) is extremely accurate and the novel contains thousands of references to popular culture at the time, as well as to practically the entire Western literary canon, the Bible, Irish, British and Biblical history and tradition, slang, technical terms, geography, art, music, philosophy, mythology, theology, physics, chemistry, biology, botany, rhetoric, politics, economics, philology, etymology and medicine. There are also tons of references to the characters' lives, thoughts and experiences, most of which are never explained.
  • Spiritual Sequel: It carries on from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, and it's considered a necessary primer for Finnegans Wake.
  • Stylistic Suck: Nausicaa, narrated by a drippy teenage girl, acts as a Take That to slushy romance novels. But there's a twist, in that Word Of God says that it's Gertie's own narration; she would love for her life to be a romantic novel, but throughout her narration, reality keeps breaking in (as evidenced by her snarkish asides about her friends) and the occasional gritty detail about her own health problems. She is more in control of her own fantasies than she is usually given credit for.
  • Take That: Privates Carr and Compton, the two drunken British soldiers who confront and assault Stephen Dedalus in the "Circe" episode, are named after two British consular officials in Zurich Joyce was having difficulties with.
  • Ugly Guy, Hot Wife: Leopold and Molly. For all that she experiments with infidelity, Molly seems in the end to be committed to Leopold.
  • Unfazed Everyman: Bloom.
  • Viewers Are Geniuses: The basic assumption of the book.
  • Writer on Board: While Joyce does support Irish emancipation, he sketches a negative portrait of the more radical, excluding nationalists such as the one-eyed man. Bloom's humorous thoughts during his visit to the church can be seen as mocking Catholicism, but it's in good humour.
  • Written Sound Effect: According to Joyce, the sound a cat makes isn't "meow," it's "mrkgnao."
  • Your Cheating Heart: Molly Bloom was faithful to Leopold for a long time but after ten years of celibacy starts cheating on him with her manager Blazes Boylan. Leopold himself is conducting an emotional affair via epistolary and is constantly tempted by other women.

Ulysses in popular culture:

  • One of the leads of the film The Producers is named Leo Bloom.
  • Allan Sherman's comedy song "Hello Muddah, Hello Faddah" includes this line:
    The head coach wants no sissies
    So he reads to us from something called "Ulysses"
  • The first side of the Firesign Theatre album "How Can You Be In Two Places " ends with the character Ralph Spoilsport abruptly shifting into a rather peculiar gender-flipping rendition of the end of "Molly Bloom's Soliloquy".

WARNING: This book can drive you mad, and its follow up will.