The Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game, or MMORPG is, as the name suggests, a roleplaying game with hundreds, thousands, or even hundreds of thousands of players all connected through the Internet. Most of these games are "pay-for-play", with gamers registering an account with their copy of the game and buying play time in monthly increments.
The MMORPG has its roots in text-based Multi-User Dungeons
(MUDs) and Multi-User Shared Hallucinations
(MUSHes) originating in the mists of time
. Eventually, sprite-based graphics were introduced in 1991 with Don Daglow's Neverwinter Nights
(not to be confused
with the traditional computer RPG of the same name
by Bioware). While games like Meridian 59
and Ultima Online
kept the genre alive throughout the 90s, it wasn't until 1999 that EverQuest
put the entire genre on the map by introducing a gigantic and deeply fleshed-out fully 3D world for players to explore from a first person or third person perspective. EverQuest
would pave the way for which a great majority of the games listed below owe their conceptual existence to, though elements of the MMORPG are Older Than They Think
, since they can be traced back to Dungeons & Dragons
add a social and collaborative element to standard gaming, which obviously alters the experience. It creates the possibility of team-based gameplay elements; as anyone can tell you, playing a soccer video game by yourself, with only the AI as company, is not nearly as fun, spontaneous or challenging as having friends over. Now imagine 40-a-side soccer, 'cuz MMOs can do that. MMORPGs provide quests or dungeons which can take dozens of allied adventurers at once (and bosses that require
them), or "Player vs. Player
" zones where duels or team matches can take place. The competition between "Guilds" (player-organized adventuring parties) can get heated (just a little
), and there's always one more boss to kill or piece of loot to collect
. Innumerable friendships, both online and in Real Life
, have started or been maintained via MMO games. There's even a bit of an industry grown up around it, where people pay real money for in-game objects, currency or even characters; some companies discourage this, while others facilitate it or even make it part of their own economic model by selling such things themselves.
Having said that, you're paying a monthly fee, anywhere from $10 to $15, for this game. The math does line up; if you bought (say) Tales of Symphonia
at $50 when it came out and then played it for 50 hours, all you need to do is play your MMO at least 15 hours a month to keep up the same monetary efficiency. And some people find 16 hours a week
to be a slow pace. Nonetheless, the whole ongoing-fee thing does rankle gamers who are just getting into the genre for the first time. While free-to-play MMOs do exist, they often contain reduced content, or restrict certain features to people who are willing to pay. Furthermore, because an MMO company's livelihood is in those monthly subscriptions, it's in their best interests to make the game as draggingly slow
as possible. Of course, get too
un-fun and people stop playing, so MMOs are constantly figuring out ways to give you little achievements that keep you interested (to the point of allegedly employing "Skinner Box" operant conditioning techniques
to keep you playing like a lab rat pressing a lever for a reward). Gotta Catch 'Em All
is a big part of the genre's addictiveness: there's often a wide variety of Side Quests
the player can choose to achieve, and pursuing them will often bring the player's character all the way up to maximum level. Finally, the team-based aspect of the game can make victory a dicey proposition; depending on the game and the situation, just a single Leeroy Jenkins
can result in death for all forty of his teammates. In other words, you can lose even if you play perfectly, because someone else
Note that not all massively multi-player games are Role-Playing Games
; for instance, PlanetSide
is a Massively Multiplayer First-Person Shooter
, Auto Assault was
a Driving Game
with RPG Elements
, Drift City
is what you get when The Fast and the Furious
is turned into an MMOG, Second Life
is a social environment, Shattered Galaxy
is a Real-Time Strategy
with RPG elements, and Magic: The Gathering Online
is a straight port of the Collectible Card Game
where the only "Massive Multiplayer Online" part is the lobby where you connect with other players. Massively Multiplayer RPGs are the most common, so common in fact, most people actually don't realize that the first three letters of the term "MMORPG" refer to "Massively Multiplayer Online"
and that there can
very easily be such a thing as an MMOG that is NOT
an RPG. Nowadays, if you refer to a game as an MMOG, the first thing people will think about is this.
For tropes related to MMORPGs, see: An Adventurer Is You
, Allegedly Free Game
, Perpetually Static
, Fake Difficulty
, Fake Balance
, Fetch Quest
(and subtrope Twenty Bear Asses
), and the ubiquitous Level Grinding
Notable games in this genre:
- 12 Tails Online
- Ace Online (Also known as Air Rivals)
- AdventureQuest Worlds (free to play)
- After Protocol (MMORTS)
- Age of Conan
- Age Of Gunslingers Online
- Age Of Time
- Aion: The Tower of Eternity
- Allods Online
- All Points Bulletin (cancelled in 2010)
- Alpha Outpost Blues
- Anarchy Online
- Asherons Call
- Astro Empires
- Atlantica Online
- Aura Kingdom (free-to-play, Anime styled action mmo)
- Aura Star
- Auto Assault (cancelled in 2007)
- Battle Stations
- Battlestar Galactica Online (free to play)
- Billy Vs SNAKEMAN (free to play)
- Cantr II
- Celestia Luna (formerly Luna Online)
- Champions Online (free to play)
- City of Heroes and its counterpart City Of Villains (used to be pay, free to play. Now defunct.)
- Club Penguin
- Combat Arms (MMOFPS)
- Dark Age Of Camelot
- Dawn Of The Dragons
- DC Universe Online (used to be pay, free to play)
- Dead Frontier
- Dealt in Lead
- Digimon Battle
- Divina Online (English version discontinued. Free To Play)
- Doctor Who: Worlds in Time (discontinued February 2014)
- Dragon Ball Online (Closed in September 2013)
- Dragon Quest X
- Dragonica a.k.a. Dragon Saga (free to play)
- Dragon Nest (Hack and Slash Action RPG)
- Drakensang Online
- Dream Of Mirror Online (social MMORPG, now dead, RIP)
- Dungeon Blitz
- Dungeon Fighter Online (MMO 2D Fantasy Beat 'em Up)
- Dungeons & Dragons Online (used to be pay, now free to play)
- Earth And Beyond (Defunct)
- Earth Eternal (free to play)
- Eden Eternal (free to play)
- The Elder Scrolls Online
- Elsword (3-D side-scrolling, free to play)
- The Endless Forest (free to play also, art game about deer)
- End Of Nations (different from the others that it's a MMORTS, free to play)
- Eternal Lands
- Ether Saga Odyssey (free to play)
- EverQuest (the Trope Codifier and creator of the concept)
- EverQuest II
- EVE Online
- Faery Tale Online
- Fallen Earth
- Fantasy Earth Zero
- Fantasy Online
- Final Fantasy XI
- Final Fantasy XIV
- Final Fantasy Brigade
- Forum Warz
- Free Realms
- Gaia Online
- Galaxy Legion (free to play)
- Ghost X Ultimate
- Global Agenda
- Granado Espada AKA Sword of the New World
- Grand Chase
- Grand Fantasia (fantasy MMORPG)
- Guild Wars
- Guild Wars 2
- Harry Potter Into The Fire
- Holy Beast Online (free to play)
- HeroSmash (free to play)
- Imperium Nova
- Improbable Island
- The Inquisition Legacy
- Infinity: The Quest for Earth
- Iris Online
- The Island Of Kesmai
- Jade Dynasty
- Kingdom of Loathing
- La Tale in Europe
- Legends of Equestria (currently in development)
- LEGO Minifigures Online
- LEGO Universe
- Lineage2 (used to be pay, now free to play)
- The Lord of the Rings Online (used to be pay, now free to play)
- The Mana World (free, open source, on GPL)
- The Matrix Online (cancelled in 2009)
- Mabinogi (free to play)
- March Of War
- Marvel Heroes (free to play)
- Monkey Quest
- Neverwinter (free to play)
- Neverwinter Nights (no, not the better-known 3D RPG, the original one)
- Nexus Clash (free to play)
- Nexus War (taken down in 2009 and revived as Nexus Clash)
- Neo Steam
- Perfect World (free to play)
- Phantasy Star Online and one of the first to be a console MMORPG
- Phantasy Star Online 2
- Phantasy Star Universe
- Phantasy Star Zero
- Pirates Of The Burning Sea
- Pockie Ninja (free to play)
- Puzzle Pirates
- Ragnarok Online (used to be pay, now free to play)
- Ragnarok II: The Gate of the World
- Ragnarok II: Legend of the Second
- Retro Mud
- Remnants Of Skystone (free to play, subscribe for better abilities and ...stuff.)
- RF Online
- Rohan Online (free to play)
- ROSE Online (free to play)
- Rusty Hearts (free to play)
- RuneScape (free to play)
- Runes Of Magic (free to play)
- Scarlet Blade
- SD Gundam Capsule Fighter
- Seal Online
- Second Life
- The Secret World
- Shaiya (fantasy MMORPG)
- Shattered Galaxy
- Shin Megami Tensei Imagine
- Shores of Hazeron (free to play)
- Spiral Knights
- Star Citizen
- Stargate Worlds
- Star Pirates
- Star Stables (free to play in beginner areas; pay to play higher levels)
- Star Trek Online (used to be pay, now free to play)
- Star Wars Combine
- Sword Girls
- Star Wars: Galaxies
- Star Wars: The Old Republic
- Super Hero Squad Online (free to play)
- Tabula Rasa (defunct as of March 2009)
- Tokimeki Memorial Online (Taken down in 2007).
- Toontown Online (Defunct as of September 2013)
- Torn City
- Trickster Online (Defunct as of February 2013)
- Twilight Heroes (free to play)
- Ultima Online
- Uncharted Waters Online
- UCGO (Taken down in 2007, however it was revived!)
- Urban Dead
- Urban Rivals
- Vindictus (free to play)
- Virtual Family Kingdom
- Warframe (Free to play MMOTPS)
- Warhammer Online
- Wizard 101
- Wolf Team (MMOFPS)
- Wonder King
- World of Warcraft (the second Trope Codifier, Popularized the concept)
- World Of Warplanes
- World of Tanks
- World War II Online (Widely regarded as the first true MMOFPS)
- Wurm Online (Freemium)
- "The World" from the .hack anime, manga, and games.
- Defictionalized at one point in Japan (under the name Fragment, the name of The World's beta version), but it flopped hard and wasn't released anywhere else.
- Fragment (The real world one) wasn't as much an MMO as it was the first four games repackaged with an online mode. You could choose one of the pre-existing charcter models or a recolor and that was the extent of costomzation outside class choice. The dungeons had to be made by players and were stored on their PC. There was an offline mode which was mostly the first four games with your "Custom" character replacing Kite and Rena and Shugo added as extras.
- The Piers Anthony novel Killobyte is about just such a game, in Cyber Space.
- His novel Steppe features a protagonist who is thrust into a live MMORPG, where players act out their roles in a historical setting, dropping out of the Game when they are "killed" and re-entering if they can afford to buy new parts. Although originally written in 1972, Steppe foresaw many of the conventions of the MMO as we know them.
- The Kim Possible episode "Virt-U-Ron" revolved around a fictional MMORPG called "Everlot" (the title likely being a mish-mash of EverQuest and Dark Ages of Camelot).
- World of Warcraft was the focus of the South Park episode "Make Love, Not Warcraft", as the boys tried to deal with an overpowered "griefer" who kept killing everyone else's characters and threatened to bring about the end of the world... of Warcraft. Cites "Hello Kitty Island Adventure" as a major rival to WoW.
- Elf Only Inn is an example of a webcomic set inside an MMORPG. Though it was formerly set in a chat room, it moved its entire cast into a new MMORPG, and while they do have outside lives, we don't hear about them too often.
- The Metaverse from the Neal Stephenson novel Snow Crash.
- American Dad!: Steve and his friends were fans of an MMORPG named Dragonscuffle in "Dungeons and Wagons". Hayley, wanting to talk to Jeff after dumping him, used her account to bring Steve's recently-killed character back to life. He wanted to be her boyfriend again, but she'd already found someone while playing the game.
- Danny Phantom had "Doomed", which was so addictive that Danny was able to play it from evening until morning without realizing it.
- Bart dominated Earthland Realms on The Simpsons, which was basically a bloodthirsty (bloodthirstier?) Medieval Fantasy version of Springfield. At one point, Marge, being the loving mother she was, bought him some items in the form of a Hello Kitty expansion pack.
- Halting State by Charles Stross is about a bank robbery in a MMORPG.
- In the webcomic BitmapWorld, the teenage characters from the strip play an MMORPG called Cosmic Dungeon. The Cosmic Dungeon strips are almost a comic-within-a-comic.
- The Sluggy Freelance story arc "Years of Yarncraft" is all about spoofing MMORPGs (though the strip calls them MMORGYPOOs: Massively Multiplayer Organized Roleplaying Game Yarn Providing Outward Obnoxiousness). Most of it focuses on a World of Warcraft style game, but a bass fishing MMORGYPOO is briefly featured as well.
- "Clichequest" from the webcomic The Noob which satirizes MMORPGs.
- MegaTokyo features Endgames, a Medieval European Fantasy MMORPG that Piro, Largo and Miho all played at one point. The game, along with standard statistics like "Strength", "Magic" and so forth, had hidden "Emotional Statistics" built into the player characters to add depth. Miho cheated by manipulating the Emotional Statistics of a vast number of other player characters, bringing them under her control via statistical More Than Mind Control. Piro was too in-tune with his character's Emotional Statistics for her to be able to manipulate them, and Largo's character ignored them completely.
- Foxtrot has a MMORPG called World of Warquest. It's a very-thinly disguised World of Warcraft, which author Bill Amend plays. For example, one series of strips revolved around Jason's efforts to get the "Kingsquisher" title; in World of Warcraft, you earn the title "Kingslayer" by killing the Lich King (the Expansion 2 Big Bad).
- One Foxtrot comic featured a rare and powerful World of Warquest weapon named "Doomulus Prime." An actual quest reward mace named Doomulus Prime was later added to the real World of Warcraft game.
- In Star Ocean 3, the plot twist is the universe is an MMORPG for higher dimensional beings.
- The entire series The Guild is about a group of MMO gamers playing an unnamed World of Warcraft clone. Except they're rarely shown playing it...
- A recent episode reveals the game they've been referring to as "the game" is actually titled The Game.
- Knights of the Dinner Table has "World of Hackcraft", the MMORPG spin off of the "Hackmaster" Table Top RPG.
- Yureka Has Lost Saga and mentions of two "earlier" game.
- ½ Prince Has Second Life as a fantasy MMORPG, a shooter that appears in one chapter, and others mentioned.
- Otherland describes a future Internet that is composed of interactive virtual reality environments, so the entire thing is essentially an MMO writ large. More specifically, the "Middle Kingdom" is an extremely popular VR fantasy MMORPG, and several of the environments of the titular Otherland network are designed to mimic game or fantasy worlds, with visitors directly inhabiting the avatars of characters in the simulation.
- A version appears in the Lucky Star OVA. And it looks awesome!
- "Mythic Quest" in obscure doujinshi series Mythic Quest.
- RE: Alistair begins in the fictional MMO Rivenwell Online, and the story begins due to an in-game incident. All three dateable boys play the same MMO.
- Megaman Star Force has the ever popular Burger Quest.
- Mogworld is set in one.
- The Onion parodied World of Warcraft in a video about an MMORPG that lets the gamer play a gamer playing World of Warcraft.
- Sarab has the nelPLAY, a fantasy MMORPG.
- One episode of Chobits involves the main cast enjoying their time with a free trial of an MMO. They come across a boss that is said to be impossible to beat, but Chi hacks the game and makes it possible to beat it. None of them are aware of how this happened, and Hideki decides that playing MMO's wouldn't be healthy for him or his budget anyway.
- Noob has Horizon, in which most of the action happens.
- T'Rain in REAMDE
- Vernor Vinge has a couple of examples:
- The Other Plane, from his groundbreaking novella, "True Names", is an extremely early (1981) example, almost predating the IBM PC.
- In Rainbows End, the development of wearable computers with contact-lens displays and gesture-based input has made these even more common and popular than they are today. People can and do play them on the streets, while traveling to work or school.
- The first Story Arc of Sword Art Online mostly takes place in one, an advanced virtual reality MMO. The players are trapped in it until they beat the final boss. Also, death is permanent.
- The plot of Friendship Is Optimal involves the release of Equestria Online, and later players uploading themselves to live in the virtual world.
- Magience is about a MMORPG that may be more than a game.
- Elder Tale, a long-running fantasy RPG set in a post-apocalyptic Earth, gets a new game update as all logged-in players suddenly experience The Game Come to Life in the light novel/anime Log Horizon.