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Mask of Sanity
Robert: Take it from me: A very good sign that you're crazy is an inability to ask the question, "Am I crazy?"
Catherine: Even if the answer is "yes"?
Robert: Crazy people don't ask, you see?
Proof

Some people laugh as a sign of mental instability. Others speak in a Creepy Monotone or openly show signs of being violent.

Then there's the character who's Revealed to be insane and shows almost no signs of being crazy until that point... at least not publicly.

A character that feigns sanity, quite simply is the kind of person that can maintain their facade in most social situations but is completely insane on the inside. So naturally when the audience figures this out it can sometimes be a major Plot Twist. Other times the character's craziness could be apparent to the audience from the start, and not the other characters. Either way beware of spoilers.

The Trope Namer comes from a book called The Mask Of Sanity, which describes how people that aren't stable can blend in with society. Yandere and Cute and Psycho are subtropes, when people may act perfectly normal until that certain trigger is pressed, then they quickly turn into murderous psychopaths. Taking off the mask can be seen as a Villainous Breakdown.

Compare and contrast with Stepford Smiler type C. Often overlaps with Reluctant Psycho. Contrast with Obfuscating Insanity. See also Beneath the Mask.

Examples

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    Anime and Manga 
  • Solf J. Kimblee of Fullmetal Alchemist maintains his polite and empathic facade despite being a sociopath that is heavily implied to have pretended to be sane in order to join the military.
  • Death Note
    • Light Yagami goes insane by the second episode yet still manages to blend in with society. By the end of the series, he's defeated and everyone figures out just how crazy he was.
    • Mikami also counts. There are quite a few scenes in which you see him completely calm, and controlled....until you see just how crazy he is in the warehouse scene.
  • Yuno from Future Diary only appears to be an innocent girl, but reveals that she's an Axe Crazy sociopath early in the series.
  • Ryouko Asakura from Haruhi Suzumiya seems like a calm, kind student, but follows a brand of Blue and Orange Morality that from a human perspective is utterly insane.
  • Attack on Titan has Reiner Braun. Considered by the others to be stable and reliable, he's actually the least mentally stable of The Moles.
  • Mami Tomoe from Puella Magi Madoka Magica is a tragic example. Her selfish wish to save her own life, but forgetting her parents made her incredibly guilty. As an atoner she decided to fight the witches and clear off her sin by saving as many lives as possible. Of course, as a teenager who risks her life everyday, she's often afraid, depressed and lonely but has created the image of a flawless, elegant and matured Cool Big Sis. She eventually becomes The Mentor and Cool Big Sis to the other Magical Girls. However, in the third known timeline, when she found out the truth of Magical Girls eventually turning into witches like Sayaka had done before, she went completely berserk, Mercy Killing the other girls with the intent to commit suicide. She succeeds with Kyoko, but Homura is saved by Madoka killing Mami. After this event, Homura discovered that Mami's mental stability is probably the worst, and from then on dissociates herself from her.
  • Mobile Suit Gundam SEED has Rau le Creuset, who throughout the series seems to be a calm, efficient Reasonable Authority Figure who just happens to be working for the bad guys. This made the revelation of how seriously twisted he really is all the more shocking when he started ranting and raving in front of Kira and Mu. And then he goes right back to being calm and collected in public after said confrontation. Bonus points for actually wearing a mask all the time, and it only comes off when he's at the height of his crazy episode.

    Comics 
  • While Darkseid is well-known as one of the most cunning and stoic villains in The DCU, he really is just as Ax-Crazy as all of his minions. He just manages to hide it all due to extreme self-control.

    Film 
  • Who Framed Roger Rabbit. Throughout the film Judge Doom appears somewhat malevolent but not blatantly so. Near the end he's revealed to be a Toon who's even more crazy than most Toons.
  • Battle Royale: Kiriyama sits quietly in the background, but starts killing students once the game starts because he signed up for The Program.

    Literature 
  • Subverted in Battle Royale Kiriyama, who was always The Quiet One, kills students mercilessly, but it turns out he's not crazy, he just has brain damage.
  • Parodied in American Psycho. Patrick Bateman is an Ax-Crazy Serial Killer working on Wall Street. He constantly tries to confess the murders he has committed but no one takes him seriously. Finally he flips out completely and does everything in his power to get caught... and still no one cares.
  • The murderer of And Then There Were None is a calm rational person in public, but an Ax-Crazy Large Ham once he arrives to kill the last victim.
  • This is one interpretation of the title character's actions in Hamlet.
  • In Breakfast of Champions, after Dwayne Hoover goes on his rampage, people say afterwards they should have seen the danger signals in his behavior, but the narrator then points out that this "cry for help" was only obvious in retrospect: Dwayne's behavior prior to meeting Kilgore Trout had been within the bounds of normally acceptable behavior, and his closest companion and mistress at the time, Francine Pefko, had thought that he had been getting happier.

    Live Action Television 
  • Kamen Rider Wizard: While it's no surprise that all of the phantoms are insane, special props goes to Sora/Gremlin. Before the Reveal we see that he is a giggling little troll. He's obviously dangerous and even man handles Wizad and Beast a couple times, but that was barely the surface. He then reveals that he is the only phantom to retain his human persona, that's when the real reveal begins. The people who knew him before the Sabath said he was a nice, if eccentric, guy. Turns out he's a serial killer who continues this as a hobby!!!!
  • Post-snap Dukat in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine manages to hold it together fairly well for about half of "Waltz", only reacting to the hallucinations when he's safely away from Sisko. This does not last.

    Music 

    Tabletop Games 
  • Call of Cthulhu. Cthulhu Mythos cultists with a Sanity of zero usually act in a completely insane or otherwise irrational manner. However, powerful cultists (such as the leaders) are usually able to act in a sane manner when dealing with sane (normal) people in order to conceal their true nature.
  • The related game, Trail of Cthulhu explains this by separating Stability from Sanity. People with little Stability are prone of panicking and fainting and such, but may still retain a good grip of their Sanity. People with high Stability and low Sanity, on the other hand, embody this trope.

    Video Games 
  • Hazama of BlazBlue is an odd example, considering how often he laughs maniacally you'd be surprised how calm and stable he can appear.
  • A Malkavian (the incurably-mad vampire type) character in Vampire: The Masquerade Bloodlines ingeniously hides their split personality by pretending to be twins, namely, Theresa and Jeanette Voermann.
  • Zant from The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess. He seems like a calm, cold, mildly angry villain throughout the whole game. But before you fight him he takes off his mask as well as his controlled demeanor. Cue an enraged verbal exchange with Midna, and one of the most spastically moving and sounding bosses in the franchise.
  • Throughout Luigi's Mansion, King Boo was calm, collected, and in complete control. After, however, he was overtaken by sheer insanity and, while he was outwardly almost the same throughout the sequel, you could tell that behind his face was a sociopath out for revenge, no matter the cost.
  • In Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey, in the Law Path, after Zelenin has brainwashed all Red Sprite personnel, Dent assumes the role of the Only Sane Man and keeps issuing EX Missions. Finish all missions, and Dent sighs contently - everyone is happy - happier? He then proceeds to rip off his Mask of Sanity and stomp on it by groveling and addressing you as "Master".

     Western Animation 
  • Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2012): Slash appears to be a smart, loyal, hardworking ninja who understands Raphael's position and his problems with his brothers. But underneath, his mind is too twisted to understand things like how no matter how frustrating families can be, that doesn't mean things would be better if they weren't around, that there are more important things in life than being strong, or that caring for others isn't a weakness.
  • In Wakfu, Qilby the Traitor's mask is so good that he spends most of season 2 as a Hidden Villain. In episode 20 "The Zinit", he finally ditches the mask and reveals his true self: an Ax-Crazy nihilistic Omnicidal Maniac who is even less mature than Yugo despite being far older.

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