Perhaps the most basic form of Fighting Game character. Usually Jack of All Stats, this fighter's two most notable Special Attacks are a fireball or other projectile attack, and a rising physical attack, usually an uppercut (the standard versions of these are the Hadouken and Shoryuken). Wearing a gi or headband is optional. As you may have guessed, this character is essentially "inspired by" Ryu, the protagonist of the Street Fighter series.
Note that having a projectile and something vaguely resembling an uppercut will get this label slapped on a character regardless of which moves are actually their most notable (a "true" Shotoclone also uses the same Quarter-Circle Forward and Dragon Punch (Forward+Down+Down-Forward) joystick motions respectively).
The term Shotoclone comes from the English localization of Street Fighter II for the Super NES, which identified the fighting style used by Ryu and Ken as Shotokan Karate in the instruction manual. The martial art of Ryu and Ken has never been given a proper name in the Japanese versions (or in the games themselves), although the back-story in later games reveals that Gouken (Ryu and Ken's master) developed the fighting style from the original assassination art he learned with his brother Akuma from their master Goutetsu. For the record, Ryu and Ken's original moveset is largely based on Shotokan karate (no, not the special moves!), while in later games Ken's technique - notably his kicks - moved towards Kyokushin, in a textbook example of Divergent Character Evolution.
The Japanese term "Ansatsuken" (literally "assassination art", a martial art made for killing) has been misinterpreted by English-speaking fans as the name of Ryu and Ken's fighting style and has replaced "Shotokan" in recent localizations as the name of Ryu and Ken's style. Despite this, "ansatsuken" is not the actual name of Ryu and Ken's specific fighting style but a Japanese neologism commonly used in many martial art-related fiction to classify any hand-to-hand style with the capability of causing the death of an opponent. Gen's distinctively non-"Shoto" style has also earned the "Ansatsuken" classification in the Japanese continuity. The term actually predates even the first Street Fighter game, being used in Fist of the North Star to describe Hokuto Shinken, the martial art used by Kenshiro to cause his opponent's heads to explode.
The equivalent term of "Shotoclone" used by Japanese fandom is "Ryu/Ken-type"note リュウケンタイプ, All About Capcom Head-to-Head Fighting Game 1987-2000, page 285 (or "Ryu-type" for simplification purposes).
No relation to Send in the Clones. Do not confuse with Shotacon, and God help you if you do. Subtrope of Fountain of Expies and Moveset Clone.
The Trope Maker is the Street Fighter series itself. Ryu and Ken began purely as headswaps, and although rather more lethal, Akuma's style is not far from their own. Dan, who is considered a Joke Character, tends to at least share Ryu and Ken's basic techniques; although his specials are different, they tend to fit the fireball/uppercut/special-kick roles. Sakura may or may not be a Ryu-type; her unusual permutations of Ryu's special moves (and some different basic moves) shift her away from the model, but how different she is varies from game to game.
Sagat shares Ryu's projectile/uppercut profile with his Tiger Shot and Tiger Upper/Tiger Blow, and like Ryu, it's frequently the bread-and-butter of his strategy. However, Sagat lacks any Hurricane Kick equivalent (his Tiger Crush is really more like a knee-based version of the Shoryuken) and can fire his projectile low.
Gouken from Street Fighter IV is a subversion. Despite being the one who trained Ryu and Ken and practicing the same martial art as them and Akuma, his actual play style is very different. His Hadoken can be fired at different angles, his "Shoryuken" input is a horizontal dashing punch that travels through projectiles, and his Hurricane Kick travels straight upward. He can only use the Shoryuken proper as a Super Combo or Ultra Combo.
Seth from Street Fighter IV certainly counts. Having both a Quarter-Circle Forward projectile and a Dragon Punch.
Sean is often described as the Street Fighter III equivalent of Dan. His story arc in the trilogy is somewhat comical in nature, especially in 3rd Strike. In the first two installments, New Generation and 2nd Impact, Sean was a top-tier character, but he is made nearly useless in 3rd Strike. Since 3rd Strike is the last and most popular installment of the III series and was on the market for ten years before the release of Street Fighter IV, Sean's Joke Character status was cemented by then. And he somewhat subverts the mold, however slightly; he learned his moves by mimicking Ken but can't replicate them exactly, leading to relatively minor differences in many of his specials. He also doesn't have a proper projectile.
Accounting for the three games, Sean would more accurately straddle the line between Sakura (what with being to Ken what she was to Ryu) and Dan.
He was originally supposed to be the only Shoto of the 3 series, until Capcom gave into fan demand by adding Ryu and Ken. Due to this, a huge What Could Have Been looms over him as potentially being the only Shoto and thus given more focus.
The King of Fighters has several of these. Terry and Andy Bogard are perhaps the original, a carry-over from their Fatal Fury fighting styles. Ryo Sakazaki and Robert Garcia from Art of Fighting also qualify. Capcom created Dan Hibiki as a parody of these copies (with a bit of Yuri Sakazaki mixed in). Iori Yagami and Kyo Kusanagi started as Ryu-types, but have since changed wildly. There are likely others; the only team never to possess Ryu-types on it would be Team Ikari, which is largely based around charge attacks.
While Kyo's moveset has changed across the series several times, SNK introduced the Kyo Clones in the NESTS arc that were identical to Kyo and their movesets were based from previous incarnations. KOF 2002 and KOF 2003 added another clone named Kusanagi to give players the alternative of a Classic Kyo.
Iori lost this status in XII and XIII due to losing his powers at the hands of Ash Crimson (who is actually a Guile/Charlie/Remy knockoff, particularly the latter) and switches to a moveset centered around his slashing hands, but he gains said pyrokinetic abilities back at the end of XIII.
Demitri Maximoff and Morrigan Aensland of the Darkstalkers series pull it off as well, but also remain distinctive. The fact that one is a Vampire and the other a Succubus helps a lot. Lilith (from the third game) also counts as one, but being born out of a part of Morrigan's life force, her projectile attacks aren't as powerful.
For Morrigan it's made more explicit in Super Gem Fighter where she's given Lilith's Hurricane Kick-style move as well as a super version that's a direct rip-off of Ryu's Vacuum Hurricane Kick.
Syoh and Zazi from Dead Dance; however, their uppercut moves slide first before moving straight upward.
Joe from Power Athlete, but only for his projectile move and gi outfit.
Raiya Mikazuchi from Tōkidenshō Angel Eyes; however, her projectile can be shot in multiple directions, while her Shoryuken-style move isn't that similar by how it flows. Instead of the pushing effect of Ryu's Shoryuken, Raiya's stays attached to her opponent before unleashing. Her desperation move also resembles Ryu's Shinku Hadouken, but only smaller while shot with one hand.
Lau Tak, an actor from some Jackie Chan films, has a similar move set in Jackie Chan The Kung Fu Master, and its updated version, Jackie Chan in Fists of Fire: Jackie Chan Densetsu.
Kazuya from Global Champion and its updated version, Dan-Ku-Ga; however, his uppercut slides first before going upward.
Han Baedal and Kim Hoon from Fight Fever; however, due to Fight Fever being modeled after Fatal Fury 2/Fatal Fury Special and Art of Fighting both than Street Fighter II, they appear to also mock Ryo Sakazaki and Robert Garcia by having flying kicks and exclusive special rapid moves (Han's is a rapid punch move like Ryo Sakazaki's, while Kim's is a rapid kick move like Robert Garcia's). And while Han Baedal is Korean, he seems more faithful to the legendary Karateka also from South Korea, Masutatsu Oyama than Ryu is. For Kim Hoon, his look and stage match Ryo Sakazaki more than Ken Masters. In fact, Fight Fever's developer Viccom was SNK's Korean distributor who exchanged ideas with SNK while KOF '94 was in development at the same time and had the Art of Fighting characters' stage take place in Mexico.
Fulgore and Jago from Killer Instinct. Black Orchid also could arguably count.
Hoya from Viccom's other fighting game, The Eye of Typhoon.
Johnny Cage in Mortal Kombat since Mortal Kombat II. Liu Kang is Jack of All Stats, wears a headband, shoots fireballs (though commands are different), and shares some similarities with Bruce Lee. Ryu was planned to be remodeled after Kenshiro from the Fist of the North Star, who was also modeled after Bruce Lee.
Bonus-kun from the same game and Waku Waku 7 is a flat-out parody of Ryu, being a sentient punching bag with Ryu's headband and moveset. Also, from the second game, there's Rai, who has a Shoryuken-like uppercut move, but a projectile move similar to Terry Bogard's Power Wave and Round Wave moves. And Arina.
Astra Super Stars: Test-kun from is another parody of Ryu, being a blue, hand-drawn stick figure.
Max from Power Quest. However, it was published in Japan as Gekitō Power Modeler by Capcom.
Neo and Geo in Joy Mech Fight, but with rapid kicks like Chun-Li's Lightning Kick. However, Joy Mech Fight appears to be paying tribute to Capcom's Mega Man and Street Fighter franchises.
Mario, Luigi, and Dr. Mario in Super Smash Bros. have the coin block punch for the jumping uppercut, fire balls, and a tornado slap instead of hurricane kick in the propeller spin from Mario 64. Less in Brawl after Mario changed the input for his spin.
Mario and Luigi mirror Ryu and Ken further in that Mario's 'Hadoken' is powered up into his Mario Finale Final Smash, and Luigi's 'Shoryuken' is powered up into the Fire Jump Punch if he connects with the beginning of the attack.
Most characters in Smash Bros. have at least the upper-cut portion of this trope. In a game where the only way to lose is falling off the stage, it's important to have a move that grants extra recovery.
Eiji Shinjo and Kayin Amoh from Battle Arena Toshinden are Ryu and Ken with swords. Kayin even incorporates more kicks in his style like Ken does in later Street Fighter games. There's also Sho Shinjo, who is the Akuma of the series.
Batsu (and all versions thereof) and Hideo Shimazu in Rival Schools. Sakura from Street Fighter also makes an appearance.
Roy Bromwell uses a lot of Shoryuken moves.
In Tatsunoko vs. Capcom, Batsu refers to Ryu's fighting style as "Shimazu fighting style", and says "it seems like everyone's using it these days."
In Nekketsu Seisyun Nikki 2, Hinata Wakaba claims to be a student of the "Masters style of Karate", a reference to Ken Masters, which explains why some of her special moves have a flame effect to them.
With Marvel vs. Capcom 3 approaching, it also looks like Deadpool will be joining the list, courtesy of his ability to perform THE Shoryuken carrying over from the comics and gunslinging habits.
In a sense. His Shoryuken is merely a launcher with little horizontal range (much like Dan's Koryuken) and his guns have more functionality as they're rapid fire SMGs and he can aim them forward, low (on the ground), diagonally up, and diagonally down (in the air). Deadpool is more of a subversion if anything, but who ever said that Deadpool would play by the rules in the first place?
Kirby's Fighter copy skirted the edge of this trope, but the Capcom developed Amazing Mirror took it all the way.
Return to Dream Land even featured the same button input for a Hadoken.
Sol Badguy and Ky Kiske from Guilty Gear. Sol's "fireball" being a wave of flame (similar to Terry's Power Wave from the first FF). They both carry swords too, so maybe they're more "inspired" by Eiji and Kayin...
The Katana may be an even better fit. It has a horizontally-spinning attack like the Hurricane Kick, an invincible Dragon Punch equivalent, and, when fully powered up, a Fireball.
Avdol in the Fighting Game incarnation of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure. Considering how absolutely crazy most of the other characters' fighting styles are, it can actually be refreshing to have someone familiar.
The Dagger fighting style in Soul Calibur 3. The Hadoken is throwing an infinite supply of bombs.
X, in Mega Man X and X2, alternately can get the Hadoken and Shoryuken as secret moves, with the same joystick input as Ryu. He can't have them both at the same time, though, since they appear in different games.
The Xtreme Gaiden Game series have a secret capsule allowing X to use both.
X4 features Magma Dragoon, who is an Expy of Akuma and uses many of the latter's moves, actually shouting the names for the attacks.
X8 also grants X the Shoryuken as an unlockable move.
As long as we're talking about Mega Man, the two arcade gaiden games for the original series gave Mega Man a very shoryuken-esque attack, and Bass' victory pose in the second game would have him "powering up" like Akuma. (Though not the same pose, the similarity is apparent.)
Samurai Shodown. Haohmaru's Senpuuretsuzan and Kougetsuzan. Genjuro is arguably the Ken to his Ryu.
God Hand lets you give the main character jumping spin kicks, ballerina uppercuts and a couple projectiles.
Little Fighter 2 character Davis uses the Shoryuken and also has energy blasts. His uppercut is easily his most powerful and useful move. The Tatsumakisenpukakyu also makes an appearance in the game, through another character.
Arm Joe features a nameless, rank-and-file Policeman as one of the playable characters, and his moves are heavily based on Ryu, Ken, and Akuma, with even a little bit of Ryo Sakazaki thrown in for good measure; he has the fireball, the rising uppercut, super versions of both, and does Akuma's signature Shun Goku Satsu. This is probably a parody; the Ryu-type in this game is a nameless policeman and not remotely the main character.
Sho Kamui from Breakers and its updated version Breakers Revenge, has some moves that resemble Ryu and Ken's, as well as some by Ryo Sakazaki and Robert Garcia's (e.g. rapid punch).
Reiji Oyama in the Power Instinct series; Keith Wayne and his successor Chris Wayne from Groove on Fight: Power Instinct 3 follow the formula somewhat but he's a more obvious riff on Terry Bogard from the Fatal Fury series, even having Terry's long hair from Garou: Mark of the Wolves in Matrimelee.
Billy and Jimmy Lee in the Double Dragon fighting game based onthe movie that was released for the Neo Geo. Their special moves consists of a Shoryuken-esque jumping hand slice (Rekkuha) and a hurricane kick (Ryubisen). However, instead of a projectile, their Hadoken-command move is a flying double punch (Soushuga) similar to Terry's Burn Knuckle from the Fatal Fury series (however, it replaced with a proper projectile during their transformed state). As if that wasn't enough, Billy's main super move is an enhanced version of the Hadoken-style move, while Jimmy's main super move is an enhanced version of the Shoryuken-style move, just like Ryu and Ken respectively.
However, the Ryubisen is based on the spin kicks from the original Double Dragon games, but they still don't predate Ryu and Ken's hurricane kicks.
Gowcaizer from Voltage Fighter Gowcaizer is Jack of All Stats, while the only move he has that resembles one of Ryu and Ken's moves is his flying uppercut move, while his projectile is more like Terry Bogard's. One of his winning taunts also resembles one of Ryu and Ken's.
Parodied in Bleach: Dark Souls with Kon, a 1-foot tall, sentient plush lion whose moves are almost exact copies of "Hadoken", "Shoryuken", and "Tatsumaki Senpyukyaku", even using most of the same commands.
The main character, Ichigo, is also a Ryu-type. He differs from most Ryu-types in that his projectile is a tall arc of energy that travels along the ground, and his anti-air hits on the way up and on the way down.
Yuka and Tamao from the Advanced Variable Geo series. Like Billy and Jimmy Lee in the Double Dragon fighting game, Yuka and Tamao also have their own enhanced versions of the Hadouken and Shoryuken-style moves.
Honda Asuka from the Asuka 120% series. Toyota Karina also could arguably count.
The Murasame brothers from Sasameki Koto are clearly modeled after Ryu, and are copypasted as if they were on an assembly line, right down to their expressions and poses.
Makoto Mizoguchi in the Fighters History series, although he didn't get the uppercut until later, but it slides first before going straight up, while Ryu and Ken's go straight diagonally upward.
While Ryu's SFII look was originally remodeled after Kenshiro from Fist of the North Star, Makoto Mizoguchi was modeled after Momotaro Tsurugi from Sakigake!! Otokojuku.
Heart Aino of Arcana Heart has a virtually identical moveset to roughly half of Ryu/Ken's — the non-projectile parts. The other half is on her default Arcana. Given the way Arcana work, you can add Shotoclone moves to any other character, or pair it up with Heart to get the full set.
Marisa Kirisame's default specials in the later Touhou fighter games (Scarlet Weather Rhapsody and Hisoutensoku) include a Shoryuken-style broom uppercut (done with a DP motion) and a barrage of star-shaped projectiles (quarter-circle forward motion). All characters have a QCF move, and all but one have one triggered by the shoryuken sequence; most QCF attacks are a projectile, laser or other forward-oriented attack, and the dragon punch one is most frequently an anti-air attack or forward dash.
Marisa is still the most complete example, as she also has a Tatsumaki in the form of riding on her broom.
Ickybod Clay in Clay Fighter 63 1/3 has a pumpkin throw as his Hadoken and Squirm Like a Worm as his Shoryuken. He is not a main character though, nor was there a Shotoclone in the previous Clay Fighter games.
Monks in World of Warcraft can learn the projectile (Chi Wave) and hurricane kick (Spinning Crane Kick). In addition, Pandaren characters also feature a Shoryuken-type uppercut as their "enemy interrupt move" (e.g. Monk's Spear Hand Strike) animation, giving Pandaren Monks the entire Shotoclone repertoire.
Jimmy Zappa and Saryn of Capoeira Fighter 3. Between the two of them are all of Ryu's basic moves.