Real Life saints who have been invoked as patrons in fiction.
Many such saints have many legends that give about a bare kernel of fact, such as a name listed as a martyr. Real legends that help explain their patronage may also be included below. An important theological underpinning is that these saints are intercessors. Having died and been canonizednote , the Church tradition says that each of these saints is in heaven with Godnote . Then, in their state of grace, these saints pray to God on behalf of the faithful who pray to them. Think of them as heavenly advocates who have some "insider perks" with the Almighty. Worshipping a saint is right out — also known as "putting other gods before God," which you might notice is not looked upon kindly. Anyway, saints aren't gods — they are just ordinary people who were extraordinarily holy.
- Martyrs are Christians who died for the faith. The word "martyr" comes from the Greek word "μάρτυς", meaning "witness," testifying to something of which he has knowledge from personal observation. The Apostles were "witnesses" in this sense, testifying the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus, but even then they ran the risk of incurring unto themselves severe punishment and even death; St Stephen, in the Acts of the Apostles, sealed his testimony with his blood as he was stoned to death. Eventually, the word "martyr" came to mean those who have been put to death for the faith.
- Confessors, on the other hand, are Christians who "confessed" or professed the Faith of Christ (from the Latin word "confiteri," which means "to confess, to profess") in their words and deeds. The title "confessor" was originally used to designate the early Christians who confessed Christ publicly, even as they endured punishment, torture, or exile for it. Unlike martyrs, confessors were not put to death. Around the 4th century, "confessor" came to mean a Christian who lived a life of holiness and was not put to death for the Christian faith.
Other categories of the saints refer to the saint's particular vocation. Those include the Apostles, who were twelve disciples who were called by Christ to a special mission (e.g., St Peter); and the Evangelists, who preached the Gospel. The word "evangelist" refers to the authors of the four Gospels: Sts Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Also, there are Bishops, who manage a diocese as its chief pastor (e.g., St Martin of Tours); Popes, the Bishop of Rome who, by virtue of his position as the successor of St Peter, is the pastor of the whole Church (e.g., Pope St Pius X); Angels, spirits created by God to act as messengers to man (e.g., St Michael); Abbots, superiors of a monastic community, be it an abbey or a monastery, dedicated to contemplating the mysteries of God (e.g., St Benedict of Nursia); Virgins, who were women who dedicated their virginity to God and protected it with their life, sometimes to the point of martyrdom (e.g., St Lucy); Stylites, Christian ascetics who took up their abode on pillars (e.g., St Alypius the Stylite); Doctors of the Church, theologians whose writings contributed greatly to Christian theology and doctrine (e.g., St Anselm of Canterbury); and Fathers of the Church, early Christians who are so-called because of their leadership in the early Christian Church, especially in expounding, defending, and developing Christian doctrine (e.g., St Augustine of Hippo).
The canonization process has developed throughout the years of the Christian faith. In the early years of the Christian faith, the saints were canonised by the local bishop, patriarch, or primate (a bishop who exercises authority in multiple provinces as well as his own), often as a result of popular devotion. This was only done in the local territory over which the grantors held jurisdiction, and it was the Pope's acceptance of the veneration of the saint that made it widespread. Saints who were canonised this way are often considered "Pre-Congregation" saintsnote . It was not until the 13th century when the Church established a formal process of canonization. This process, with some modifications by some popes throughout the years, has come down to the Church today.
The current canonization process goes as follows:
- After the death of a Christian of outstanding holiness, there is a five-year waiting period before the cause can begin. This is to ensure that the Christian has an enduring legacy of sanctity among the faithful. Sometimes, the Pope can waive the waiting period in part or in full; Pope St John Paul II waived three years of the waiting period for St Teresa of Calcutta, and Pope Benedict XVI waived all five years for his predecessor. When the waiting period is over, the bishop of that Christian's diocese can petition the Holy See to allow the Cause for Beatification and Canonization to begin. Once the bishop has received permission, the Christian is declared Servant of God (e.g., Servant of God Romano Guardini).
- Once the Cause has begun, testimonies about the life and virtues of the Servant of God must be accumulated, especially in his public and private writings. This process, which can take years, concludes with the judgment of the diocesan tribunal, and the decision of the bishop, that the Servant of God's heroic virtues have or have not been demonstrated. This gets submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints for examination. Then, they vote affirmatively or negatively for the Cause; their vote determines whether the Cause lives or dies. Should the vote be deemed affirmative, the recommendation of a Decree of Heroic Virtues is submitted to the Pope, whose decision is final. If the Pope recognises the Christian's heroic virtues, then the Christian is declared Venerable (e.g., Venerable Fulton J Sheen).
- The next step is for a miracle to be attributed to the Venerable due to his intercessory power, which is a sign of his union with God after death. Those proposing a miracle must do so in the diocese in which it is said to have occurred and not to the diocese of the Cause (unless, of course, the miracle is said to have occurred in the diocese of the Cause). The diocese of the candidate miracle examines it with a scientific and theological tribunal. Such miracles can be of any kind, but the miracles proposed tend to be almost always medical. In this case, using accepted scientific criteria, the scientific tribunal must determine that there is no natural explanation for the alleged miracle. Then, the theological tribunal must also determine if the miracle by its nature can only be attributed to God. To avoid any question of remission due to unknown natural causation, or even unrecognized therapeutic causation, theologians prefer cures of diseases judged beyond hope by medicine, and which occur more or less instantaneously. Next, the theological tribunal then determines if the miracle (should it be deemed authentic) is the result of the Venerable's intercession alone. Once that is done, the results are sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who then investigate the miracle with their own scientific and theological tribunal. If an affirmative judgment is passed, it is then submitted to the Pope for approval. With the Pope's approval and conduction of the beatification rite, the Venerable is declared Blessed (e.g., Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich) and thus may receive public veneration at the local or regional level ("public veneration" meaning that it is done by the clergy, in the name of the Church, like Mass, Divine Office, images in churches, etc.).note
- The final step is for a second miracle to be attributed to the Blessed. The process is the same as that which made the beatification possible; the diocese of the candidate miracle studies the miracle with a scientific and theological tribunal. The results are then submitted to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, who do their own investigation of the miracle. If an affirmative judgment is passed, it gets submitted to the Pope for approval. With the Pope's approval and conduction of the Rite of Canonization (an act considered to be protected from error by the Holy Spirit), the Blessed is now declared a Saint and thus worthy of universal veneration of the Church. If the saint has a universal appeal, the Church may add him to the general Roman calendar with his own Feast Day.
Sometimes, God bestows unto a select few saints the stigmata, or wounds that mirror those of Christ in His Passion. They consist of the wounds from the nails driven into His hands and feet and the spear thrust into His side. Occasionally, those wounds include the punctures from the crown of thorns or the bruise on His shoulder from carrying the cross. The stigmata also come with intense corresponding sufferings, which may be considered the essential part of the stigmata because of the saint's pity for Christ, willingness to participate in His sufferings, sorrows, and for the same end—the expiation of the sins unceasingly committed in the world. Sometimes, the stigmatist would only have parts of those wounds; St. Rita of Cascia's stigmata consisted only of a single wound from the crown of thorns. Other stigmatists would have "invisible stigmata", that is, no visible wounds but the corresponding sufferings; St. Catherine of Sienna initially had the wounds visible, but out of humility prayed that they might be invisible. The stigmata are frequently included in images of Christ, and it's common for saint imagery, as well.
Relics, in addition to frequent MacGuffins from old-time Age of Empires campaigns, are objects connected to the saint, and for that reason are themselves revered (not worshipped, mind just revered). Different relics are credited with miraculous healings or have served as omens or oracles. Relics can be parts of the saint's body or something that has come into contact with the saint in some way. The relics come in three classes:
- first-class relics, which are body parts of the saint or even the body itself, preserved behind glass and on velvet cushions. Sometimes, their bodies are credited with "incorruptibility," meaning they've been exhumed years post-mortem, and their bodies are not decayed sometimes even fresh.
- second-class relics, which are objects that a saint has used frequently, like a rosary, book, religious habit, etc.
- third-class relics, which are objects that have made contact with a first or second-class relic or pressed against the reliquary or tomb.
Note that the saints avert One Steve Limit hard; they are frequently given an extra title, such as their home town, to help distinguish them.
As a final note, although this page tries to talk about Christianity and the saints with benevolence and very little irony, the communion of saints is not stainless, at least in their earthly lives; the saints were human and were prone to making mistakes and committing sins, just like everyone else. While we can all agree that feeding the hungry and sheltering the homeless are good things to donote , other saints' legacies are contested in the secular world. Let the Rule of Cautious Editing Judgment apply in case of controversies.
Notes on the Church Year (Jesus Christ)Holy days revolving around Jesus Christ are included here because, by default, they take precedence over all other feast days. This includes all Sundays (with some elevated even further), celebrating the weekday of Jesus's resurrection, as well as a few weekdays and fixed days.
- Fourth Sunday before Christmas — Advent Sunday (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
Also described as the Sunday nearest the feast of Saint Andrew [30 November], this day marks the beginning of both the Advent season and the Western Church Year, when the faithful are encouraged to prepare for the celebration of the birth of Christ and anticipate His Second Coming at the end of time. Held between 27 November and 3 December.
- 25 December — Nativity of the Lord (Christmas) (Universal)
Perhaps the most popular (though not the holiest) day in the Church calendar, so much so it has even taken root in countries of a more secular, or at least non-Christian, leaning (probably because it is held near the end of the common year), this day celebrates the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem (in modern-day West Bank, Palestine). This day is also the beginning of the first half of Christmastide, twelve days of celebration which lasts until 5 January.
- Sunday between Christmas and New Year — Holy Family (Roman Catholic)
A celebration of Jesus, His biological mother Mary, and His legal father Joseph as the role model for Christian families. Under this title they are the patrons of Tulsa, Oklahoma. Held between 26 and 31 December, or fixed on 30 December should no Sunday fall between the aforementioned dates.
- 3 January — Holy Name of Jesus (Roman Catholic)
A commemoration of the circumcision and naming of the infant Jesus exactly a week after His birth [25 December]. Originally held on 1 January (as it still is by other Western and Eastern Churches, the Roman Catholic Church displaced the feast to this day to make way for the Solemnity of Mary, Mother of God.
- 6 January — Epiphany of the Lord (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran) / Theophany of the Lord (Orthodox)
Celebrated at the end of the first half of Christmastide (and the beginning of the second half, or "Epiphanytide"), this day celebrates the revelation of the toddler Jesus as God Incarnate to the magi who came to worship Him. Some Western churches celebrate it on the second Sunday after Christmas, between 2 and 8 January.
- Sunday following Epiphany — Baptism of the Lord (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran; Orthodox, same as Epiphany)
Celebrating Jesus's baptism by His second-degree cousin John (the Baptist) on the banks of the River Jordan to signify the start of His ministry, this day marks the end of the Advent/Christmastide season. Held between 9 and 13 January.
- 2 February — Presentation of the Lord (Candlemas) (Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran)
Held forty days after Christmas, this day commemorates the infant Jesus's presentation to the Temple in Jerusalem for blessing (as well as the ritual purification of Mary, as in Jewish custom women are barred from public worship for forty days post-partum).
- 25 March — Annunciation of the Lord (Lady Day) (Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican)
Held exactly nine months before Christmas, this day celebrates the appearance of the Archangel Gabriel before Mary, announcing that God has chosen her to bear Jesus. Until the introduction of the Gregorian calendar, 25 March was considered New Year's Day.
- 46 days or seventh Wednesday before Easter Sunday; 40 days before Palm Sunday — Ash Wednesday (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
The start of the Lenten season, when Christians are encouraged to contemplate on their sins and ask forgiveness from God, many Western Christian sects hold a tradition of rubbing ashes of palm leaves used during last year's Palm Sunday onto the foreheads of the faithful on this day. While not celebrated, Eastern Christians nevertheless mark this day as the start of a forty-day fasting season. Held between 4 February and 10 March.
- Sunday before Easter — Palm Sunday (Universal)
This day marks the start of Holy Week and celebrates the entry of Jesus into Jerusalem days before His crucifixion, which His followers marked by waving palm leaves in His presence. In the Western Churches, Gospel accounts of the Passion are also read. Held between 15 March and 18 April.
- Thursday before Easter — Maundy Thursday (Universal)
A commemoration of Jesus's last Passover meal with His apostles before His arrest and execution. In most Western Christian sects, the day begins with a symbolic foot-washing ceremony, emulating Jesus doing the same with His disciples, before observing a special ritual of the Eucharist, also emulating Jesus consecrating Passover bread and wine before distributing it to His disciples. Held between 19 March and 22 April.
- Friday before Easter — Good Friday (Universal)
A solemn day of mourning, commemorating the sacrificial death of Jesus in order to redeem humanity from the terrible toll of its sins. On this day, special readings and rituals are observed, such as the procession of the epitaphos (a cloth embroidered with the image of Jesus's body being prepared for burial) among the Orthodox and veneration of the Cross among Roman Catholics. Held between 20 March and 23 April.
- Saturday before Easter — Black Saturday (Universal)
A special day of quiet mourning during the day Jesus lay in the tomb while anticipating His eventual resurrection the next Sunday.
- Easter Sunday / Pascha (Universal)
The most important day in the Christian calendar, celebrating the resurrection of Jesus and thus His victory over the forces of death and the assurance to the faithful that they shall do the same when He returns at the end of time. In most Churches, celebrations begin with a vigil service after sundown on Black Saturday, usually featuring the lighting of a sacred candle, symbolizing the new life in Christ, while among Roman Catholics, baptism is encouraged on this day. Held between 22 March and 25 April.
- Sunday after Easter — Octave of Easter / Low Sunday (Universal)
The end of the week-long celebration of the resurrection of Jesus. Among the Orthodox, Anglicans, and Lutherans, the focus is on the story of the encounter between Jesus and Thomas, a disciple who was not present during His first appearance the week before. Among Roman Catholics, the day is also assigned Divine Mercy Sunday, both alluding to Jesus's mercy towards Thomas's scepticism and in honour of the Divine Mercy devotion based on the visions of Christ by Polish nun Faustina Kowalska, herself canonized by Pope (now Saint) John Paul II, a fellow Pole. Held between 29 March and 2 May.
- Sixth Thursday (39 days) or Seventh Sunday after Easter — Ascension of Christ (Universal)
The celebration of the return of Jesus to divine glory on the fortieth day of his resurrection. If observed on Thursdays, it is held between 30 April and 3 June; if observed on the seventh Sunday after Easter, 3 May and 6 June.
- Seventh Sunday after Easter — Pentecost (Universal)
Marking the end of Easter season, this day, held on the fiftieth day of Christ's resurrection, celebrates the descent of the Holy Spirit promised by Jesus to his disciples before his ascent, inspiring them to minister to peoples; this event has since been interpreted by Christians as the official birth of the Church. Held between 10 May and 13 June.
- Sunday after Pentecost — Trinity Sunday (Universal)
A celebration of the mystery of the Holy Trinity of God the Father, creator of all life; God the Son, manifested as Jesus Christ; and God the Holy Spirit, sent by Jesus to inspire his faithful. Held between 17 May and 20 June.
- Thursday after Trinity Sunday — Corpus Christi (Roman Catholic)
A uniquely Roman Catholic celebration of the doctrine of transubstantiation, or the "real presence" of Jesus in the sacred bread and wine consecrated during Mass, which in a sense transforms into his body and blood. Held between 21 May and 24 June.
- Friday after Corpus Christi — Sacred Heart (Roman Catholic; high-church Anglican and Lutheran)
A celebration of Christ's long-suffering love for humanity even through its many sins and apostasies. Among Roman Catholics in particular it also pertains to a devotional introduced by French nun and visionary Mary Margaret Alacoque [16 October]. Held between 22 May and 25 June.
- 6 August — Transfiguration (Roman Catholic, Anglican; Lutheran and Methodist, Sunday before Ash Wednesday [between 1 February and 7 March])
A commemoration of the transformation of Jesus into a show of his divine glory during a mountaintop prayer session with three of his apostles, Peter [29 June], James [25 July] and John [27 December], including a conversation with the spirits of the ancient lawgiver Moses and the prophet Elijah. This day was selected by Pope Callixtus III to celebrate the successful defence of Nándorfehérvár (modern-day Belgrade, Serbia) against Ottoman forces during a siege in 1456.
- 14 September — Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
A celebration of the cross upon which Jesus was nailed as a sign of his victory over sin and death. This day also celebrates both the discovery of a reputed fragment of the cross by Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine I (the Great) of Byzantium on AD 326 and the dedication, nine years later, of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem, built on the site where the fragment was found and the traditional site of Golgotha, the hill where Jesus was crucified, buried and resurrected.
- Fifth Sunday before Christmas — Christ the King (All Western Churches)
The final Sunday of the Western liturgical year, celebrating the dominion of Jesus over all creation and anticipation both for the Advent season and his return at the end of time. Held between 20 and 26 November.
- 8 December — Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic) / Conception of the Theotokos (Orthodox) / Conception of Mary (Anglican)
Much like what Annunciation [25 March] was for Jesus, this date celebrates the conception of Mary in the womb of the otherwise barren Anne [26 July] nine months before her birthday on 8 September. She was born without the stain of original sin to help her become the perfect vessel for Jesus. Under this title she is the principal patron of Brazil, Korea, Macau, Nicaragua, Paraguay, the Philippines, Portugal, Spain, the United States, and Uruguay.
- 12 December — Our Lady of Guadalupe (Roman Catholic)
A devotion based on her apparition on this day in 1531 to indigenous convert Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin [9 December]. Under this title she is the principal patron of Mexico, as well as, to a lesser extent, the Americas in general.
- 1 January — Mary, Mother of God (Roman Catholic) / Circumcision of the Lord (Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran)
A celebration of Mary's role as the mother of Jesus. Historically this day nominally celebrates the circumcision of the infant Jesus one week after Christmas, though the renaming of this day has more to do with how historically the day mostly serves as a celebration of Mary.
- 11 February — Our Lady of Lourdes (Roman Catholic)
A commemoration of Mary's first apparition on this day in 1858 to fourteen-year-old French shepherd-girl Bernadette Soubirous in the northern Pyrenees.
- Monday after Pentecost — Mary, Mother of the Church (Roman Catholic)
Appointed by Pope Francis in 2018 to celebrate Mary's leading role in the post-Pentecost Church by way of her motherhood to Jesus. Held between 11 May and 14 June.
- 13 May — Our Lady of Fátima (Roman Catholic)
A commemoration of one the most famous Marian apparitions of the 20th century to three Portuguese shepherd-children, Lúcia Santos and her cousins Francisco and Jacinta Marto, in 1917 (at the height of World War I), not the least for prophecies she reputedly imparted unto the children, such as the descent of Russia into godlessness (which some interpreted as foreshadowing Red October), the beginning of WWII, and the assassination of a Pope (which some saw its near-fulfilment with Pope [now Saint] John Paul II [22 October], who attributed his miraculous recovery to her intercession).
- Saturday after Corpus Christi / Day after Sacred Heart — Immaculate Heart of Mary (Roman Catholic)
A feast based on centuries-old devotion on the inner life of Mary and her joys and sorrows throughout the lifetime of Jesus, but in particular the form developed by French priest John Eudes [19 August]. Under this title she is the secondary patron of Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Panama, the Philippines, Scotland, and the U.S. state of Georgia. Held between 23 May and 26 June.
- 31 May — Visitation (Western Churches; Orthodox Church, 30 March)
A celebration of Mary's visit, then newly-pregnant with Jesus, to her cousin Elizabeth, herself also pregnant with John the Baptist. Originally held on 2 July in Western calendars, it has been moved during the reforms of the Second Vatican Council to this date to fit its biblical occurrence between the annunciation of Jesus's conception [25 March] and the birthday of John the Baptist [24 June].
- 16 July — Our Lady of Mount Carmel (Roman Catholic)
A title of Mary as patron of the Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel (Carmelites), an order of hermits dating back from the 12th century who originally lived atop Mount Carmel (near modern-day Haifa, Israel), long considered sacred by Christians and Jews for its role in key events in The Bible. Under this title she is the principal patron of Bolivia and Chile.
- 5 August — Dedication of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major (Roman Catholic)
A celebration of the dedication of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, one of the four "major basilicas" and thus the holiest Roman Catholic houses of worship, as well as the oldest church dedicated to Mary, built on the site where legend claims snow fell in the middle of summer during the mid-4th century.
- 15 August — Assumption of Mary (Roman Catholic) / Dormition of the Theotokosnote (Orthodox) / Mary the Virgin (Anglican, Lutheran)
Arguably the oldest feast day dedicated to Mary, commemorating her ascension to glory at the end of her mortal life. Under this title she is the patron of many places (Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chile, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, East Timor, France, Gabon, Greece, Georgia, Guinea, Haiti, Italy, Lebanon, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malta, Mauritius, Moldova, Monaco, Montenegro, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Slovenia, Spain, Syria, Tahiti, Togo, and Vanuatu).
- 22 August — Queenship of Mary (Roman Catholic)
Held the week after Mary's death/assumption [15 August], this day celebrates Mary's spiritual coronation as "Queen of Heaven" by way of the spiritual kingship of Jesus.
- 8 September — Nativity of Mary (Roman Catholic, Anglican) / Nativity of the Theotokos (Orthodox)
Another early feast dedicated to Mary, but more popular in the Eastern Churches, this commemorates an account of her virgin birth in the apocryphal Protoevangelium of James. She and John the Baptist are the only saints also celebrated on their birthday (in contrast to most saints being remembered on the anniversary of their death, or in theological terms, "heavenly birth") due to their prominent roles in the life of Jesus and the belief that they have been consecrated in their mothers' wombs. Under this day she is revered as the patron of Cuba (as "Our Lady of Charity").
- 12 September — Holy Name of Mary (Roman Catholic)
Introduced in 1684 as a counterpart to the Feast of the Holy Name of Jesus (14 January at the time, now moved to 3 January), to complete the parallel cycles of Jesus and Mary's birth, naming and presentation to the Temple.
- 15 September — Our Lady of Sorrows (Roman Catholic)
Held the day after the Feast of the Holy Cross, this day was formed around a popular thirteenth-century devotional on Mary's seven major heartbreaks throughout the lifetime of Jesus (the prophecy of his death by Simeon the Temple seer [2 February]; the Holy Family's flight to Egypt to escape mass infanticide [28 December]; his three-day disappearance in the Temple; his (apocryphal) encounter with Mary en route to Calvary; his crucifixion and death; the decent of his body; and his burial). Under this title, she is the patron of Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Malta.
- 7 October — Our Lady of the Rosary (Roman Catholic)
A feast related to the Rosary, a daily devotion using a string of beads to meditate on the lives of Jesus and Mary. This day was selected by Pope Pius V [30 April] to celebrate the triumph of a coalition of Italian and Spanish fleets against Ottoman forces at the Battle of Lepanto, fought off the coast of southern Greece, in 1571.
- 21 November — Presentation of Mary (Roman Catholic) / Presentation of the Theotokos (Orthodox)
Based on the apocryphal Protoevangelium of James, this celebrates the infant Mary being brought to the Temple of Jerusalem for blessing forty days after her birth.
- September 29 — Michael, Gabriel and Raphael, Archangels
- Michael [RC, Angl. and Luth. / Orth., November 8 (new calendar) or 21 (old calendar)]: General of God's armies and Knight in Shining Armor extraordinaire. Chief guardian of the Church and patron of police officers, soldiers, mariners, paratroopers, firefighters, paramedics, Germany, France, Ukraine, Brussels and Kiev.
- Gabriel [RC, Angl. and Luth. / Orth., November 8]: Messenger of God who informed Mary that she was pregnant with Jesus. Patron of telecommunications workers, radio broadcasters, messengers, ambassadors and diplomats.
- Raphael [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: An angel introduced in Tobit (a book deemed canonical in Roman Catholic and Orthodox versions of The Bible, and apocryphal elsewhere) and a travelling healer. Patron of travellers, apothecaries and blind people.
- 29 June — Peter and Paul (Universal)
- Peter (c. AD 1-64~68)
De facto leader of the twelve apostles of Jesus and his sidekick throughout his ministry, famous for his contrasting personality between boisterousness and cowardice, but ultimately transformed by Jesus' resurrection into a fearless Church leader, by tradition serving as bishop of Antioch (modern-day Antakya, Turkey) and Rome, where he was crucified during the persecutions of Emperor Nero, upside-down per his request not to die a death like his master's. Also believed to have written (or at least his followers) two of the general letters added into the Christian books, or New Testament, of The Bible. As Bishop of Rome, Roman Catholics claim him as the first Pope, and as Bishop of Antioch, his title is claimed by various Eastern Christian sects, Orthodox and Catholic [that is, in full communion with Rome while allowed to maintain their specific rites] alike. Patron of the city of Rome and Malta (with Paul), as well as of fishermen (his former profession), bakers, shipwrights, Bremen, Cologne, Las Vegas, Philadelphia, Poznań and Saint Petersburg.
- 18 January — Confession of Peter (Anglican and Lutheran)
A commemoration of a biblical incident where Peter had an epiphany of Jesus's identity as the Son of God. Originally also observed by Catholics to celebrate Peter as Bishop of Rome until merged to the feast of his other function as Bishop of Antioch [22 February].
- 22 February — Chair of Peter (Roman Catholic)
Primarily a celebration of Peter's other function as Bishop of Antioch, after the Second Vatican Council this day was merged with the feast of Peter as Bishop of Rome [18 January].
- 18 January — Confession of Peter (Anglican and Lutheran)
- Paul (c. AD 5-64~67)
A student of Jewish law from Tarsus in Cilicia (in modern-day southern Asian Turkey) and a former persecutor of the nascent Church, a vision of Jesus en route to Damascus led to his conversion, spurring him into three extensive missionary journeys throughout Asia Minor (Asian Turkey) and the eastern Mediterranean until he, in tradition, was beheaded in Rome during the persecutions of Emperor Nero. He is also widely credited with laying down the foundations of orthodox Christian theology, having traditionally written thirteen of the twenty-seven books of the Christian books, or New Testament, of The Bible. Patron of the city of Rome and Malta (with Peter), as well as of publishers, missionaries, and the city of London.
- 25 January — Conversion of Paul (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
A commemoration of Paul's blinding vision of Jesus and subsequent conversion to the faith while on the way to Damascus to lead witch-hunts on Christians.
- 25 January — Conversion of Paul (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
- 18 November — Dedications of the Basilicas of Saints Peter and Paul (Roman Catholic)
A celebration of the dedication of two of the four "papal basilicas" and thus the highest Roman Catholic houses of worship, built over the reputed tombs of the apostles.
- Peter (c. AD 1-64~68)
- 3 July — Thomas (d. 72) (Roman Catholic, Anglican (England) / 6 October — Orthodox / 21 December — Anglican (USA), Lutheran)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, infamous for an episode of incredulity to the news of Jesus' resurrection until the latter personally appeared to him. Said to be the farthest-travelled of the apostles, ministering and being martyred in India (precisely, near modern-day Chennai [Madras]). In his honour many indigenous Christian sects in India trace their lineage to his ministry, long before the arrival of Western Christian missionaries, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant alike. Patron of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
- 22 July — Mary Magdalene (1st c.) (Universal)
One of Jesus' most prominent female disciples and one of the first witnesses to his resurrection. Mentioned in the Gospel of Luke as having been healed by Jesus of her possession by seven demons, later commentators interpreted this as a consequence of having led a life of sin, or in some interpretations prostitution, later spending the rest of her life in mournful repentance. Popularly depicted wearing nothing but her long hair and carrying a perfume bottle, having been one of the women who helped anoint the body of Jesus after his death. Patron of apothecaries, converts, hairdressers, and penitent sinners (especially prostitutes).
- 25 July — James, Son of Zebedee (d. 44) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran / 30 April — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, older brother to fellow apostle John (27 December), and the first of the apostles to die a martyr's death (and the only one whose death is recorded in The Bible, specifically Acts of the Apostles), beheaded during the persecutions of Herod Agrippa. Popular legend also has it that James travelled and preached in Spain, and after his death his remains were brought to what is now the city of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, which have since become a prominent pilgrimage site since the 9th century. Patron of Spain, Nicaragua and Guatemala.
- 29 July — Martha (1st c.) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran / 4 June — Orthodox)
A close friend and frequent host of Jesus during his visits to her native Bethany (modern-day al-Eizariya, West Bank, Palestine), together with her younger sister Mary and their older brother Lazarus, whom Jesus resurrected after a short death, with whom tradition states she travelled to Cyprus after the death of Stephen [26 December], where Lazarus became the founding bishop of Kittim (modern-day Larnaca). Another legend states she also travelled to southern France, where she defeated a dragon. Patron of housewives, butlers, maids, cooks and other service-related labourers.
- 24 August — Bartholomew (c. 1st century) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran / 11 June — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, which some interpreters also identify with another apostle, Nathanael. Traditionally stated to have spread the Gospel in the southern Caucasus, before being flayed alive and ultimately beheaded in Albanopolis (reputed to be near modern-day Başkale, Turkey). Patron of Armenia, bookbinders, butchers, leather workers, and other industries related to animal hides.
- 21 September — Matthew (c. 1st century) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran / 16 November — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus and a former tax collector for the Romans, and thus despised by his fellow Jews as a traitor, before being called by Jesus. Traditionally wrote one of The Four Gospels (and the first book of the Christian books, or New Testament, of The Bible), traditional accounts state that after the Pentecost he mostly concentrated on preaching his fellow Jews before leaving for Phrygia, where he was martyred in Hierapolis (modern-day Pamukkale, Turkey). Patron of accountants, Salerno in Italy (where his relics are said to be held), bankers, tax collectors, and civil servants.
- 18 October — Luke (d. ~84) (Universal)
A Greek physician from Antioch and companion of Paul [29 June], as well as the traditional author of two books in The Bible — one of The Four Gospels, distinctive for its focus on Jesus' miracles and an expanded account of his birth and childhood, as well as Acts of the Apostles. Also said to have been an acquaintance of the Virgin Mary and even painted an image of her, given her expanded role in his Gospel. Patron of artists, physicians and surgeons.
- 28 October — Simon the Zealot and Jude Thaddaeus (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
- Simon the Zealot (d. ~65/107) (10 May — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus and reputedly a former member of the Zealots, a militant movement vehemently opposed to Roman rule over Judea. Traditionally said to have been martyred by being sawn to death. Patron of sawyers, curriers and tanners.
- Jude Thaddaeus (c. 1st century) (19 June — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, not to be confused with Judas Iscariot. Said to have first spread the Gospel in Armenia before being beheaded near modern-day Beirut, Lebanon. Contrary to his obscurity (or perhaps because of it), he is declared patron of lost causes, desperate situations, Armenia and hospitals.
- Simon the Zealot (d. ~65/107) (10 May — Orthodox)
- 30 November — Andrew (c. 1st century) (Universal)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, the first-named of the twelve, and despite not being part of the "Big Three" with his older brother Peter [29 June], James [25 July] and John [27 December], remains a major player in the ministry of Jesus. Traditionally stated to have founded the Church in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, Turkey), from whom all its patriarchs derive their lineage and authority as spiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Churches (in contrast to Popes, Bishops of Rome who derive their lineage from Peter), as well as martyred by being nailed on an X-shaped cross in modern-day Patras, Greece. Patron of Scotland, Greece, Romania, Russia, Barbados, Georgia, Ukraine, Cyprus, fishermen, rope-and makers, and invoked against sore throat and whooping cough.
- 26 December — Stephen (d. 36) (Western Christians; 27 December — Orthodox)
One of the first seven deacons, assistants to the apostles (presently to priests or pastors), and the very first Christian martyr, stoned to death for preaching the Gospel, even as he forgave his executioners. His death was witnessed by Saul [29 June], who late in life became a convert renamed as Paul. Patron of Serbia and deacons, as well as protector against headaches.
- 27 December — John (c. 6-100) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran / 26 September — Orthodox)
Traditionally the youngest of the twelve apostles of Jesus, hence he often appears in Western Christian art as a handsome boy, as well as the last surviving apostle at the time of his death, hence his appearance in Eastern Christian art as a very old man. Once a hot-headed youth, he was said to have been given care of the Virgin Mary by the dying Jesus, then after the Pentecost, spent the rest of his life in Ephesus (modern-day Selçuk, Turkey) where he is said to have written one of the four canonical Gospels (distinct from the other three for its more spiritual character) and three general letters, barring a temporary exile to the island of Patmos during the persecutions of Emperor Domitian, where he wrote The Book of Revelation, all recorded in The Bible. Patron of Turkey, authors and booksellers.
- 28 December — Holy Innocents
Male infants under two years old killed by King Herod the Great of Judea in a failed attempt to keep Jesus from presumably vying for his throne. While ambiguous in historicity, such an act is acknowledged to be not too out-of-character for the historical Herod, who late in life became increasingly paranoid over potential threats to his hegemony, real and imagined alike, leading him to such heinous acts as murdering his own wives and sons.
- 26 January 26 — Timothy and Titus, disciples of Paul [29 June] (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
- Timothy (17-97) (22 January — Orthodox)
A Jewish-Greek youth who met Paul during his peaching at his native Lystra in Anatolia (near modern-day Konya [biblical Iconium], Turkey) and became his most trusted secretary for his latter two journeys. Unto him is also addressed two letters from Paul, all recorded in the Christian books, or New Testament, of The Bible. By tradition, he also became the founding bishop of Ephesus. Invoked against diseases of the stomach and intestines.
- Titus (d. 96 or 107) (25 August — Orthodox)
A missionary from Antioch and another companion of Paul, whom tradition states helped establish the Church in Crete, as well as the recipient of another personal letter from Paul, also recorded in the Christian books, or New Testament, of The Bible. Patron of Crete.
- Timothy (17-97) (22 January — Orthodox)
- 19 March — Joseph (c. 90 BC - c. 18 AD) (Universal)
A carpenter from Nazareth and foster-father of Jesus by way of his marriage to Mary; in contrast to focus on Mary in the Gospel of Luke, Joseph is given a heightened focus in the Gospel of Matthew as a descendant of King David, thus giving legitimacy to the divinity and spiritual kingship of Jesus, as well as his chief protector during the persecution of Herod the Great that resulted in an incident of infanticide [28 December]. Tradition also states that he died in peace sometime before the start of Jesus' ministry, stemming from his abrupt disappearance from Gospel record. Principal patron and protector of the Roman Catholic Church, as well as patron of Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Korea, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cebu in the Philippines, fathers, immigrants, labourers, travellers and carpenters, as well as invoked for a peaceful death.
- 1 May — Joseph the Laborer (Roman Catholic)
Instituted by Pope Pius XII in 1955 to coincide with the secular International Worker's Day (Labour Day), partly to recognize Joseph's stated profession as carpenter and partly to counteract said secular holiday's association with communist and socialist movements.
- 1 May — Joseph the Laborer (Roman Catholic)
- 25 April — Mark (5-68) (Universal)
An early disciple of Jesus, who tradition states was, with his cousin Barnabas [11 June], also an early companion of Paul before setting off on his own and establishing the Church in Alexandria, from whose authority the Coptic Church, a sect unique to Egypt and much of North Africa, derives its authority. Also believed to have been an acquaintance of Peter [29 June], from whose oral accounts he wrote what is believed to be the very first of The Four Gospels. Patron of Egypt, Venice (where his remains are said to be held), and barristers.
- 3 May — Philip and James, Son of Alpheus (Roman Catholic; 1 May — Anglican, Lutheran)
- Philip (d. 80) (14 November — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus and another early follower. Otherwise obscure, he is noted for two incidents where he helped introduce his friend Nathanael (sometimes identified as Bartholomew [24 August]) to Jesus) and helped feed 5,000 listeners of Jesus. Tradition also states that he preached at Greece, Syria and Phrygia (in central Asian Turkey). Patron of Uruguay (with James, son of Alpheus), as well as of Cape Verde and pastry chefs.
- James, Son of Alpheus (d. 62) (9 October — Orthodox)
One of the twelve apostles of Jesus, identified in some traditions as a distant relation of Jesus, and a leader of the Church in Jerusalem. Patron of Uruguay (with Philip), as well as apothecaries.
- Philip (d. 80) (14 November — Orthodox)
- 14 May — Matthias (d. 80 AD) (Roman Catholic; 24 February — Anglican, Lutheran; 9 August — Orthodox)
A later addition to the twelve apostles to fill in the place of the traitorous Judas Iscariot, who committed suicide in remorse shortly after handing Jesus over to his death. Otherwise completely obscure, tradition points to him preaching (and dying) in either Cappadocia (in central Asian Turkey) or Colchis (in modern-day Abkhazia). Patron of tailors, carpenters and recovering alcoholics, as well as invoked against smallpox.
- 11 June — Barnabas (d. ~61) (Universal)
A Jewish man from Salamis (near modern-day Famagusta) in Cyprus and an early companion of Paul [29 June] with his cousin Mark (traditionally identified with the Gospel writer [25 April]), before parting ways to help establish the Church in his homeland. Patron of Cyprus and Antakya, as well as invoked against hailstorms.
- 24 June — John the Baptist (d. ~31-36)
A desert-dwelling prophet and second-degree cousin of Jesus. Adapting a similar Jewish rite for gentile converts, he began the practice of baptism for the forgiveness of sins and induction into a new faith by immersing believers in the River Jordan. Jesus asked to be baptized by John to signify the start of his own career. This date is the celebration of his birth. He is the patron of Jordan, Puerto Rico, the French parts of Canada, Newfoundland, Porto in Portugal, Malta, Florence, Genoa and Manila.
- 29 June — Beheading of John the Baptist
A commemoration of his execution at the hands of King Herod Antipas of Judea at the urging of his wife Herodias for criticizing their illicit marriage, Herodias having also been the wife of Philip, Herod's still-living brother and another prince of Judea (in violation of Jewish law restricting remarriage to widows), during a party in Herod's palace retreat at Machaerus (near modern-day Muqāwir, Jordan).
- 29 June — Beheading of John the Baptist
- 10 May — Job the Righteous (disputed date) (6 May — Orthodox)
The titular character of the biblical Book of Job. According to the book, Job was a pious man lived in ancient Idumea and suffered a great deal of suffering, which prompted him to speak directly to God about why such pain fell on him. God spoke back, as described near the end of the book. He is the patron saint of lepers and those sufferind depression.
- 20 July — Elijah the Prophet (9th century BC) (Universal)
A prophet who lived under the reign of King Ahab of Judah. Criticized the ruling house for their impiety and cruelty, foreseeing their deaths. Preformed many miracles such as raising a woman's son from death and winning a challenge against the prophets of the idol Baal. According to the Bible, he went to heaven on a flaming chariot. Patron saint of Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as the Carmelite Order (which legend holds he founded)
- January 2 — Basil (the Great) of Caesarea and Gregory of Nazianzus (Roman Catholic, Anglican [England] / 1 January — Orthodox / 10 January — Lutheran [LCMS])
- Basil (the Great) of Caesarea (329-379) [10 January — Lutheran [ELCA] / 14 January — Orthodox [Serbia] / 14 June — Anglican [Episcopal/USA]]: Bishop of Caesarea Mazaca (modern-day Kayseri, Turkey) and a chief advocate of Nicene Christianity against Arianism, a heresy which denies Jesus' equality with God, as well as a pioneer of communal monasticism among Eastern Christians. Patron of Russia, Cappadocia (modern-day central Turkey), hospital workers, reformers, and exorcists.
- Gregory of Nazianzus (329-390) (25 January — Orthodox / 9 May — Anglican [Episcopal/USA] / 14 June — Lutheran [ELCA]): Bishop of Constantinople and a master of rhetoric during the Church's formative years, integrating Hellenist thought into Christian thought and helping define the concept of the Holy Trinity.
- January 2 — Seraphim of Sarov (Prokhor Moshnin) (1754-1833) (Orthodox, Anglican [England/Scotland])
Russian hermit famed for his miracles and teachings of opening the monastic virtues of contemplation to laypeople.
- January 2 — Vedanayagam Samuel Azariah (1874-1945) (Anglican [England, Episcopal/USA])
Indian priest, first Bishop of Dornakal in Tamil Nadu, and the first Indian bishop of the Anglican Communion, as well as a pioneer of Indian ecumenism.
- January 2 — Johann Konrad Wilhelm Löhe (1808-1872) (Lutheran)
Franconian German Lutheran pastor who helped encourage the admission of female deacons and sent various Lutheran missions around the world, as well as a principal sponsor of the Lutheran ChurchMissouri Synod (LCMS), originally founded to serve German-speaking Lutherans and currently the second-largest Lutheran denomination in the USA.
- January 5 — John Nepomucene Neumann (1811-1860) (Roman Catholic [Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Switzerland, USA])
Bohemian Redemptorist priest and fourth Bishop of Philadelphia, esteemed for establishing the first Roman Catholic diocesan schools in the USA. Patron of Catholic education.
- January 5 — Theopemptus of Nicomedia (d. 303) (Orthodox)
Bishop of Nicomedia (modern-day İzmit, Turkey) and one of the earliest martyrs of the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. Tradition states that he, having refused to worship pagan gods, survived being burnt alive and starved and even converted Theonas, a sorcerer sent to remove his divine protection, leading to them ultimately dying together in faith.
- January 7 — Raymond of Penyafort (1175-1275) (Roman Catholic)
Catalan Spanish Dominican friar and chaplain to Pope Gregory IX (b. 1145/1170, reigned 1227-1241), who famously helped compile all canon laws issued under his reign. Patron of canon lawyers.
- January 9 — Polyeuctus (d. 259) (Orthodox)
Roman soldier stationed in Melitene (modern-day Malatya, Turkey) and convert, martyred for his fierce opposition to worshipping idols.
- January 9 — Metropolitan Philip II of Moscow (Feodor Stepanovich Kolychev) (1507-1569) (Orthodox)
Russian monk and Metropolitan of Moscow during the reign of Ivan the Terrible, assassinated for his opposition to Ivan's brutal purges against political rivals.
- January 9 — Gregory of Nyssa (335-395) (Orthodox, Roman Catholic [Benedictines], Lutheran [LCMS] / 9 March — Anglican [Canada, Episcopal/USA] / 14 June — Lutheran [ELCA], Anglican [Scotland] / 19 July — Anglican [England])
Younger brother of Basil (the Great) of Caesarea and friend of Gregory of Nazianzus [2 January], Bishop of Nyssa (reputedly near modern-day Harmandalı, Turkey), and an erudite theologian who helped influence orthodox Christian teachings on the Trinity and the formulation of the Nicene Creed.
- January 10 — Theophan the Recluse (Georgy Vasilievich Govorov) (1815-1894) (Orthodox)
Russian monk and a prolific writer on Orthodox spirituality, as well as a translator of the Philokalia, a prominent compilation of works on early Christian spirituality, into Russian.
- January 10 — William Laud (1573-1645) (Anglican)
Anglican Archbishop of Canterbury, notable for his advocacy of preserving traditional Church rituals in the face of the rise of Puritan insistence on radical reform.
- January 11 — Theodosius the Cenobiarch (423-529) (Orthodox)
Cappadocian hermit and a founding pioneer of cenobitic monasticism, a monastic tradition that stresses communal living.
- January 12 — Tatiana of Rome (d. 226-235) (Orthodox)
Roman deaconess, daughter of a Roman civil servant and secret convert, and martyr. Patron of students.
- January 12 — Sava (Rastko Nemanjić) (1174-1236) (Orthodox)
Serbian prince and the first Bishop of the Serbian Orthodox Church, as well as one of the earliest writers in the Serbian language and creator of the Zakonopravilo, the oldest known constitution of Serbia. Patron of Serbia.
- January 12 — Aelred of Rievaulx (1110-1167) (Anglican [England, Episcopal/USA], Roman Catholic [England])
English Cistercian monk and one of the most prominent spiritual writers in twelfth-century England. Generally invoked by those suffering from diseases of the bladder.
- January 13 — Hilary of Poitiers (310-367) (Universal)
Bishop of Pictavium (modern-day Poitiers, France), a fierce opponent of Arianism, and staunch defender of the doctrine of the Trinity. Patron of lawyers.
- January 13 — Jacob of Nisibis (d. 337338 or 350) (Orthodox / 15 July — Roman Catholic [minor])
Bishop of Nisibis (modern-day Nusaybin, Turkey) and a prominent spiritual writer, as well as reputed to have found a fragment of Noah's Ark.
- January 13 — Maximos Kausokalybites (d. 1365/1380) (Orthodox)
Greek monk who, in his pursuit of holiness, deliberately acted in an eccentric manner by constantly burning his hut, hence his nickname "Kausokalybites", the "Hut-Burner".
- January 14 — Nino (c. 280-332) (Orthodox)
Greek woman who helped spread Christianity in Iberia (modern-day central Georgia). In her honour, the grapevine cross she used to carry around, with its drooping arms, became the principal symbol of the Georgia Orthodox Church. Patron of Georgia.
- January 15 — Paul of Thebes (c. 227-342) (Orthodox, Roman Catholic [Hungary])
Egyptian ascetic traditionally identified as the first hermit, having spent almost a hundred years in the desert living in holiness and miraculously sustained by divine intervention.
- January 16 — Honoratus (350-429) (Orthodox, Roman Catholic [minor])
Bishop of Arles in France (currently part of the Archdiocese of Aix) and founder of the Cistercian monastery at the Lérins Islands at the French Riviera. Invoked against drought, excessive rains, and misfortune in general.
- January 17 — Anthony the Great (251-356) (Universal)
Egyptian monk and, on account of his well-known account of life in contemplation, enduring temptations, and working as swineherd in the deserts of Egypt, considered a pioneer of Christian monasticism. Patron of basket makers and gravediggers, as well as invoked against skin diseases.
- January 18 — Richard Meux Benson (1824-1915) (Anglican [Canada, Episcopal/USA])
Anglican priest and founder of the Society of Saint John the Evangelist, the first monastic order in the Anglican Communion since the Reformation.
- January 19 — Macarius of Egypt (c. 300-391) (Orthodox / 15 January — Roman Catholic [minor])
Egyptian hermit and mystic, as well as an acquaintance of Anthony the Great [17 January].
- January 19 — Mark of Ephesus (Manuel Eugenikos) (1392-1444) (Orthodox)
Byzantine priest, mystic and hymnographer, as well as a defender of Eastern Orthodox theology.
- January 19 — Wulfstan (1008-1095) (Anglican [England, Episcopal/USA], Roman Catholic [minor])
Bishop of Worcester in western England and the sole remaining English bishop following the Norman conquest in the mid-1000s. Patron of vegetarians and dieters.
- January 20 — Pope Fabian (c. 200-250) (Roman Catholic, Anglican [Episcopal/USA] / 8 August — Orthodox)
Twentieth Bishop of Rome, martyred during the persecutions of Emperor Decius, as well as an organizer, having divided Rome into deaconates, and helped reconcile the followers of rival papal claimants Pontian and Hippolytus [13 August].
- January 20 — Sebastian (d. 288) (Roman Catholic / 18 December — Orthodox)
Roman soldier and secret convert who helped bury martyred Christians until he was captured. Famously, he was tied onto a tree and shot with arrows, but survived. However, he was ultimately bludgeoned to death. Patron of soldiers, archers, and athletes, as well as invoked by victims of the plague.
- January 20 — Euthymius the Great (377-473) (Orthodox, Roman Catholic [minor])
Former priest in Melitene who fled to the wilderness of Palestine, where he gained a reputation for making miracles.
- January 21 — Agnes of Rome (291-304) (Universal)
Roman virgin martyred at the tender age of twelve after being publicly humiliated and nearly raped for refusing to worship the Roman gods. Patron of virgins, betrothed couples, and gardeners. Among Roman Catholics, given that her name is synonymous with the Latin word for "lamb", a source of wool, on this day the Pope blesses a pair of lambs, and on Holy Thursdays the pallium (a woollen band) is conferred to newly-consecrated archbishops.
- January 21 — Maximus the Confessor (580-662) (Orthodox)
Palestinian monk who gave up a well-paid position as aide to the Byzantine emperor Heraclitus to spend his time studying classical Greek philosophy, as well as defending the orthodox stance of Christ's dual human and divine natures.
- January 21 — Maximus the Greek (Michael Trivolis) (1475-1556) (Orthodox)
Greek monk and scholar who spent his life in Moscow writing and translating works into Russian.
- January 22 — Vincent of Saragossa (d. c. 304) (Roman Catholic, Anglican [England, Episcopal/USA, Canada, Australia])
Spanish deacon in modern-day Zaragoza in Spain, where he became the first martyr of Spain during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian. Patron of Lisbon, Valencia, vinegar-makers and wine-makers.
- January 23 — Clement of Ancyra (c. 258-312) (Orthodox, Roman Catholic [minor])
Bishop of Ancyra (modern-day Ankara, Turkey) and martyr during the persecutions of Emperor Diocletian.
- January 24 — Francis de Sales (1567-1622) (Roman Catholic, Anglican [England, Canada, Scotland] / 15 March — Anglican [Episcopal/USA])
French Bishop of Geneva at the heat of the Swiss Reformation, forcing him to be quartered at his nearby hometown of Annecy, famous for his writings on spiritual direction and his gentle approach to the delicate situation of his constituency, torn between Catholics and Calvinists. Patron of the Catholic press, Columbus in Ohio, confessors, dear people, journalists, and the Salesians of John Bosco [31 January].
- January 24 — Xenia the Righteous of Rome (Eusebia) (d. 450) (Orthodox)
Roman woman who fled an unwanted marriage to the island of Kos, off the coast of modern-day Turkey, where she became a deaconess famed for her miracles.
- January 25 — Vladimir (Vasily Nikiforovich) Bogoyavlensky (1848-1918) (Orthodox)
Russian priest and Metropolitan of Moscow, then Saint Petersburg, and Kiev, famed as a martyr of the Russian Revolution.
- January 26 — Amun (fl. 4th century) (Orthodox)
Egyptian ascetic, disciple of Anthony the Great [17 January], and founder of monastic communities in the Wadi El Natrun southwest of Alexandria.
- January 26 — Xenophon of Robeika (d. 1262) (Orthodox)
Russian monk and disciple of Barlaam of Khutyn [6 November].
- January 27 — Angela Merici (1474-1540) (Roman Catholic)
Brescian Italian nun and founder of the Ursulines, an order of nuns dedicated to the education of girls. Patron of the handicapped and orphans.
- January 28 — Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) (Roman Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran)
Italian Dominican friar and arguably one of the most influential theologians of Western Christianity and philosophers in the Western world. Integrating Aristotelian and Christian philosophies, he was an early proponent of natural theology, which sought to prove the existence of God through reason. Patron of academics, theologians, apologists, booksellers, Catholic educational institutions, philosophers, publishers, scholars, students and theologians, and invoked against storms.
- January 28 — Isaac of Nineveh (613-700) (Orthodox)
Arabian theologian and Bishop of Nineveh (near modern-day Mosul, Iraq), known for his defence of Chaldean Christianity against the Nestorians, who denied the "hypostasis", or the union of Christ's human and divine natures that does not diminish either nature.
- January 31 — (Don) John Bosco (1815-1888) (Roman Catholic)
Piedmontese Italian priest renowned for spending his life in his native Turin rescuing and educating street children, and founder of the Society of Saint Francis de Sales (Salesians of Don Bosco), an order of priests, as well as, with his friend Maria Domenica Mazzarello, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians (Salesian Sisters of Don Bosco), both of which also work among street children. Patron of juvenile delinquents, school children, and stage magicians.
- January 31 — Cyrus and John (d. 304-311) (Orthodox)
Egyptian martyrs under Emperor Diocletian revered, especially among Coptic Christians, for healing the sick free of charge.
- February 3 — Blaise (d. 316) [RC / Orth.]: Bishop of Sebaste (modern-day Sivas, Turkey) and martyr. Usually invoked against throat diseases.
- February 3 — Ansgar (801-865) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen and missionary to Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Revered for his determination to spread the Gospel despite multiple political and religious setbacks.
- February 5 — Agatha (of Sicily) (231-251) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Patron of Malta, San Marino, rape victims, and invoked against ailments of the breasts. She took a vow of virginity and refused the advances of the Roman prefect Quintianus, who had her tortured; one of those methods was having breasts ripped out. It is said that she had a vision of St Peter visiting her, and he miraculously restored her breasts. Quintianus then had Agatha rolled on live coals, but an earthquake struck. Her injuries from this proved fatal.
- February 6 — Paulo Miki (1562-1597) and the 26 Martyrs of Nagasaki [RC]: Jesuit Japanese convert and one of the earliest victims of the wave of persecutions under Toyotomi Hideyoshi.
- February 8 — Gerolamo Emiliani (1486-1537) [RC]: Italian priest and founder of the Somaschi Fathers, which tended to orphan boys, for whom he is their patron.
- February 8 — Josephine Bakhita (1869-1947) [RC]: Patron of her native Sudan (specifically, Darfur), from which she was sold as a slave until she found refuge as a Canossian sister in Italy.
- February 10 — Scholastica (480-547) [RC / Orth.]: Sister (and alleged twin) of Saint Benedict. Patron of nuns and protection against storms (legend has it that before she died, she prayed that a storm interrupt the departure of the then-visiting Benedict, wanting him to be by her side in her last moments).
- February 14 — Cyril (826-869) and Methodius (815-885) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Brothers and missionaries to Eastern Europe. Patrons of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Macedonia and Slovakia, and as of 1980, two of the six Roman Catholic Patrons of Europe, stemming from their missionary zeal.
- February 17 — Buonfiglio dei Monaldi (Bonfilius), Giovanni di Buonagiunta (Bonajuncta), Amadeus dell' Amidei (Bartolomeus), Ricovero dei Lippi-Ugguccioni (Hugh), Benedetto dell' Antella (Manettus), Gherardino di Sostegno (Sostene) and Alessio de' Falconieri (Alexius) [RC]: Seven merchants from Florence who gave up their wealth to found the Order of Friar Servants of Mary (Servites) in 1233 and live in contemplation of the sorrows of the Virgin Mary.
- February 21 — Peter Damian (1007-1072/1073) [RC]: Reformer of the Benedictine order and placed by Dante in The Divine Comedy in the highest levels of Paradiso (Heaven).
- February 23 — Polycarp (69-156) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Bishop of Smyrna (modern-day İzmir, Turkey), martyr, and allegedly disciple of Saint John, one of Jesus' twelve apostles. Invoked against earache and dysentery.
- March 3 — Casimir [Jagielion] (1458-1484) [RC]: Patron of Lithuania and a prince of the Kingdom of Poland who spent his short life in devotion and charity.
- March 7 — Perpetua and Felicitas (d.203) [RC, Angl. and Luth. / Orth., February 1]: Two of the earliest and most popular martyrs from Carthage (modern-day Tunis, Tunisia) — the former a noblewoman, the latter a pregnant slave — and the subject of a popular hagiography.
- March 8 — John of God (1495-1550) [RC]: Patron of hospitals and nurses and founder of the Brothers Hospitallers, a religious order dedicated to caring for the ill.
- March 9 — Frances of Rome (1384-1440) [RC]: Benedictine oblate (not technically a nun, but a commoner who has adopted a semi-monastic lifestyle) and patron of widows.
- March 17 — Patrick (5th c.) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: A British slave turned cleric, who late in life returned to Ireland, where he was brought as a slave, to preach to its peoples. Patron of Ireland, Nigeria, New York, Boston, and engineers. Popularly depicted driving out snakes from Ireland (as there are no native snakes there, it is thought of as an allegory of him driving out paganism).
- March 18 — Cyril of Jerusalem (313-386) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: A distinguished theologian of the early Church, who wrote extensively on the Liturgy and instruction of catechumens (people receiving formal religious education).
- March 23 — Turibius of Mogrovejo (1538-1606) [RC / Angl.]: Spanish-born Archbishop of Lima. He is best known for his missionary efforts, traversing the vast expanse of Peru to personally administer to his realm and defending the rights of indigenous peoples.
- April 2 — Francis of Paola (1416-1507) [RC]: Founder of the Friars Minim, an order which follows an ascetic lifestyle and known for his gifts of prophecy.
- April 4 — Isidore of Seville (560-636) [RC / Orth.]: Archbishop of the Spanish city, best known for converting the Visigoth royalty from Arianism and setting the foundations of representative legislation, as well as his Great Big Book of Everything, the Etymologiae, which recorded extracts from various classical literature, giving him a reputation as a patron of the Internet.
- April 5 — Vincent Ferrer (1350-1419) [RC / Angl.]: Spanish Dominican friar and patron of construction workers, so-named for his efforts to rebuild the Church.
- April 7 — Jean-Baptiste de la Salle (1651-1719) [RC]: French priest, educator and patron of schoolteachers and founder of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (Lasallians), having been a pioneer of educational reform stemming from his programs for children born in poverty.
- April 11 — Stanislaus (of Szczepanów) (1030-1079) [RC]: Bishop of Kraków and patron of Poland, best known for his rivalry with King Bolesław II, which ultimately led to his death.
- April 13 — Pope Martin I (598-655) [RC / Orth.]: Byzantine pope, declared a martyr for his exile to Chersonesus (modern-day Sevastopol, Crimea) by Emperor Constans II, a supporter of the Monothelite sect (which taught that Jesus had two natures, divine and human, but only one will, which ran counter to the orthodox stance of Jesus having two natures and wills) against which Martin wrote several letters.
- April 21 — Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Benedictine scholar and bishop of Canterbury, famous for asserting the Church's independence from politics and pioneering work on scholasticism.
- April 23 — George (280-303) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: A very popular preacher, legionary, and dragon-slayer. Patron of England, Portugal, Greece, Bulgaria, Catalonia, Georgia, and... just about half of Europe; a ridiculous number of cities; armored units; and the Boy Scouts.
- April 23 — Adalbert (of Prague) (956-957) [RC / Orth.]: Patron of Poland, Bohemia and Hungary, having served as Bishop of Prague and later killed during missionary efforts to Baltic Prussia.
- April 24 — Fidelis of Sigmaringen (1577-1622) [RC]: Capuchin friar and missionary to Calvinist Switzerland, where he met opposition and, ultimately, a violent death.
- April 28 — Peter Chanel (1803-1841) [RC]: French missionary to the Pacific islands, martyred in Futuna, and patron of Oceania.
- April 28 — Louis Grignion de Montfort (1673-1716) [RC]: French mystic and a prolific writer on the subject of the Virgin Mary.
- April 29 — Catherine of Siena (1347-1380) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Italian Dominican mystic and theologian; she mortified herself greatly for her faith and is most famous for having a vision of a holy marriage to the infant Jesus. Patron saint of those ridiculed for their piety, of protection in childbirth, of nurses, and against fire. Declared one of the six Roman Catholic Patron Saints of Europe for her efforts to bring back the papacy from Avignon in France back to Rome.
- April 30 — Pope Pius V (Antonio Ghislieri) (1504-1572) [RC]: Dominican pontiff responsible for instituting the Council of Trent, which served to respond to the challenges of the Protestant Reformation with the Roman Catholic Church's own reformation.
- May 2 — Athanasius of Alexandria (296~298/373) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Bishop of Alexandria best known for his ardent defence of the doctrine of the Holy Trinity against the Arians, and Christianity in general against persecutions, earning him the title "Athanasius Against the World". Generally credited with the recognition of the 27 books of the Christian canon, or New Testament, of The Bible.
- May 12 — Nereus and Achilleus (late 1st c.) [RC]: Legendary martyrs and bodyguards of Flavia Domitillia, niece of Emperor Domitian and herself a later convert.
- May 12 — Pancras (of Rome) (289-303/304) [RC]: Teenage martyr under Emperor Diocletian. Not much is known about him except that he lent his name to a district of London.
- May 18 — Pope John I (470-526) [RC]: Martyred under the Arian Visigoth king Theodosius for alleged conspiracy with Emperor Justin of Byzantium, despite having been sent by Theodosius in the first place to Constantinople to secure a moderation of Justin's policies against Arians.
- May 20 — Bernardino of Siena (1380-1444) [RC]: Italian Franciscan friar famous for his tracts. Patron of advertisers and the public services sector.
- May 21 — Cristóbal Magallanes Jara (1869-1927) [RC]: Mexican priest, executed on trumped-up charges of agitating the Cristeros, a group of pious Catholic peasants rebelling against state anti-clericalism.
- May 22 — Rita of Cascia (1381-1457) [RC]: Augustinian nun and patron of impossible causes and battered housewives. Having spent many years enduring an Awful Wedded Life with an abusive, unfaithful nobleman (who was later killed amidst one of the many feuds he was caught up in), she took the habit after her two sons died before they can avenge their father and spent her life in meditation.
- May 25 — Bede (673-735) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Benedictine abbot of Jarrow in northeastern England and one of the most eminent English historians.
- May 25 — Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand of Sovana) (1015-1085) [RC]: Enforced celibacy among the clergy and affirmed the sovereignty of the papacy.
- May 25 — Mary Magdalene de' Pazzi (1566-1607) [RC]: Italian Carmelite nun who suffered throughout her short life even amidst multiple mystical visions.
- May 26 — Philip Neri (1515-1595) [RC]: Italian priest and founder of the Congregation of the Oratory (Oratorians) for secular priests (i.e., those not belonging to any monastic order) and a reformer, as well as a patron of humour.
- May 27 — Augustine of Canterbury (d. ~604) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Benedictine priest and very first bishop of Britain, sent by Pope Gregory I as part of a massive missionary effort.
- June 1 — Justin Martyr (100-165) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Early apologist (defender of religious tenets) who wrote several books in defence of the moral legitimacy of Christianity using tenets of classical philosophy.
- June 2 — Marcellinus and Peter (d. ~304) [RC]: Popular but historically ambiguous martyrs — the former a priest, the latter an exorcist — during the persecutions of Emperor Domitian.
- June 3 — Charles Lwanga (1860-1886) and the Martyrs of Uganda [RC / Angl.]: Court member of and victim to the wave of persecutions under King Mwanga II of Buganda, in a complicated combination of politico-religious conflict and colonialism.
- June 5 — Boniface (675-754) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: First archbishop of Mogontiacum (modern-day Mainz) and missionary to the Germans, killed by bandits during a trip to Frisia.
- June 6 — Norbert (of Xanten) (1080-1134) [RC]: Bishop of Magdeburg and founder of the Premonstratensian order of semi-monastic priests.
- June 9 — Ephrem (the Syrian) (306-373) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Deacon of Edessa (modern-day Şanlıurfa, Turkey) and patron of spiritual directors on account of his massive collection of written poems, hymns and sermons.
- June 13 — Anthony of Padua (1195-1231) [RC]: Franciscan monk and patron of his native Portugal, Brazil, miracles, the postal service, search for lost things, and the elderly and the oppressed on account of his charitable work. Generally depicted carrying the infant Jesus in his arms, alluding to his contemplative life.
- June 19 — Romuald (951-1027) [RC / Orth.]: Benedictine monk responsible for the revival of monasticism and founder of the Camaldolese subgroup of monks and nuns.
- June 21 — Aloysius Gonzaga (1568-1591) [RC]: Jesuit novice and patron of AIDS victims, having died at a very young age tending to victims of a plague.
- June 22 — Paulinus of Nola (354-431) [RC / Orth.]: Roman senator who turned to religious life (becoming bishop of Nola, near Naples in Italy), setting a precedent for other men of privilege who aspire to turn to the habit.
- June 22 — John Fisher (1469-1535) and Thomas More (1478-1535) [RC / Angl.]: Martyrs of the English Reformation under King Henry VIII — the former was bishop of Rochester, near London; the latter, a statesman and counsellor to King Henry — for refusing to acknowledge Henry's usurpation of papal authority over the Church of England (all because Rome declined to grant his request for an annulment from Catherine of Aragon in favour of the fertile Anne Boleyn). While Roman Catholic by orientation, Anglicans have recently given them reverence as martyrs for personal conscience and unfortunate victims of the politico-religious chaos of the period.
- June 27 — Cyril of Alexandria (376-444): Patriarch of Alexandria, leading his local church in a period of politico-religious strife with which he often got embroiled in.
- June 28 — Irenaeus (130-202): Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (modern-day Lyon, France) and martyr, as well as a major source for what much of the world knows of Gnosticism through his polemical writings.
- July 4 — Elizabeth of Portugal (1271-1336) [RC]: Franciscan layperson and queen consort of Portugal who spent her life as a widow doing charitable work to the less fortunate of her realm.
- July 5 — Anthony Maria Zaccaria (1502-1539) [RC]: Founder of the Barnabite Order of priests, dedicated to reforming the Church in Milan, as well as a later agent of the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
- July 6 — Maria Goretti (1890-1902) [RC]: Patron of victims of rape and crime in general, having died forgiving her attempted rapist and eventual killer.
- July 9 — Martyrs of China [RC]: A commemoration of Christians killed from the 16th century onwards. In particular, Roman Catholics venerate Augustine Zhao Rong (d. 1815), a diocesan priest.
- July 11 — Benedict of Nursia (480-543) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Pioneer of Western monasticism, whose life and teachings inspired the creation of a confederacy of autonomous monastic groups adhering to his precepts. He is also one of the six Roman Catholic Patron Saints of Europe on account of his lasting contributions to the growth of the medieval Church.
- July 13 — Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor (973-1024) [RC]: Benedictine oblate who, together with his wife, Cunigunde of Luxembourg, led lives of chaste matrimony, holiness and charitable work.
- July 14 — Camillus de Lellis (1550-1614) [RC]: Italian priest and patron of hospitals, nurses and physicians, having founded the Ministers to the Infirm (Camillans) to tend to the sick.
- July 15 — Bonaventure (1221-1274) [RC]: Italian Franciscan theologian and philosopher, famed for his extensive body of works on many scholarly subjects.
- July 20 — Apollinaris of Ravenna (1st c.) [RC]: Patron saint of epileptics and gout sufferers; reputedly vested by Saint Peter himself, Apollinaris served as a Church leader until his execution during the persecutions of Emperor Nero.
- July 21 — Lawrence of Brindisi (1559-1619) [RC / Orth.]: Capuchin friar and theologian, who was not only active during the Counter-Reformation, but also during the defence of Hungary against the Ottomans.
- July 23 — Bridget of Sweden (1303-1373) [RC / Luth.]: Founder of the Order of the Most Holy Savior, a religious order open to men and women alike, and patron of her native Sweden, as well as Europe in general, on account of her mystical visions and pilgrimages.
- July 24 — Charbel Makhlouf (1828-1898) [RC]: Lebanese hermit and one of the few saints recognized from the Maronite Church, an Eastern Catholic sect (that is, in full communion with the Western Church while retaining its particular rite, of which there is an abundance throughout the eastern Mediterranean) unique to Lebanon and its diaspora.
- 26 July — Joachim and Anne (1st c. BC) (Roman Catholic, Anglican / 9 September — Orthodox [Joachim])
Parents of the Virgin Mary, according to the apocryphal Protoevangelium of James, and thus maternal grandparents of Jesus, who conceived Mary despite their old age and Anna's barrenness (which some scholars see parallels with the story of Hannah, mother of the titular character of The Books Of Samuel in The Bible. Patrons of grandparents, with Anne in particular having a wider range of patronages, including Canada, Brittany, Detroit, and childless parents.
- July 30 — Peter Chrysologus (380-450) [RC / Orth.]: Bishop of Ravenna, famed for his many homilies (spiritual lessons during Mass).
- July 31 — Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) [RC / Angl.]: Basque priest and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), a missionary order that focuses on education and the order of the current Pope, Francis; patron of soldiers (having been one before finding his spiritual calling while recovering from a Career-Ending Injury) and spiritual retreats (on account of his writings on meditation and spiritual exercises).
- August 1 — Alphonsus Maria de Liguori (1696-1787) [RC]: Italian bishop, founder of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer (Redemptorists) and patron of confessors, stemming from his extensive body of work on meditations on the Blessed Virgin Mary.
- August 2 — Eusebius of Vercelli (283-371) [RC]: Bishop of Vercelli, between Milan and Turin, and an ally of Athanasius and Hilary in their defence of orthodox Christianity against Arianism.
- August 2 — Peter Julian Eymard (1811-1868) [RC]: French priest and advocate of the adoration of the Holy Eucharist (a small piece of unleavened bread which is the body of Jesus offered to humanity as forgiveness of their sins).
- August 3 — John Vianney (1786-1859) [RC]: French cleric and patron of parish priests, revered for his tireless service to the town of Ars-sur-Formans in France, contributing to its moral transformation and spiritual revival.
- August 7 — Pope Sixtus II (d. 258) [RC]: Martyred under Emperor Valerian with six of his deacons. Also known for reconciling with the African and Byzantine churches after the rift caused by the Novatian schism, which rejected readmission of Christians forced to lapse during persecution without re-baptism.
- August 7 — Cajetan (1480-1547) [RC]: Italian priest and patron of the unemployed and gamblers, having founded a bank for the poor of Naples as an alternative to loan sharks; also, patron of Argentina.
- August 8 — Dominic (1170-1221) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Castilian priest and founder of the Order of Preachers (Dominicans), which helped spread Christianity and scholasticism during the Middle Ages. Also the patron of astronomers as well as the Dominican Republic.
- August 9 — Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) (1891-1942) [RC]: German Jewish philosopher and later a Carmelite nun, executed during the Holocaust. Declared one of the six Roman Catholic Patrons of Europe as a victim of the violence of the twentieth century on account of her Christian and Jewish heritages.
- August 10 — Lawrence of Rome (225-258) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Protégé, treasurer, and the first deacon of Pope Sixtus II, executed three days after the Pope and his six fellow deacons, famously by being roasted alive, for refusing to hand over the treasury of the Church. Patron of the city of Rome, Canada, students, librarians, cooks, chefs, and comedians (by way of claiming the poor and destitute of Rome, to which he was assigned to take care of, as the true treasures of the Church, and later his Gallows Humor, sarcastically suggesting to his executioners to roll his body over once one side is burnt enough) [note]The Comedian patronage comes from the fact that he was quite famous for his personal library of joke books and would often entertain guests by reading from his collection. Apparently, some of them were quite the Increadibly Lame Pun for their day.[/note].
- August 11 — Clare of Assisi (1194-1253) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Founder of the Order of Poor Ladies (now known as the Poor Clares), a monastic order for women inspired by that founded by her compatriot Saint Francis. Patron of television, having had a vision of Mass being celebrated while she was bedridden with an illness.
- August 12 — Jane Frances de Chantal (1572-1641) [RC]: French baroness-turned-nun, widowed after a short but fruitful marriage, and a friend of Saint Francis de Sales, with whom she founded the Congregation of the Visitation (Visitandines) for women rejected by other orders due to illness or age, for which she was declared patron of forgotten people.
- August 13 — Pope Pontian and Hippolytus of Rome (d. 235) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Martyrs under Emperor Maximinus. Having been bitter enemies in life, the latter leading the Greek-speaking Christians in Rome and later leading a schismatic group rivalling that of the former, both men eventually reconciled while sentenced to hard labour in Sardinia.
- August 14 — Maximilian Kolbe (1894-1941) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Polish Franciscan friar and a martyr of the Holocaust, having been sent to Auschwitz for his anti-Nazi rhetoric and sheltering Jews in his convents, and eventually committing a Heroic Sacrifice by taking the place of a father sentenced to be one of ten men starved to death as punishment for the escape of a prisoner. Patron of prisoners, especially those of the political variant. He also is the patron saint of drug addicts note , the pro-life movement, the movement to abolish the death penalty note , and journalists note
- August 16 — King Stephen I of Hungary (975-1038) [RC / Orth.]: Founder and patron of Hungary, highly revered for his political and religious advocacy to unite the Hungarian people.
- August 19 — John Eudes (1601-1680) [RC]: French priest and mystic, as well as an advocate of the veneration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Immaculate Heart of Mary, celebrated currently on, respectively, the Friday and Saturday after the second Sunday after Pentecost.
- August 20 — Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: French abbot and reformer of the Cistercians, an order of monks dedicated to restoring, as much as possible, a strict observance of the Rule of Saint Benedict for monastic life, later participating in The Crusades as spiritual advisor. Patron of Burgundy, Gibraltar and the Knights Templar.
- August 21 — Pope Pius X (Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto) (1835-1914) [RC]: Pontiff known for his charitable work and promotion of the practice of frequently receiving communion, but also for his strong attacks on the heresy of Modernism, which taught that the Church and its doctrines are not divinely instituted and that dogmas can change along with the spirit of the age. Patron of first-time communicants, catechists and Atlanta.
- August 23 — Rose of Lima (Isabel Flores de Oliva) (1586-1617) [RC / Angl.]: The very first canonized saint born in the Americas; a Dominican laywoman who spent her life in severe asceticism and charity work. Patron of her native Peru, Latin America in general and its indigenous peoples in particular, gardeners and florists.
- August 25 — King Louis IX of France (1214-1270) [RC / Angl.]: The only sainted French royalty, being a Franciscan layman whose Christian convictions influenced his policies. Patron of France and New Orleans.
- August 25 — Joseph Calasanz (1557-1648) [RC]: Spanish priest and founder of the Order of Poor Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of the Pious Schools (Piarists), the oldest Roman Catholic order dedicated to education and patron of all Roman Catholic schools.
- August 27 — Monica (322-387) [RC and Angl. / Orth. and Luth., May 4]: Mother of Saint Augustine, responsible for helping her son return to the Christian from a life of sin and hedonism. Patron of people suffering from difficult family situations.
- August 28 — Junípero Serra (1713-1784) [RC]: Franciscan friar who went to California to preach to the Indians and establish nine of its twenty-one missions. Patron saint of Hispanic Americans, priestly vocations, and California.
- August 28 — Augustine Of Hippo (354-430) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Bishop of Hippo Regius (modern-day Annaba, Algeria) and patron of North Africa, brewers, printers and theologians. He wrote extensively over his extremely hedonistic lifestyle before his conversion due to the efforts of his mother, Monica, as well as his advisor, Bishop Ambrose of Milan, eventually settling as a bishop himself, writing books on theology that would shape Western Christian thought for centuries to come.
- September 3 — Pope Gregory I (the Great) (540-604) [RC / Orth., Angl. and Luth., March 12]: A nobleman who used both his experiences as prefect and monk to lead the Church efficiently. Besides writing many books (more than any other pope ever since), he helped establish a school system of education (in contrast to apprenticeship of centuries past), reformed Christian liturgy, and initiated a massive missionary effort to Britain. Patron of teachers, musicians and singers, on account of having reputedly invented Gregorian chant.
- September 9 — Peter Claver (1580-1654): Catalan Jesuit priest and missionary to Colombia, revered for his love for and defence of rights of slaves. Patron of Colombia, slaves, seafarers, and ministry to African Americans.
- September 13 — John Chrysostom (349-407) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Archbishop of Constantinople and a prominent figure of the post-apostolic Church, famed for his sermons and gift of eloquence, for which he earned the title "Chrysostom" (literally, "golden-mouthed"). Patron of public speakers and Istanbul, as well as the namesake of a prominent liturgical rite among the Eastern Christian Churches.
- September 16 — Pope Cornelius (d. 253) and Cyprian (200-258) [RC / Orth.]: Bishops of Rome and Carthage, respectively, who dealt with the Novatian opposition to readmitting lapsed Christians.
- September 17 — Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) [RC]: Italian Jesuit bishop and a leading figure in the Counter-Reformation, as well as an Inquisitor, in particular handling the cases of Giordano Bruno and Galileo Galilei on account of their support for the heliocentric Copernican model of the solar system.
- September 17 — Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: German Benedictine abbess, writer, theologian, mystic, and composer. Her most famous works include the Scivias, a work of mystical theology; and the Ordo Virtutum, a morality play.
- September 18 — Joseph of Cupertino (1603-1663) [RC]: Italian Conventual Franciscan priest who reputedly levitated while praying, and was ordered to pray in private so he wouldn't scare other worshipers and had a run-in with the Inquisition because of it. He has been declared the patron saint of air travellers, aviators, astronauts, people with mental handicap, test takers and poor students.
- September 19 — Januarius (d. 305) [RC / Orth.]: First bishop of Benevento, northeast of Naples, and martyr under Emperor Diocletian. Patron of Naples and blood banks (said city holds a vial of what is thought to be his coagulated blood which liquefies thrice a year).
- September 20 — Andrew Kim Taegon (1821-1846), Paul Chong Hasang (1794-1839) and the Martyrs of Korea [RC / Angl.]: Two of the first martyrs of the Church in Korea during a time of conflict between Christian egalitarianism and Korea's Confucian philosophy of social hierarchy. The former was the first ordained Korean priest; the latter, a layman.
- September 23 — (Padre) Pio of Pietrelcina (1887-1968) [RC]: Italian Capuchin friar and mystic, famous for bearing the stigmata (wounds of Jesus on his hands and feet) throughout his life. Patron of civil defence volunteers and people under stress.
- September 26 — Cosmas and Damian (d. 287) [RC / Orth.]: Twin brothers and martyrs from Aegeae (modern-day Yumurtalık, Turkey). Famous for their volunteer medical work, they are revered as patrons of surgeons, physicians, pharmacists and dentists.
- September 26 — Cyprian and Justina (d. 304) [RC / Orth. October 2]: A pair of martyrs from Antioch. Cyprian (often confused with Cyprian of Carthage) was an infamous magician and sorcerer whose parents consecrated him to the devil. Justina was a beautiful daughter from pagan parents; she converted to the Christian faith, with her parents eventually following suit, and took vows of virginity. A would-be suitor for Justina sought Cyprian to cast a spell on her so that she would fall in love with him. Cyprian, also won over by her beauty, obliged and did his dark magic on her. However, Justina realised that she was demonically attacked, so she protected herself by prayer, fasting, and the sign of the cross. When Cyprian realized that his spells did not work and learned that God was more powerful than the demons, he converted to the Christian faith.
- September 27 — Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) [RC / Angl.]: French priest and founder of the Congregation of the Mission (Vincentians or Lazarists), famed for his charitable work to the poor.
- September 28 — Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia (907-935) [RC / Orth.]: Nobleman famous for his benevolent rule and his tragic death at the hands of his own brother, Duke Boleslaus I (who later deeply regretted the fratricide). Patron of Prague, Bohemia and the Czech Republic.
- September 28 — Lorenzo Ruiz (1600-1637) [RC]: Filipino altar boy and member of an ill-fated Dominican mission to Japan, where he was executed for his unwavering faith. Patron of his native Philippines, migrant workers and the poor.
- September 30 — Jerome (347-420) [RC, Angl. and Luth. / Orth., June 15]: Hermit famous for his herculean feat of translating the entirety of The Bible from Hebrew and Greek into Latin, which was compiled as the "Vulgate", as well as commentaries on the Gospels. Patron of biblical scholars, archaeologists, translators, archivists and librarians.
- October 1 — Thérèse of Lisieux (1873-1897) [RC]: French Carmelite nun widely venerated for her life of great simplicity and humility. Patron of France, Russia, Alaska, gardeners, and AIDS patients (having died young after a bout of tuberculosis).
- October 4 — Francis of Assisi (1181/1182-1226) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Italian friar and founder of the Order of Friars Minor (Franciscans) and other associated orders dedicated to mendicancy (an avowed life of poverty and ministry). A son of a merchant who cast aside his wealth to live in meditation, and also had a gift with animals, even preaching to birds, calming a wolf, and even managing to recreate the Nativity scene. He was a humble lover of nature, since such things remind him of God, the Creator of all things, and is the first recorded Christian to receive the stigmata. Arguably one of the most beloved saints throughout Christianity and namesake of the current pope (formerly Jorge Mario Bergoglio, Archbishop of Buenos Aires), he is the patron of Italy, San Francisco, animals, the environment, and merchants.
- October 5 — Maria Faustina Kowalska (1905-1938) [RC]: Polish nun and mystic who wrote a diary which records her visions and conversations of Jesus. Those writings became the basis of the Divine Mercy devotion.
- October 6 — Bruno of Cologne (1030-1101) [RC]: German priest and founder of the Carthusians, an order of enclosed monks and nuns following a rule different from that issued by Saint Benedict. Famed for his humility, going so far as to decline a bishopric from his former pupil, Pope Urban II. Patron of Germany, Calabria (whose see he declined) and monastic communities.
- October 9 — Denis (d. 250/258/270) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: First bishop of Paris, famously depicted carrying his own severed head after his execution during the persecutions of Emperor Decius, preaching repentance for a few hours before finally dying. Patron of France, Paris, and sufferers of headache.
- October 9 — Giovanni Leonardi (1541-1609) [RC]: Italian priest and founder of the Clerics Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca, as well as a friend of Saint Philip Neri, who spent his life in devotion to the Virgin Mary.
- October 9 — John Henry Newman (1801-1890) [RC / Angl.]: English theologian and poet. He was originally an Anglican priest who was one of the leaders of the Oxford Movement, a movement of High Church Anglican theologians that sought to re-introduce pre-English Reformation doctrine and practices into the Church of England. His studies eventually led him to convert to the Catholic faith, which caused a scandal, and he wrote an autobiography defending his decision to convert. He wrote an essay on the development of Christian doctrine, which states that Christian doctrine becomes more detailed throughout the centuries, but remains consistent with its earlier statements.
- October 11 — Pope John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli) (1881-1963) [RC / Angl., June 4 / Luth., June 3]: Pontiff under whose reign the Second Vatican Council was convened to reform the Roman Catholic Church for the 20th century, as well as an advocate of ecumenism. Well-loved for his genial nature. Patron of papal delegates (having previously served as one to Greece and Turkey) and Christian unity.
- October 14 — Pope Callixtus I (d. 223) [RC]: A former slave turned Bishop of Rome. Patron of cemetery workers, having spent his early years in the priesthood tending to catacombs where Christian martyrs were buried.
- October 15 — Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582) [RC / Angl./ Luth.]: Spanish Carmelite nun, mystic and theologian, responsible for the reformation of her order and famous for her visions and works on mental prayer. Patron of sufferers of headaches, lace makers and workers, people in religious orders, and people ridiculed for their piety (having suffered such from her superiors for her lifestyle).
- October 16 — Hedwig of Silesia (1174-1243) [RC]: Bavarian-born duchess revered for her tireless service for the poor and refugees from the many wars that rocked Central Europe throughout the thirteenth century. Patron of orphans (earning her a very famous avian namesake), Berlin, Brandenburg, Poland, Kraków, Silesia and Wrocław.
- October 16 — Margaret Mary Alacoque (1647-1690) [RC]: French Visitandine nun responsible for the modern veneration of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. She promoted this devotion to fend off the heresy of Jansenism. Patron of polio victims.
- October 17 — Ignatius of Antioch (35-108) [RC, Angl. and Luth. / Orth., December 20]: Bishop of Antioch (modern-day Antakya, Turkey) and one of the most respected apostolic-era writers, many of which written en route to Rome where he was executed by being fed to the lions. Patron of the particular Churches of the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa.
- October 19 — Jean de Brébeuf (1593-1649) and Isaac Jogues (1607-1646) [RC / Angl.]: French Jesuit missionaries to the indigenous peoples of Canada and the first martyrs of the Americas. Co-patrons of Canada.
- October 19 — Paul of the Cross (1694-1775) [RC]: Italian priest and mystic, and founder of the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ (Passionists), an order dedicated to the meditation on the death and resurrection of Jesus.
- October 22 — Pope John Paul II (Karol Józef Wojtyła) (1920-2005) [RC]: First Slavic and first non-Italian pontiff in 500 years. Arguably one of the best-known and most-loved popes on account of his many international travels (more than any other pope before him) and a lengthy 26-year reign (by the standards of popes, majority of whom are elected at an advanced age). Patron of Kraków, where he served as archbishop before his ascent.
- October 23 — John of Capistrano (1386-1456) [RC]: Italian Franciscan friar, theologian and inquisitor, as well as a crusader leading the defence of Belgrade against the Ottomans. Patron of jurists, military chaplains, Belgrade and Hungary.
- October 24 — Anthony Mary Claret (1807-1870) [RC]: Catalan bishop and confessor to Queen Isabella II of Spain, and founder of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretians), a community of priests dedicated to charity and education for the poor. Patron of textile merchants, the Canary Islands and technical/vocational educators.
- November 1 — All Saints: A universal commemoration of all the saints, observed in virtually all major Christian denominations.
- November 3 — Martin de Porres (1579-1639) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Peruvian Dominican lay brother who defied the stigma of being the illegitimate son of a Spanish nobleman and a freed African slave to lead a life of humility and charity. Patron of mixed-race people, barbers, innkeepers and advocates for racial harmony.
- November 4 — Charles Borromeo (1538-1584) [RC]: Archbishop of Milan and a prominent figure in the Counter-Reformation, as well as an advocate for the foundation of religious seminaries. Patron of bishops, catechumens, and Lombardy, as well as protector against ulcers.
- November 10 — Pope Leo I (the Great) (400-461) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Bishop of Rome famous for standing up to Attila the Hun and persuading him to turn back from Italy, as well as a major influence in the orthodox Christian stance of Jesus having both divine and human natures.
- November 11 — Martin of Tours (316/336-397) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Hungarian-born Roman soldier who became the first bishop of Tours in France. He once gave a beggar half of his cloak in the wintertime, and the following night had a vision of Jesus wearing the part of the cloak. Patron of beggars, recovering alcoholics and horses.
- November 12 — Josaphat Kuntsevych (1580-1623) [RC]: One of the few saints from the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, a Byzantine-rite Christian Church that is, in full communion with Rome while adhering to almost the same rites as the Eastern Orthodox Churches), and archeparch (the eastern equivalent of the western archbishops) of Polotsk (in modern-day Belarus) until his death during a period of strife between the Orthodox and Catholic churches of the region. Patron of Ukraine.
- November 15 — Albertus Magnus (1200-1280) [RC]: German Dominican friar and mentor of Saint Thomas Aquinas. Patron of scientists, students and Cincinnati.
- November 16 — Margaret of Scotland (1045-1093) [RC]: English-born princess and Queen of Scots, famous for her charitable work. Patron of Scotland and Anglo-Scots relations.
- November 16 — Gertrude the Great (1256-1302) [RC]: German Benedictine nun and mystic, and patron of the West Indies.
- November 17 — Elizabeth of Hungary (1207-1231) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Hungarian princess and Franciscan laywoman. Married and widowed at a young age, she spent the rest of her short life in works of charity. Patron of hospitals, nurses, bakers and the Third Order of Saint Francis, an order for laypeople who wish to live in contemplation while still functioning in the ordinary world.
- November 22 — Cecilia (c. 2nd century) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Semi-legendary but incredibly popular patron of musicians (by way of pious legend claiming that she sang to God during her wedding to a pagan nobleman, who later converted and was eventually martyred with her).
- November 23 — Pope Clement I (d. 99) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Reputed handpicked heir of Saint Peter as Bishop of Rome and an outstanding writer. Patron of mariners and stone-cutters (by way of legend claiming he was executed during the reign of Emperor Trajan by being tied onto an anchor and thrown into the sea).
- November 23 — Columbanus (543-615) [RC]: Irish missionary to France and patron of motorcyclists.
- November 24 — Andrew Dũng-Lạc (1795-1839) [RC]: Vietnamese priest and one of the first martyrs of that nation, described as one of the most brutal and politicized in history (largely due to Christianity's association with French colonists).
- November 25 — Catherine of Alexandria (287-305) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Semi-legendary but very popular princess, scholar and virgin martyr. Patron of unmarried girls, apologists, and craftsmen who work on a wheel such as potters and spinners (legend has it that she was executed by being put on a spiked breaking wheel).
- December 3 — Francis Xavier (1506-1552) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: One of the co-founders of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and a close friend of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, famed for his extensive missionary efforts to India and Japan. Patron of the East Indies, Japan and foreign missions.
- December 4 — John of Damascus (675/676-749) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Priest, polymath, and writer of expositions of the faith and hymns amidst Muslim-ruled Syria. He is considered to be the last Church Father because the age of the Church Fathers is said to have ended with his death in 749. Patron of pharmacists and icon painters (He wrote some treatises defending the use of sacred images in venerating the saints and worshipping God).
- December 4 — Barbara (c. mid 3rd century-c. late 3rd century to early 4th century) [RC / Orth. / Angl.]: Daughter of a wealthy pagan father from Heliopolis Phoenicia (present-day Baalbek, Lebanon). She secretly converted to the Christian faith, but her father found out. In a fit of rage, he tortured and beheaded her. He was shortly thereafter struck by lightning and disappeared in a cloud of smoke.
- December 6 — Nicholas (270-343) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Bishop of Myra (modern-day Demre, Turkey), famed for his generousness, which translated into the character of Santa Claus. Patron of children, repentant thieves and bankers, moneylenders and financiers (by way of pious legend stating that he spared a poor father the disgrace of selling his three daughters to prostitution by secretly giving them treasure to sell).
- December 7 — Ambrose (340-397) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Bishop of Mediolanum (modern-day Milan, Italy) and a former governor before his ascent as bishop, during which he preached against Arians and was influential in the conversion of Saint Augustine from a life of sin. Patron of beekeepers, bishops and the city of Milan, which keeps a particular Latin-language liturgical rite named after him, one of the few tolerated after the reforms of the Second Vatican Council enforced the Roman Rite (partially because Pope Paul VI previously served as archbishop).
- December 9 — Juan Diego (1474-1548) [RC]: Indigenous Mexican convert and visionary of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
- December 11 — Pope Damasus I (305-384) [RC]: Bishop of Rome under whose tenure Saint Jerome began his translation of the books of The Bible into Latin. Patron of archaeologists.
- December 13 — Lucy (283-304) [RC / Orth. / Angl. / Luth.]: Virgin martyr from Syracuse in Sicily and patron of the blind (largely due to her name being a play on lux, the Latin word for "light").
- December 14 — John of the Cross (1542-1591) [RC / Angl. / Luth.]: Spanish Carmelite monk and mystic, as well as a disciple of Saint Teresa of Ávila, with whom he implemented reforms in the order even in the face of opposition. Patron of mystics, Spanish poets and contemplatives.
- December 21 — Peter Canisius (1521-1597) [RC]: Dutch Jesuit priest responsible for the restoration of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany following the Protestant Reformation. Patron of Germany and the Catholic press.
- December 23 — John Cantius (1390-1473) [RC]: Polish priest and physicist, whose works foreshadowed the rethinking of the laws of physics by Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton. Patron of Poland and Lithuania.
- December 29 — Thomas Becket (1119-1170) [RC / Angl.]: Archbishop of Canterbury, who engaged in a lifelong conflict with King Henry II of England over the rights and properties of the Church until he was murdered during Mass by four knights who misinterpreted rash words from the King. Patron of secular clergy.
- December 31 — Pope Sylvester I (d. 335) [RC / Orth., January 2]: Bishop of Rome during whose tenure Emperor Constantine the Great officially endorsed Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire. Otherwise obscure, he is venerated by Roman Catholics as the New Year's Eve pontiff.