Organizations such as countries, corporations and Ancient Conspiracies need a lot of talented people in order to function. Rather than expending resources to find and train "new" experts, a simpler method is to recruit from competitors. After all, if you were offered a clearly better job (however you define that), you'd probably take it, right? Especially if your current situation is unpleasant.
Of course, this can easily result in one of the organizations continually sliding backwards. They lose some talented and competent personnel, and thus become less talented and competent overall, which makes things harder on their remaining personnel, which makes said personnel want to leave even more, and the cycle continues...
In a way, Brain Drain is the opposite of The Peter Principle. However these are opposites that happily coexist and help each other making life a living hell for those who remain: The talented move on elsewhere, while the less talented gets promoted to positions they are incompetent for - which can easily lead to becoming a Pointy-Haired Boss.
In individual cases, the Peter Principle can also be used to subvert Brain Drain - as it turns out that the new guy wasn't so talented after all.
- Reference is made to the trope in The Ipcress File. Turns out another type of brain drain is happening — British scientists are being kidnapped and brainwashed to forget their knowledge.
- In Atlas Shrugged this is John Galt's major plan: to drain ALL OF AMERICA
- This happened to the CIA in the backstory of World War Z. They were scapegoated for a recent "brushfire war" the USA fought that apparently didn't go well (not explicitly stated to be the Second Gulf War and the ultimately fruitless hunt for all those weapons of mass destruction that Iraq was allegedly stockpiling, but that was clearly what the author had in mind), and any information they could defend themselves with was classified. Many fled this hostile treatment, and got a better paycheck to boot. Thus, the CIA was left with mostly incompetents, a bunch of sycophants, and a scant handful of patriots. The major outcome to this was the CIA's inability to see the early warning signs of the Zombie Apocalypse.
- In Unseen Academicals, Braseneck College seems to be trying this on Unseen University; their Archchancellor is the former Dean, and their Ponder Stibbons equivalent used to be Ponder's best student. They even offered Ponder the post of Bursar, but he never even asked what the salary was.
- On Arrow this is one of the many issues facing Star City after it goes into an economic tailspin. Many of its businesses close down or relocate to other cities and the city's best and brightest leave for greener pastures. The people who stay behind are either rich enough not to be bothered by this or too poor to leave. This hits the police department especially hard since the events of the series caused it to have an extremely high casualty rate so police officers already had a strong incentive to find employment somewhere else. In one instance, an entire elite task force goes rogue because they are desperate to leave the city but cannot afford to pay off their mortgages.
- In Dilbert, the protagonist works at a company that always seem to be at the losing end of this. Except if you've been there for too long (like Dilbert and Co.) because this company is a black spot on resumes.
- A common theme in Mage: The Ascension is how the various Traditions and Conventions try to recruit talented Mages from each other.
- Knights of the Golden Rooster in Raven's Bluff often complain that other knightly orders tend to "take their best". Or, looking from the other end, being an "entry-level" order for common people and adventurers and a route to higher responsibilities is one of the Roosters' main roles.
- In the Interactive Fiction game The Lost Spellmaker, all of the spellmakers (people who, well... make spells, for the entertainment of the masses) from the PC's town and the other villages nearby are mysteriously disappearing. It turns out they're being stolen by the nearby city of Plantasitoy. Given that Plantasitoy is an anagram for PlayStation, one could easily read this as a metaphor.
- This is something of a theme in the Trails Series. The world is currently in the grips of the Orbal Revolution, and one or two gifted leaders in the field can make massive strides in industrialization and military progress. Several small nations are actively headhunting these people to give themselves a leg up, while some of the larger, more establishes institutions are clinging to tradition. A good deal of the story's set dressing is framed by the massive power shifts caused by these attitudes as massive empires are suddenly forced to realize they've missed a very important boat and their smaller neighbours are now genuine threats to their borders.
- In one episode of the animated version of Dilbert, the protagonist manages to get recruited by Nirvana Corporation, the great company that's always steals the best and brightest from his old company. of course, Status Quo Is God - so at the end of the episode he's back in his old cubicle again.
- A later episode had a literal example when Dilbert's company merged with "Brainsuck Industries", run by a bunch of aliens with suckers in their stomachs. Dilbert prevents the deal from going through by taking the Brainsuck CEO to their marketing department. The marketing people are so dumb the alien starves to death on a full stomach, causing the aliens to flee.
- On The Simpsons the Globex Corporation tried to hire away Smithers but he wouldn't go for it so they tried the employee with the next highest seniority (and therefore obviously the next best guy) - Homer, who actually turned out to be a hugely valuable employee at Globex, his wacky ideas were given a fair try and made the people he managed more productive. Unfortunately, the Cool House Globex gave Homer did all of Marge's work for her, boring her to madness. Bart loved the house, but the quality school Globex built put him in remedial classes with kids every bit as bad as him.note Lisa was ecstatic with the house, school and even the town itself... until she discovered that the local wildlife sent her(never-seen-before-or-since) allergies into overdrive. Oh, and Globex' Benevolent Boss Hank Scorpio was actually a Diabolical Mastermind and enemy of Mr. Bont - who Homer helps capture and execute, resulting in Scorpio taking over the East Coast.
- In My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, Griffinstone is implied to be suffering from this problem by the time of ''"The Lost Treasure Of Griffinstone", if Gilda's peddling of griffinscones for the sole reason of wanting to earn enough bits to get out of there is any indication - compare that with the last seen status of Gustave Le Grande, who is shown to be a Supreme Chef and was far outside Griffinstone in his appearance, and the flashbacks in the stories told by Twilight and Grandpa Gruff of the glory that Griffinstone once was.
- During a given country's "golden age", it has been common for adventurous immigrants to swarm over there to find opportunities. For instance, several conquerors have had scholars and artists crowding their courts simply because the prestige attracts. This naturally causes a Brain Drain in other countries.
- By the same principle, countries going through particularly bad times experience an exodus of the talented to anywhere else, which naturally makes ending those bad times more difficult. This situation is often seen in developing nations like India where NRIs (Non-Residential-Indians) are regarded with awe and envy in India for being The One Who Made It Out and the Indian government and society is trying to encourage talented people to invest and work there.
- The most famous example of this phenomenon is the Berlin Wall, which was in large part erected to prevent skilled people from leaving East Germany. Between 1952-1961, nearly 3.5 million Germans left East Germany for West Germany (about 20% of the East German population). They did this by simply walking across - Berlin at the time was legally governed under the Four Power Agreement (France, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, United States) rather than either German government. After the wall, the numbers fell dramatically. It must be noted that the vast majority of emigres from East Germany to West Germany left by official government channels and the escapees constituted only a small part, albeit the most visible one. After the Berlin Wall came down, East Germany saw another huge exodus of skilled Germans moving from the Eastern states to the rest of Germany. As a result, Eastern Germany was still considerably far behind the rest of the country decades later.
- The Reconquista was followed by the Spanish Inquisition, in which hundreds of thousands of Jews and Muslims found themselves dispossessed and sometimes killed by the Spanish government. Many of them fled to the more tolerant Ottoman Empire.
- Germany was subject to this in spades before and after World War II, thanks to the fact that a good number of technical, scientific, and financial experts were Jews. Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Niels Bohr, and Wernher von Braun, just to name a few, all emigrated to the Western powers before or after the war to escape the Nazi regime. While those who fled before the war did so on their own initiative to escape the Nazis, researchers and other talented individuals who were taken out by the Allies after the war (with or without their consent) were removed because the Allies had no interest (at least initially) in rebuilding Germany's devastated industrial base. Artistically, many film-makers of the Weimar Era Fritz Lang, Otto Preminger, Billy Wilder and many others left for Hollywood upon the rise of the Nazism, as did Marlene Dietrich.
- Brain Drain was an issue with many Communist nations of the Eastern Bloc, and measures were taken by the Soviet Union and its puppet states to keep people from emigrating to the West. Mostly they did this by making it hard and prolonging the immigration process considerably. On the occasions when permits were given, it was usually for some corrupt reason. This can be seen in the film Moonlighting where Polish labourers are sent to London to touch up a property owned by a Polish Communist Corrupt Politician.
- On a much smaller scale, businesses who treat workers badly tend to have high turnover. Or a business might have financial problems, causing the talented workers to leave for greener pastures. Like the above example, it makes it difficult for the business to recover.
- Afghanistan experienced this when it fell under the rule of the Taliban. Women were driven out of the workforce and forced to depend on husbands and male relatives (or else driven to begging or prostitution in order to survive - the latter of which was punishable by death). This particularly impacted healthcare; the male doctors that were left were overworked, many relief workers had left the country, and women were often forbidden from (or at least uncomfortable with) being treated by a male doctor.
- When it was under American jurisdiction, this was noted to be a problem for the army. The United States attempted to rebuild the army to be modern (meaning, along American lines), and that included the formation of a "special forces" unit, the National Army Commando Corps, based on the US Army Rangers. The problem was, they accomplished this by promoting competent and loyal troops from the existing army, meaning that the divisions they used to occupy had lost their best members, and competent troops in the Afghan National Army were in short supply. Essentially, they got one halfway-decent armed force at the price of the rest of the army being near-useless, and while the Commando Corps performed better than any other against the Taliban, they couldn't win the war on their own when every other division was folding like paper.
- The United States brain-drains excellent physicians from around the world to fill its residency slots. American doctors are given priority for selecting residents, but very high-scoring foreign doctors are frequently taken, to the tune of approximately 3,000 foreign-born chosen for new interns in 2016 alone.
- Private military contractors are fond of offering large pay increases to service members in elite, special-operations capable units or with rare, difficult skill sets. They don't pay much for the Dumb Muscle, but elite soldiers are rarely that.
- Due to many problems in nursing (long hours, toxic managers and work culture, the Adminisphere, floating from one department to another, and Critical Staffing Shortage), many nurses are leaving traditional "bedside" nursing at hospitals and nursing homes, and going into homecare and clinics. (This, of course, exacerbates many of the aforementioned problems, such as one nurse being responsible for a dozen patients.)
- If large numbers of high-ranking individuals from a given company begin to leave all within a very short time of one another, it's usually a sign that you should be looking for a new position, because they know that the company is in some kind of (usually financial) trouble.