- For your freedom and ours.—Joachim Lelewel, referring to Polish armies in exile.
Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
Note: For the rest of this article, please play this song on loop while reading.
Historically, the geography and politics of Eastern Europe resulted in ways of warfare much different than in the West. In the earliest era of Polish history, the core of the military force consisted of the ruler's personal retainers, aided by footman levies, but over the course of several centuries this model was replaced by more typical feudal military. For some time, the Polish military didn't differ by much from their Western counterparts, but as Poland's attention turned eastward, so did change the ways of waging war. Most notable among Polish military quirks is the peculiar brand of Hussars, which traded being light cavalry for wings strapped to the back. From the late medieval to The Partitions Polish army was composed predominantly of cavalry that was usually formed of nobles and their retainers (and thus resembling medieval army model which became obsolete in Europe somewhere around mid-17th century). The noble cavalry wasn't the only tool of a Commonwealth general — due to the diversity of fighting styles preferred by its enemies, there was a need for variety, and his host could include commoner infantry, all manner of Western-style mercenaries, and Tatar or Cossack auxiliaries, and little known as it is, Poland had its artillery developed very well. Still, the general model resulted in very well-trained but unruly and poorly organized forces.
The loss of independence in the late XVIII Century (between 1795 and 1918 Poland was divided between Russia, Prussia/Germany and Austria/Austro-Hungarian Empire) didn't exactly turn Poles into pacifists, either. This period saw the infatuation with Sinister Scythe in several uprisings, and Poles (and with them, once more, the Polish cavalry which shone on many battlefields of the time) were amongst the most loyal allies of Napoleon Bonaparte. Poles also served across the world as exiles; Casimir Pulaski and Tadeusz Kościuszko being two notable examples, serving in the Continental Army of the infant United States during The American Revolution. Pulaski is commemorated as "the father of American cavalry". Polish officers also served in the Austrian and Russian armies during the period of occupation.
After regaining independence in 1918, Polish Army faced the task to integrate organization, tactics and equipment from the three different armies. This proved quite a task, but after several years their army was well unified and organized, and it was more than capable of fighting the Soviet Union to a draw after invading it and being invaded by it in turn - the unit Stalin was attached to, as a commissar, was humiliated in a Curb-Stomp Battle outside Warsaw in 1921. Contrary to popular belief, Poland's pre-war army was actually fairly cutting-edge (making effective use of mechanised-cavalry units in a mobile defense). However, the country sorely lacked artillery and aeroplanes and more importantly had inadequate doctrine and high-level command experience of prosecuting a large-scale war (something common to many contemporary countries including Romania and Japan).
Interestingly, it was Poland's effective use of mechanised-cavalry forces for several successful counter-attacks upon German motorised units that served as the basis for Germany's "horses charging at tanks" propaganda. Given the German Army's near-total reliance on cavalry for their logistical apparatus this denigration of the horse in Nazi propaganda seems rather odd, but is understandable given the 'futurist'/'technocratic' aesthetic of the movement. German and Soviet forces went on to use horses in logistics and combat (particularly reconnaissance) capacities throughout the war, with German reliance upon them increasing over time due to losses.
The Polish military were "The First to Fight" in World War IInote , playing a major role in the Battle of Britain and having their own version of La Résistance (counting as much as a million people, several hundred thousands at once at its peak and maintained a whole functioning government, complete with postal and tax services, in form of the Polish Underground State, functioning in secrecy right under the noses of the occupying Germans). The Polish state maintained the overall largest partisan movement in history, in fact (Tito's Balkan resistance was larger in absolute numbers past ~1943, though it didn't have the state infrastructure as developed). They also gave a great deal of Intelligence support having some of the best field agents in Europe, and cryptographers who were Good with Numbers (they actually broke the merchant version of the Enigma code and thus greatly contributed to the joint effort of breaking the military one). It is worth noting that a large part of the Polish La Résistance consisted of soldiers and officers (many of them veterans of the First World War) who decided not to surrender and continued to fight as partisans. Polish troops that had successfully withdrawn from occupied territory were later formed into many units fighting along the Allies, usually British. Among the best known are the 1st Independent Parachute Brigade (Market-Garden), 303 Squadron (the highest-scoring squadron in the Battle of Britain), the Polish Independent Highland Brigade (Narvik Campaign), the Polish Independent Carpathian Brigade (Siege of Tobruk), the 1st Armored Division (Falaise pocket) and the Polish II Corps (Italian Campaign), which notably included a bear named Private Wojtek among their enlisted men (he didn't fight, but he did carry crates of artillery shells). During WWII Poland lost nearly 17% of its pre-war population during the war and subsequent occupations (the second-highest casualty rate of WWII), and held out against the simultaneous invasions of Russia and Germany longer than France would in 1940.
During the communism years, the Soviet way of doing things was imposed on Warsaw Pact member Poland. Since the end of communism, Poland is now moving to NATO standards. It has just abolished conscription and is moving towards a post-modern volunteer force.
Nowadays, the Polish military still uses a lot of Soviet-built equipment (like MiG-29 and Su-22 planes, Mi-24 helicopters, BWP-1 infantry fighting vehicles, 2S1 howitzers, Kilo class submarines and small arms) but is rapidly acquiring/already have American and Eastern Europe stuff (like F-16 fighters, Kobben class submarines, Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates, Leopard 2A4/5 tanks, C-130 Hercules/C-295 cargo planes, Spike ATGMs, AGM-154C JSOW cruise missiles), modernize its current equipment (for example PT-91 Twardy tanks and WR-40 Langusta MLRS which are upgrades of T-72 and BM-21) and have, builds and designs its own stuff (like W-3 Sokół and SW-4 Puszczyk helicopters, PZL-130 Orlik trainer planes, PL-01 Concept light tank, MSBS Grot assault rifle, light armored vehicles, trucks, artillery, firearms and many more).
In 2012, there were negotiations about building in Poland a part of the U.S. missile shield (Russia really did not like this idea) but it ultimately ended with a failure (Poland made quite a fuss over the Bush administration's idea of an anti-missile shield. The Polish reasoning was that American forces on Polish soil would ensure that the Americans would be more likely to move in case anybody threatens Poland (similar to how American forces stationed in South Korea would be forced to respond to a North Korean attack). Seeing what happened to Poland throughout the 20th century, it's at least understandable). However, due to the worsening situation on Ukraine and aggressive moves of Russian government, there is some small chance of resumption of talks about this topic. Also, current situation resulted in increased military budget, greater amount of exercisse with allied nations and developing plans in the event of attack on Poland or Baltic Republics.
Since its entry to NATO in 1999, the Polish Army participated and participate in numerous peacekeeping, humanitarian, police, training and observational missions in Europe, Africa and Asia (especially in Kosovo, Iraq, Chad and Afghanistan). Currently there are plans to send a small contingent of soldiers (with British and Americans) to train Ukrainian officers.
Current equipment of Polish Armed Forces consists:
- Land Forces:
- 65000 active personnel
- Over 158000 firearms (pistols, submachine guns, assault and sniper rifles, machine guns, including those mounted on vehicles), recoilless rifles and grenade launchers (plus much more stored)
- Over 5000 man-portable/vehicle mounted anti-tank and anti-aircraft missiles (Strzała-2, Grom/Piorun, Malyutka, Fagot, Metis, Spike)
- About 675 operational tanks (Leopard 2, PT-91 Twardy, T-72) plus about 300 in storage
- About 1425 infantry fighting vehicles and armoured personal carriers (BWP-1, KTO Rosomak, MT-LB)
- About 645 light armored vehicles (HMMWV, many versions of BRDM-2, AMZ Dzik, Scorpion-3)
- About 1200 artillery pieces - mortars (LM-60 Pluton, M-98, Wz. 38/43, 2B11), howizters (2S1 Godździk, Wz. 1977 Dana, Krab), MLRSs (BM-21 Grad, RM-70, WR-40 Langusta)
- About 660 stationary and mobile anti-air artillery and anti-aircraft missile launchers (ZU-23-2, ZSU-23-4 Szyłka/Biała, Hibernyt, PZA Loara, Popard, Kub, Osa, Wega, Newa)
- About 140 anti-tank vehicles
- About 171 armoured recovery vehicles (WZT-2, WZT-3M, WPT Mors, Bergepanzer 2)
- About 390 military engineering vehicles
- About 11000 trucks, all-terrain utility vehicles and ambulances
- About 500 command vehicles
- About 50 radiolocation stations
- 162 combat, multipurpose and transport helicopters (Mi-24, Mi-2, W-3 Sokół, Mi-8/17)
- 33 Unmaned Aerial Vehicles
- Air Force:
- 16400 active personnel
- 111 combat aircrafts (F-16, MiG-29, Su-22)
- 46 transport aircrafts (An-28, M28 Bryza, CASA C-295, C-130 Hercules)
- 83 trainer aircraft (TS-11 Iskra, PZL-130 Orlik, Diamond DA20)
- 127 transport, utility, rescue and trainer helicpoters (Mi-2, Mi-8/17, W-3 Sokół, SW-4 Puszczyk, Guimbal Cabri G2)
- 18000 active personnel
- 2 Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates
- 1 Kaszub class corvette
- 3 Orkan class fast attack missile craft
- 1 Kilo class and 4 Kobben class submarines
- 3 Projekt 206FM class, 12 Gardno class and 4 Mamry class minehunters/minesweepers
- 5 Lublin class transport ships/mine layers
- 2 Piast class and 2 Zbyszko class salvage ships
- 1 Kontradmiral Xawery Czernicki class , 1 Bałtyk class, 2 Heweliusz class, 1 Moma class, 2 Nawigator class auxiliary ships
- 2 Wodnik class, 3 Podchorązy class, 1 Iskra class training ships
- Over 40 other small ships and yachts
- 30 anti-submarine, tansport, utility and SAR helicopters (Kaman SH-2, Mi-2, Mi-14, Mi-17, W-3)
- 14 patrol and utility aricraft (M28B Bryza)
- Special Forces:
- About 2600 active personel divided into six unit (Agat, Formoza, Grom, Nil, Jednostka Wojskowa Komandosów, 7th Special Operations Squad) under Special Troops Command lead
Some minor facts:
- In case you're curious: Poles weren't exactly known for their use of poleaxes ("Poles with polearms" would be more appropriate title), but they had their share of them. They were used mostly by the commoner infantry, often Russian-style as support for their muskets.
- The "Charging Tanks on Horseback" thing has a true core; there actually was a little skirmish in which Polish Lancers charged German recon infantrymen before being dispersed by armoured cars (not tanks). Not only was this skirmish a "success" in a way (it achieved what it should - delaying the German advance), but also was the legend of tank-charging cavalry invented by Polish propagandists, of all people - to raise the own population's morale. Also, there were anti-tank cavalry units, usually used to ambush the armored vehicles in rough terrain, where horses provided better mobility (the cavalry men used anti-tank rifles while dismounted, of course).
- The winged hussars are commonly depicted with two huge wings on their backs, curving above their heads. In reality, the little actual evidence that survived all the wars suggests that they had a single straight wing, presumably mounted on the saddle. The common image most likely comes from the later times, when hussars were no longer used on the battlefield, and with the hamtastic culture of the time (and Nostalgia Filter), they devolved into a parade unit. Still, the leopard skins were a real thing, but surprisingly - they were typical for regular hussars; officers wore wolf pelts instead.
- The Cub Scout salute originates from the Polish one.
Poland's military in fiction:
- Whenever someone has to charge tanks on horseback.
- Andrzej Wajda's 1959 film Lotna helped to reinforce this image, even though the scene was meant to be symbolic.
- Winged hussars tend to appear in period pieces and similar stories, perhaps at least in part due to their general badassitude and eye-candyness.
- Polish airmen appear in Battle of Britain. Lots of them.
- UN peacekeeper with Polish distinctions is seen for a second or two in action flim Peacemaker.
- They appear in A Bridge Too Far aiding the main protagonists. Watch to witness Gene Hackman speaking Polish. Hackman plays General Sosabowski, the commander of a Polish paratroop brigade, who is depicted as the Only Sane Man in Allied staff.
- His whole text in Polish is "Ciągnij sznur!" - "Pull the rope". Very, very badly accented and pronounced, to the point where it's a running gag in Poland.
- And they get a whole campaign in Call of Duty 3.
- The hero of The Polish Officer by Alan Furst was a Polish military cartographer turned spy.
- The Polish lancers of Napoleon's Imperial Guard can be seen in Sergey Bondarchuk's movie Waterloo out of all proportion to their actual numbers and importance in the 1815 campaign (the countercharge against the British dragoons charge that broke the Scots Greys was actually done by French line lancers). Still, they were a badass elite unit, especially famous for their death-or-glory charge at Somosierra in 1808.
- A new war with Sweden (Gustavus Adolphus tried to invade Poland once before, in the 1620's) features them heavily in the 1635 volumes of the 1632 series. Notably the Polish army is the only major military power in the series able to effectively fight off the Swedish king and his American allies (albeit aided by the weather).
- Leo Frankowski's Cross-Time Engineer saga features a Polish Air Force officer from 1990 transported back through time to the 13th Century, where he decides that it's time for backwards Poland to conquer the world.
- Introduction to Gear Krieg game features Polish cavalry fighting invading Germans in September 1939 while playing with charging tanks with lances fallacy.
- The LWP (Polish People Army) is a playable Warsaw Pact country in both Wargame: European Escalation and Air Land Battle expansion.
- The Polish are one of the factions in Mount & Blade's expansion Of Fire and Sword, with the winged hussars themselves being the best heavy cavalry in the entire game. We're talking about guys who can get shot in the face with a flintlock musket without stopping their charge.
- Sabaton have become rather popular in Poland after producing a few songs about their armed forces:
- 40:1, which is about the heroic resistance put up by the Polish forces in Battle of Wizna against the German invasion in 1939.
- Aces In Exile, which specifically mentions the 303rd Squadron, a Polish squadron that fought in the Battle of Britain.
- Uprising, which is about the Warsaw Uprising.
- Winged Hussars about the releif besieged Vienna in 1683 by the largest cavaly charge in history.
- The Kislevite Winged Lancers of the Warhammer world are a fantasy counterpart to the Polish Winged Husars of the later Middle Ages, complete with the feathered wings on their saddles.
- Poland is a playable faction in the PC expansion Civilization V Brave New World with Winged Hussar as the special unit is the and Casimir III the Great as a leader.
- Medal of Honor: Warfighter has the GROM make an appearance.
- Although there is no Polish campaign available in Panzer Commander tank sim, one of the single missions for the British forces features the 1st Polish Armoured Division fighting against German defenders of Calaise. Sadly, the player's tanks have no Polish markings and their crew speak English without clear Polish accent. Additionally, while playing the German campaign the player will face Polish tanks and bunkers in some early missions taking place during the invasion of Poland.
- The protagonist of Ernst von Salomon's semi-autobiographical novel The Outlaws (1930) fights against Polish insurgents in Upper Silesia during the uprising in early 1920s. Notably, it is one of rare examples in fiction where Polish military plays the role of villains.
- Battle of Britain: 303 Squadron is a 2D flying shooter released by Channel4 centered around the titular Polish fighter squadron. The game is available online here.
- Second book of the Axis of Time trilogy features squadron 303 and real life badass and fighter ace Jan Zumbach, defending HMS Trident during the operation Sea Dragon a.k.a. Nazi Germany invasion of Britain.
- They briefly appear as IFOR in the movie The Peacemaker.
- They can be selected in Call of Duty: WWII via uniform selection in multiplayer.
- Year Two of Rainbow Six Siege has two GROM operatives added to the roster, Zofia and Ela.