It seems that in fiction split personalities can talk to each other, manifesting as Hearing Voices. Never mind that only one of them is "awake" at one time, the other(s) being separated until they think they need to come "forward". Never mind that they are completely different people, with different opinions, experiences, and beliefs caused by each only seeing one part of the picture.
A character with split personality also seems to be split between good and evil, like an Evil Twin, even though split personalities are often many "people" — such as the protector, snob, scared one, bitter one, etc.
Not to be confused with Talking to Himself or Thinking Out Loud. Compare Holding Both Sides of the Conversation, where one person is pretending to be two different people (at the same time, in conversation) in order to maintain some charade.
Truth in Television for some people with Multiple Personalities; the degree to which different personalities are aware of each other varies with the individual. In fact, for those who aren't aware of each other, this is often a therapy goal because they can finally negotiate and share information.
Very important: do not confuse Thinking Out Loud with this. Thinking Out Loud is not a symptom of mental illness in most cases (and is actually a recommended coping mechanism for ADD/ADHD, some learning disabilities, those recovering from a stimulant drug addiction, or similar persons with attention or concentration deficit issues), and is instead a way of maintaining focus or processing information on a task.
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Anime and Manga
Agito, Akito and Lind of Air Gear all inhabit the same body and talk to each other occasionally.
The song "Morning Dreamer" from Angel Beats! is about Yui (the one singing the song) not wanting to get up in the morning, but having to, and asking someone to heat the bath, buy a new guitar string to replace a broken one, etc. The song ends with Yui saying "Anyway, who have I been talking to when I live alone?"
In Birdy the Mighty, Birdy and Tsutomu often talk to each other, and characters around them tend to think that they've gone crazy and are talking to themselves, but entirely retain their own personalities. In the manga this is even taken so far as Tsutomu not understanding Birdy's superior's speaking, while Birdy herself can.
In Bleach, Ichigo's inner Hollow seemed to enjoy tormenting him by popping up at the worst possible time and demanding to take over and "finish the fight". Thankfully, Ichigo reined him in.
Change 123: Motoko has three other personalities that are master martial artists. When they emerge, they are fully aware of the two others, but Motoko herself is unable to communicate with them. This frequently causes problems when she 'wakes up' and has no idea of her current situation.
Viro in Elemental Gelade is a spy with the bad fortune to fall for her target. Even worse, he's already an Official Couple with Ren. Just when things look like they can't get any worse, she gets the order to kill him. Faced with killing her new friends or a lifetime of unrequited love as a Sting Raid, she gets into an argument with hallucinations of herself as a Sting Raid (complete with a hot outfit) and as a human.
In Gundam 00 Allelujah's personalities talk and yell at each other during times of stress. The more violent one has a tendency to torment the calmer personality if he can't seize control or thinks it would be funner to watch the calmer one squirm. It is implied that the violent personality was somehow artificially implanted.
Subverted in Kara no Kyoukai: a key part of the plot revolves around Shiki's split personality (and the consequences of its death), but Tohko correctly notes that what she has cannot be called split personalities, as they're far too independent and separate from each other (see quote).
Shiki: "There's nothing funny about having a dual personality." Tohko: "No, no. You know, you two don't have anything as pleasing to look at as dissociative identity disorder. Existing simultaneously, each having their own unique will, and on top of that your actions are coordinated. That sort of complex personality shouldn't be called a 'dissociated identity,' but rather a 'united independent personality.'"
In Keroro Gunsou, Momoka and "the Other Momoka" do this sometimes. We later learn her mother Ouka has a similar situation.
Naruto and his shadow clones talk to one another as if they actually have the same personality but different identities. It's never clearly explained exactly what a shadow clone is, other than the solid version of a clone technique note Supposedly, they are chakra constructs meant to imitate their creator in a way shadows imitate our movement..
In One Piece, during the Thriller Bark arc, Usopp has a conversation with his alter ego Sogeking.
Yaya gets this with Nana in Othello after she is aware of her split personality.
A woman in Paranoia Agent receives messages on her answering machine from her other personality. Later, as her grasp on reality becomes weaker, she gets actual phone calls, and hallucinates a physical fight.
In Princess Tutu, after Mytho's heart is poisoned by the Raven's blood, he often asks "what the other him inside of him wants," and protests its actions.
Ren and Run from To Love-Ru: occasionally one of them will demand that the other "Turn into me!" so the one making the demand can put moves on the object of his or her affection. This demand is typically refused with the words "Go back to sleep!"
Everyone with a Yami side in Yu-Gi-Oh! and GX: Yugi and Atem, Malik and Yami Malik, Fubuki and Darkness, Saiou and the Light of Ruin... Of course, in most cases these are actually separate characters, who inhabit the bodies of the regular ones.
Sensui from Yu Yu Hakusho has arguments with himself on who gets to fight Urameshi.
Also, the Ventriloquist and Scarface. The Ventriloquist firmly believes that the puppet Mr. Scarface is alive, but he's the one controlling and voicing him the entire time. This actually makes the character very tragic, as the Ventriloquist himself is a mild-mannered and reasonably nice person bound into an abusive relationship with himself.
Or Scarface might actually BE alive and a vessel of the evils over 300 hanged men committed. Or something. It varies. though with the original Ventriloquist now dead and a female replacement having shown up, it's somewhat more credible, although she's visibly as crazy as the original. Scarface's explanation is simply that he was looking for a more comfortable place to sit.
Bruce Banner and his many personalities have done this, but generally only the ones not "active" at the time. At one point it was lampshaded that it was just a metaphor for his inner struggle and he was just imagining it.
The Badger, protagonist of Mike Baron's super-hero spoof of the same name, had several extra personalities that would sometimes communicate with each other.
Deadpool does that in a way that Breaks The Fourth Wall: he has entire discussions with his own thought boxes. Of which he has two distinct sets: the first set was originally the standard yellow narration boxes often seen in comics, except that he interacts with them. Some time in the 2000's, a second set appeared, white boxes written in Courier, as though it was being written on a typewriter. Thus far, the two voices haven't developed seperate personalities, and bear a suspicious resemblence to Crow and Tom Servo. This being Deadpool, he is aware that the reader can see them.
Luminosity's Elspeth has this as a manifestation of her witch power. And can make more if need be.
Smeagol: We knows safe paths for Hobbitses. Safe paths in the dark. Gollum: Shut up! Bilbo: I didn't say anything. Gollum: I wasn't talking to you.
In Mr. Brooks, the main character Earl Brooks is a serial killer who habitually converses with his "Mr. Hyde"-style alter ego Marshal. They argue over the merits of committing suicide, and even laugh at each other's jokes. They appear to have a healthier personal relationship than some brothers, rather than as adversaries.
Melinda Sordino in Speak. This only occurs in one scene and it's not so much between multiple personalities as between herself and her conscience.
No dialogue, but in Pixar's short filmGeri's Game, an old man plays chess with himself. He plays white as a cautious, easily-intimidated but victorious through cheating player and black as a gleefully aggressive one. He doesn't seem to be mentally ill, just fooling around by staying in-character very well ... so much so that, when the white player fakes a heart attack, the black player believes it.
The different personalities of the Ripper in My Soul to Take appear to be able to do this.
In Lois McMaster Bujold's Mirror Dance, when Mark develops split personalities, they not only talk but actively choose which personality will be in control at a given time.
In the Doctor WhoExpanded Universe novels, the different incarnations of the Doctor have been known to pop up and argue with each other.
Edgar of Edgar & Ellen doesn't have a split personality, but he starts doing this in Split Ends to keep himself company.
In Beyond the Barrier by Damon Knighta creature that has spent many years hiding inside, and as, a human can no longer shake that side of himself. He is challenged to do what the human would do and not what he wants to do
In Michael Flynn's Up Jim River, Donovan. His multiple personalities were induced deliberately, but the manner was bungled — also, perhaps, deliberately.
Ransom briefly develops this in Out of the Silent Planet, with his body seeing his rational mind as a second person who helps him find a place to sleep.
In Galaxy of Fear Tash speaks to a ghost who is Invisible to Normals - no one else can see, hear, or otherwise perceive him. Since she tries to get his help while being threatened by the Big Bad, said Big Bad assumes she's doing this and says it won't save her.
In the final episodes of season 5 of Buffy the Vampire Slayer the arguments between Glory and Ben, though in this case they are distinct characters with different actors who just happen to be sharing a body.
Alpha from Dollhouse regularly engages in arguments between the various imprinted personalities within his mind.
More justified than most, because he's not a normal case, but rather somebody with multiple artificial personalities. As such all of them are constantly "on." Also, he actually does have a few personalities with schizophrenia or multiple personality disorder, but it doesn't seem that the personalities with actual mental disorders can talk to themselves.
And also in Kamen Rider Double, where the titular hero is made by having the consciousness of one person join with the body of another; this is represented by having Double's eyes flash on the side representing the person who's talking.
In an episode of Lie to Me, a girl with multiple personalities is able to share information, between one personality that witnessed a murder, and another that is capable of communicating with the team.
Jekyll: After being drugged, Jackman is more than a little surprised when Hyde is able to contact him.
Rutland Weekend Television had the fictional talk show 'Schizophrenia', in which the host regularly talked to himself regarding if it was his turn to present the guest or the other personality's turn.
Michelle did this in the final episode of Full House after she lost her memory and she ended up to talking to her inner self.
Criminal Minds. The season 2 episodes "The Big Game" and "Revelations" dealt with a man named Tobias Hankel (James Van Der Beek) who was abused by his psychotic father after his mother left for another man, telling him that everything he did was a sin and abused him by claiming he's doing "God's work". He ended up killing his father but he remained as a split personality of his, and when he murdered people he called himself "Raphael" which is one of the archangels. Sometimes he would argue with himself as his father and switch between the three personalities at random: as himself he was friendly and helpful, as Charles his father he was abusive and gave lectures, and as Raphael he would murder someone or force his hostages to choose which victims would live or die.
The Andromeda Ascendant and her avatar Rommie occasionally talk to each other. As do her holographic and monitor selfs.
Hunt: "You know, talking to yourself is the first sign of insanity."
Andromeda/Rommie (simultaneously): "Only for wetware."
A third-season episode of Babylon 5 has Doctor Franklin get stabbed while stopping someone from being killed in Down Below, and being left for dead. As he calls for help, he is answered... by a hallucination of himself, in all his Doctor Jerk glory. What ensues is a withering "The Reason You Suck" Speech, with Hallucination!Franklin telling Bleeding!Franklin that he is a failure, that he always runs away from his problems rather than face them, that if he had another chance, that he'd screw it all up anyways. This turns into a Rousing Speech after Franklin refuses to give up, even if it does mean failing more, as his hallucination drives him to drag himself, bleeding, to a populated part of the station to seek help.
The Tok'ra of Stargate SG-1 can do this, since they are a variation on Puppeteer Parasite that forms a symbiotic relationship with their host instead of controlling it. "Seth" features an instance of Jacob Carter's symbiote Selmak telling Samantha Carter that Jacob has some unfinished business with his son Mark (Sam's brother), and that Mark not visiting Jacob while he was dying hurt him greatly. Jacob contradicts Selmak almost immediately.
In Season 7, episode 13 of Doctor Who the Doctor seemingly talks to himself when the Cybermen attempt to take over his mind. He even plays a game of chess with himself while in this state.
In Survival of the Fittest, Kaleigh Jones, Nessy Guthrie, and arguably Cillian Crowe go through this. Oddly, Kaleigh seemed to be able to decide which of her personalities was in control at any given time.
Overtones by Alice Gerstenberg.
The musical Jekyll & Hyde has "Jekyll" and "Hyde" do this. And, of course, they're both played by the same actor, who has to go through quite a bit of effort to make it feel like a dialogue between two different people.
Medea debates with herself out loud about whether or not to murder her children. She doesn't actually have multiple personalities but the scene bears striking similarities to many of these.
Fred/Napoleon Bonaparte from Psychonauts, the latter being more a manifestation of Fred's crippling insecurities and low self-esteem. Fred's completely aware that Napoleon is a figment of his imagination; he just can't make him go away. And he should know all about insanity, he used to be the orderly.
At one of the main climaxes in Santa Monica you can find her as half Therese and half Jeanette. With a gun to "their" head. You have to talk them down so they can coexist (which is extremely difficult this early in the game) or influence the "death" of one of them, only leaving the other.
Pat (Tsukasa) in Mega Man Star Force has split personality disorder, and his hateful emotions manifest as a dark alter ego called Rey (Hikaru). When merged with Gemini, Pat and Rey become Gemini Spark White and Gemini Spark Black, respectively. (In the second game, he's able to wave change even though he's banished Rey from inside of him.)
Charon, a Ghoul companion the player can recruit in Fallout 3, is not canonically stated to have multiple personalities, but his back story is traumatic enough to allow for it and he does talk to himself as if more than one person is involved. He can be heard to say, "Over here!" and "Keep firing!" to himself when in conflict with enemies, and when sneaking or waiting for the player, he mutters indecipherably.
The main character in Deadly Premonition, Francis York Morgan, is continuously talking to the invisible "Zach", who appears to be an alternate personality and who may or may not be the player as well.
Best Friend Tabitha in Fallout New Vegas. It's heavily implied that this is the case on her radio show, where she claims to be doing an interview with "Rhonda", only to say mournfully to herself later, "I still miss you, Rhonda, after all these years." Raul also refers to Rhonda as "Tabitha" briefly before hastily correcting himself.
In Umineko: When They Cry this turns out to be the case with Shannon, Kanon and Beatrice, who are all personas of Yasu, and whose discussions symbolize the conflicts that exist in Yasu's heart. This is done so seamlessly that you most likely won't notice it until much later in the story, and when you reread the series with this trope in mind every conversation between them changes completely.
Eva also does this with her imagined younger self, who later becomes EVA-Beatrice.
Web Comics / Web Originals
First off, there's been one occasion in Ansem Retort where Aerith's split personalities have addressed each other. And then there's the time Axel and Zexion hijack a plane and try to negotiate with the governor...Zexion.
The Whateley Universe has Jade. Justified in the fact that Jade's main power is in splitting off telekinetic manifestations of her soul/spirit - which makes it a lot easier for her to do that than it would for most people. Also either justified or subverted in that each manifestation does have the same memories and experiences as Jade when they first split off from her - it's only time that changes this. Too long away from each other tends to lead to Jade passing out when they reunite, due to Sensory Overload while her brain assimilates the memories.
In the Season 3 finale of The Guild, Cyd has a conversation with her avatar Codex in her imagination. Later in the episode, it's strongly implied that she's developing a genuine Split Personality.
Further Hilarity Ensues in later episodes, when his schizo conversations grow to include more characters: a doll and cardboard stand-up of Robert Pattinson.
Cerene of Suppression does this in just about every scene where there's more than one of her. Probably doesn't help that she's naturally kind of a chatterbox and tends to argue with and snark at herself. This trope is especially prominent when she uses Mind Prism: Red Cerene and Grey Cerene tend to butt heads, and nobody seems to like Blue Cerene.
John and Poor Trotmann of The Word Weary have entire issues devoted to their one-man conversations, even going so far as to refer to themselves in the second person.
Each page (except for discussion and Troper Tales) on this site is supposed to look like it was written by the same person and therefore, tropers are not supposed to refer to themselves individually (by saying "I" or "This troper") or have arguments on trope pages. However, some tropers do this anyway and the page ends up looking like it was written by someone with a Split Personality who is Talking to Themself.
Dragon Ball Abridged has Piccolo do this after fusing with Nail, who remains a voice in Piccolo's head. Nail claims he'll fade away into Piccolo's subconscious eventually, but he shows no signs of this.
Jix and Remula and Lamerix and the Ambis do this a lot.
Technically occurs in Red vs. Blue when Church talks to Delta, Omega, Gamma, or any other of the Freelancer AIs, as Church is actually the remains of the Alpha AI from which the other AIs were split. However, it's only at the very end of season 6 that he knowingly does this immediately before almost all of the AIs are destroyed in an EMP.
In Life, Felicia/Natalie converse with each other on several occasions.
South Park features Mr. Garrison engaged in constant dialogue with his puppet, Mr. Hat. Made even stranger by the fact that Mr. Hat would sometimes do things without Garrison's knowledge. Weirdly, Garrison understands that Mr. Twig is inanimate and only pretends to talk to him, while he sees Mr. Hat as a sentient being.
Norman Osborn/the Green Goblin from Spider-Man did it on occasion; the first movie contains such a scene, made all the more memorable by Willem Dafoe's excellent performance.
Spider-Man: The Animated Series featured it too, complete with use of mirrors. This version of Osborn is the closest the guy has ever come to being a decent man and parent, but his Goblin persona was as demented as usual.
Blitzwing of Transformers Animated is an odd case that isn't a good/evil split, but rather calm/angry/manic. All three are evil, but they tend to argue over the correct course of action. Oddly, this doesn't make him any less effective.
Blitzwing's arguments with himself are actually reasonably rare, as his personalities usually have the same objective. Clashes between his Icy and Hothead personas are usually solved by Random.
Though fans often like to make use of this fact: here
There's also the five-faced Alpha Q in Transformers Energon. Years of isolation inside Unicron drove him into insanity just to have someone to talk to. He does seem to have one core, real personality with a childlike voice. It isn't represented by a face but only manifests itself when he's got his jaws shut.
Coldstone in Gargoyles has three souls, which not only converse, but fight for dominance.
In the second season of Young Justice, this is how Blue Beetle's arguments with his sentient armor plays out, causing his teammates to think of him as a little bit... "special".
Man to The Shrink: "Doctor, you've got to help me! I talk to myself!"
Shrink: "That's not that bad. Sometimes, even I do that."
Man: "Yes, doctor - but I'm such a bore!"
In When Rabbit Howls, more or less an autobiography of Truddi Chase, who has multiple personality disorder, the author's various personalities have internal conversations with each other.
In cases of Dissociative Identity Disorder (That thing Hollywood calls Multiple-Personality) patients tend to claim some variation of this. The verdict is still out, in the psychological community, as to whether this is truly happening or just some other issue.
Some writers describe having their characters talk to them and/or each other inside their heads.