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This entry is trivia, which is cool and all, but not a trope. On a work, it goes on the Trivia tab.
Author Existence Failure
"Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales was expected to clock in at anywhere between 100 and 120 chapters. Unfortunately, the dude only managed to finish 24 tales before he suffered an insurmountable and permanent state of writer's block commonly known as death."
A Fandom's worst nightmare.
Sometimes editors go bankrupt, and sometimes authors die. Even more worrisome is when they do so before completing a series, leaving it orphaned. If readers are lucky, the author had enough warning or foresight to keep notes on his plans for the rest of the series or at least fill someone else in on the most relevant plot points, so that their work can be continued by someone else. This may result in the series Jumping the Shark if the replacement isn't very good, but at least you have closure. Worse would be if the series just isn't popular enough to justify going through the effort to find a new author, leaving fans to wonder What Could Have Been.
This can also happen with individuals who play a major role in creating a group work; for instance, actors or directors. In any case, it gets to be pretty sad that so many people lose their jobs because of one person's death, but if the work was good enough it's likely that those who worked on it won't have too much trouble finding another job.
If the author is still alive but decides to quit, they're preventing a Franchise Zombie.
Please note that this trope applies when a creator (writer, director, etc.) ceases work on a project, not a participant (actor, well... mostly actors) unless they had significant input.
This might result in The Character Died with Him, where the show goes on without the character a dead actor portrayed, or Fake Shemp, where there is an attempt to disguise the absent actor.
Not to be confused with the criticism trope known as "Death of the Author". Or Apocalyptic Log. Or Creator Killer, where the author merely falls from grace and loses their reputation.
See also Fatal Method Acting, where this happens during part of the production.
Happened the same with the other great mangaka legend, Shotaro Ishinomori, who left his most famous manga Cyborg 009 unfinished, taking a long hiatus and promising to creating an end for it exactly in the year 2000... But he died early in 1998. Fortunately, Shogakukan publisher announced recently a final arc for giving the story a proper conclusion based on Ishinomori's original concept notes, sketches, and a novel draft, and illustrated by Masato Hayase
Noboru Yamaguchi spent the rest of his life working to avert this trope by attempting to finish Zero's Familiar as fast as possible while also undergoing treatment for cancer. Though he sadly passed away on April 4, 2013 (which was a cruel twist of fate due to the fact he was about to conclude the novel series), he did manage to subvert it by helping to conclude the anime series.
Ken Ishikawa, the creator of Getter Robo. Though he did leave some notes behind, they were apparently only for Getter Robo Hien - a prequel. The cliffhanger ending of Getter Robo Āḥ, the latest series chronologically, has yet to be resolved.
The director of The 08th MS Team, Takeyuki Kanda, died while the OVA was still being produced. One effect of that was that it took over three years to finish it, making it the longest-running single Gundam production until Gundam Unicorn, except the long running period for that has been planned from the start.
And then, a decade and a half later, the guy who took over for him died while working on another series, Towa No Quon.
Trinity Blood's author Sunao Yoshida died in 2004 and the story was finished some while later by other writers. However, the manga is still ongoing. Yoshida was also the original story creator for Neppu Kairiku Bushi Road, which didn't get picked up until 2013, a whole decade after it was first announced.
Kaoru Tada's manga, Itazura Na Kiss was left incomplete when she passed away after a tragic accident. Luckily, she had the ending semi-planned out, and it was used for the anime.
Perhaps not a total Existence Failure, but what happened to mangaka Kyoko Okazaki certainly comes close: in 1996, she was hit by a drunk driver before completing the last few chapters of her Body Horror-esque cosmetic surgery drama Helter Skelter. The resulting accident left her quadriplegic and mute. The manga was finished in 2004, by her former assistant Moyoco Anno (yup, the wife of Hideaki Anno), working from Okazaki's storyboards and with her consultation, albeit on a Cliffhanger. Poor Mrs. Okazaki's rehabilitation continues to this day.
Takahiro Yamato of Kaze no Stigma died in 2009 before his work was finished.
Yoshito Usui of Shin-chan. Tragically killed in a hiking accident in September 2009. The anime (which mostly uses original stories not found in the manga anyway) was put on hiatus for a few weeks after his death, but it was later announced it would continue. Now the word has come that (in another parallel with newspaper comics) the manga will also continue with a new author.
Keiko Tobe, the mangaka of With The Light, died of an unspecified illness in late January 2010, leaving the manga unfinished.
Satoshi Kon suddenly died while making a film called The Dream Machine, which he described as aimed at a younger audience but accessible for his older fans, with a cast made entirely of robots. Kon learned that he had a late-stage pancreatic cancer in April 2010, but initially didn't tell anyone because he didn't want to disturb them — cancers are still something of a taboo in Japan. He later regretted this decision and verbosely apologized to everyone in his farewell note (he ended it with an apology for "leaving while everyone else was still working") after his producer Masao Maruyama promised to him to finish the movie. Sadly, the film is now stuck in Development Hell.
MM!'s author Akinari Matsuo passed away without warning on April 18, 2011. The phrasing of the letter, which does not mention accident nor illness, suggests suicide.
Yasuo Yamada, most recognizable as the voice of Lupin III, died of a brain hemorrhage in 1995, a month before the release of Farewell to Nostradamus, the movie that would mark the series' return to the big screen in ten years. Fortunately, his will stated that, if he were to pass away, the baton should be passed to Kanichi Kurita (a popular comedian and impersonator), who voices Lupin from that movie onwards. In honor of Yamada, a message was placed at the end of the film's credits: "To Yasuo Yamada, Eternal Lupin the Third: Thank you!".
Barefoot Gen was discontinued in 2009 due to author Keiji Nakazawa's developing cateracts and vision problems, and he died of cancer just three years later.
Despera went to Development Hell due to the director Ryutaro Nakamura's health issues. But when he died on June 2013, it remains unknown on how will the project continue.
Although Tintin and the Picaros is a decent ending to the series (there's nothing "final" about it, but it doesn't leave the reader on a cliffhanger), Hergé planned to have one more final story. He was still working on a very rough draft of Tintin and Alph-Art when he died. Unfortunately, he never told anyone exactly how he planned to end it, and the incomplete story ended on a colossal Cliff Hanger.
Fellow comic book author Edgar P. Jacobs died while working on the second part of "Professor Sató's Three Formulae", the last volume of his Blake and Mortimer series. Unlike Hergé, however, he had left plenty of notes and a complete outline of the story, which made it possible for another artist to complete the story... 13 years later. That's a cliffhanger for you. Because he suspected he wouldn't finish "Three Formulae", Jacobs left the copyright of the series relatively open so it would eventually have an ending. Which worked, but also led to new Blake and Mortimer adventures made by two different writer/artist teams. One team actively tries toignore established canon. The other team was very good... but one of its members died while working on the new volume "Curse of the Thirty Pieces of Silver", leading to new Author Existence Failure. The volume was eventually finished by another artist.
Steve Gerber died of complications from pulmonary fibrosis, after plotting the penultimate issue of his Doctor Fate story in the Countdown to Mystery miniseries in his hospital bed. The final issue features four hypothetical endings, written by some of Gerber's friends in the industry.
Drew Hayes, the author of Poison Elves, had been planning to create new issues of the comic after having had to stop working on it due to his poor health. He died of a heart attack in 2007 before he had a chance to create more than a few sketches for the new stories.
Archie Goodwin and Walter Simonson had plans for one final Manhunter story. When Goodwin died before completing the dialogue, Simonson looked at the script and decided it could be done as a "silent story" as a tribute to Archie. The story is included in the Manhunter collected edition.
Rene Goscinny died of a sudden heart attack while working on Astérix In Belgium. It took a great deal of soul-searching by Albert Uderzo over whether or not to complete it. Uderzo did, and then as a tribute to Goscinny continued their work alone. At a certain point in Astérix in Belgium it begins to rain and does not stop for the remainder of the story. The rain was added by Uderzo to mark the point in the work where Goscinny left off when he died.
Mike Wierningo died working on an issue of What If? featuring the Fantastic Four, having only drawn seven pages. It was finished by a group of different artists doing a couple of pages each and published a year later, with the proceeds going to charity. Additionally, before he died, he was in the planning stages of a collaboration with Warren Ellis. Ellis refuses to reveal any hints as to what the project was even about.
Edward Gorey's death left his last work, "The Izzard Book" (a collection of words beginning with Z, with pictures), poignantly unfinished: The illustrations become increasingly (and randomly) rough and sketchy until there's nothing left.
Charles M. Schulz at least had the sense to declare that even if he'd lived forever, some things in Peanuts would NEVER be concluded. There was, thus, no carefully hidden strip in which Charlie Brown gets the little red-haired girl, or in which Snoopy finished off the Red Baron. Nonetheless, he still only barely avoided this. He died the night before his final strip (written months prior) was released.
Within the same issue of a Rogue Squadron comic, there is a sudden Art Shift. The reason for the abrupt shift into a fairly unpleasant style is because the artist, Edvin Biukovic, had to quit due to health problems, which he later died from.
Cerebus the Aardvark: Although Dave Sim did not die while making Cerebus, he had "planned ahead" (using this term very loosely) in case this happened. He had mentioned in interviews that, if he DID die before completing the series, the series would continue all the way to issue 300, but all subsequent issues would only have the background art (by Sim's colleague Gerhard). There would be no characters nor text/narrative of any kind.
Marshall Rodgers died in the middle of Cap'n Quick and a Foozle. The Captain's last known words: "Oh yeah. I forgot to tell you about this part."
Willy Vandersteen left very specific instructions behind for the continuation of his Suske en Wiske franchise after his death. No character could ever age, or change, no main character may ever be dropped or added, and sex is a taboo, and a number of situations may never be altered (Lambik and Sidonia may never wed). Vandersteen died in 1990, but gave up artistic control of the Suske en Wiske franchise in 1972, to this day his wishes remain the guiding principles of the comic.
Jack Kirby started a project called Phantom Force shortly before he died. Image Comics published the first two issues, with many of their top artists (Todd McFarlane, Erik Larsen, Jim Lee, Jerry Ordway, Jim Valentino and Keith Giffen, among others) inking Kirby's pages. The story arc was finished by Kirby collaborator Greg Theakston.
Dudley Watkins died at his drawing board in 1969. As a result, several notable strips from DC Thomson's weekly anthology comics needed new artists immediately. An incomplete Biffo the Bear strip was completed by David Sutherland, who took over as its artist from then on. Desperate Dan became a reprint, so hard was it to find a suitable replacement (Ken Harrison eventually took over in 1983). The Beezer's cover star Ginger and The Topper's cover star Mickey the Monkey both also had to be taken on by other artists. Biffo and Mickey were removed from the covers a few years later.
Narrowly averted by French comic writer/artist Fred. After a 27 years hiatus, he published his coda to Philemon before dying two months later.
Cody Scheetz, a prominent writer on the Deadfrontier forums, died in a gun accident halfway through writing the second novel of the Biohazard Nation series. In addition to the story never being resolved, plans to pitch the series for dead tree publication were abandoned since he'd expressed wishes not to publish until he'd had the chance to revamp his earlier writing.
A noted AU, Parlor Tricks, in the Avatar: The Last Airbender fandom, is a retelling of Aang's storyline in a 1920s 'verse. It was cut short just around the time the Earth King equivalent was introduced. The author, Lyralocke, died somewhat unexpectedly of heart problems.
George Clooney has said there cannot and will not be another Ocean's movie without Bernie Mac.
Akira Kurosawa died just before the shooting of After The Rain was scheduled to begin, so the movie was directed by his assistant Takashi Koizumi. The Sea Is Watching, another screenplay Kurosawa had written and intended to direct, was also filmed by another director in 2002.
Star Wars: Because George Lucas hated the process of script-writing he went through on A New Hope, he hired noted pulp science fiction author and Golden Age Hollywood film scriptwriter Leigh Brackett to write the script for The Empire Strikes Back, based on ideas they came up with together in story meetings beforehand. She produced a first draft script, but Lucas wasn't completely satisfied with it. Sadly, though, Brackett died of cancer before she could revise her draft. Lucas was forced to write the next few drafts of the Empire story himself, after which Lawrence Kasdan came on board to polish the dialogue. (Incidentally, the passing of Brackett and Lucas's subsequent return to the drawing board was what led to the famousLuke, I Am Your Father revelation: in Brackett's draft Vader was not Luke's father, while Anakin was a Force ghost and best pals with Obi-Wan.)
A unique example would be actor Peter Sellers. In 1980, he was co-writing a script for The Pink Panther series for the first time, Romance of the Pink Panther, that he intended as a Grand Finale for his Inspector Clouseau character. He submitted a revised draft of it to United Artists shortly before his death in 1980. It ultimately was never produced. Blake Edwards, the director and co-writer of most of the previous entries, decided to continue the series his own way (he was quite specifically not to have anything to do with Romance), writing out Clouseau and introducing Replacement Scrappy character Clifton Sleigh over two films shot at the same time, Trail of... (which featured clips of Sellers from the previous films) and Curse of.... Theresultsweredisastrous.
Previously, Kubrick died just five days after showing Eyes Wide Shut to Warner Bros. . Of course the film was completed, and its release would take place four months later, but who knows if the notorious Control Freak wouldn't tamper it a bit more.
Kinji Fukasaku refused treatment in order to film Battle Royale 2, but died after directing only one scene. His son Kenta finished it.
Simultaneously lampshaded and subverted in Bob Fosse's All That Jazz; a fictionalized account of Fosse's own life story, including a serious heart-attack which occurred during one of the most stressful periods of his career — while producing both the film Lenny and the Chicago stage musical simultaneously. A heart attack that he survived; but which his expy didn't. The question of whether the "play within the film" would ever be completed is left hanging; although previous scenes strongly hinted that it would be simply scrapped.
"You could be the first show on Broadway to make a profit without really opening."
The Polish film Passenger (Pasazerka) suffered AEF when director Andrzej Munk died suddenly in a road accident. The film is a series of flashbacks. When Munk died, many of the scenes taking place in the present day were unshot. His assistant decided to use still images for these scenes.
The script for a third Addams Family film (which would've served as an actual sequel to Addams Family Values) was being prepared when lead actor Raul Julia (Gomez) died suddenly that October of a stroke (after having been ill of stomach cancer for a while), at which point the idea of a third film in the series was scrapped.
Jill Clayburgh died six months before Bridesmaids opened so the planned sequel that is in the works will most likely write out Annie's mother (who played a major supporting role in the first film).
The future of Quentin Tarantino's traditional "Hi, Sally!" behind-the-scenes gag is in doubt after the death of its namesake, editor and longtime Tarantino collaborator Sally Menke, in 2010.
Dark Blood was left, by the estimation of director George Sluizer, "80 percent finished" when star River Phoenix died of a drug overdose in 1993. It finally premiered at the Netherlands Film Festival 19 years later with the narrative gaps filled in by a voiceover.
The original director of Blue Skies, Mark Sandrich, died of a heart attack nine days into filming, and was replaced with Stuart Heisler. Oddly enough, Fred Astaire, the star of six previous movies directed by Sandrich, was not cast in Blue Skies until after Sandrich's death.
Philip Seymour Hoffman's death from a heroin overdose in February 2014 at the age of 46 has left the fate of several projects uncertain, not least of them the Hunger Games series, in which he played Plutarch Heavensbee. Preliminary reports suggest that he had almost finished filming his scenes, though one final scene may have to be completed with CGI. At the time of his death, he was also set to direct a feature entitled Ezekiel Moss, and he was to star in a comedy series on Showtime entitled Happyish.
Aside from the numerous examples cited below, the sudden appearance of a co-writer in later volumes of a book series generally associated with a single author, is usually an indication that some form of Author Existence Failure has occurred (though not always death) and that another writer is carrying on in the name of the original author.
Seemingly healthy Douglas Adams died completely out of the blue from a heart attack in 2001, aged 49, before he could make up for the Downer Ending of Mostly Harmless with a sixth book of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. He never got to see the film finally escape from Development Hell based on his scripts, and he was partway through writing the third Dirk Gently novel, The Salmon of Doubt, which was assembled into a relatively cohesive narrative from a number of early versions he left behind.note There is no point at which the text breaks off — the published book contains only fragments, though you can figure out some of the links and where the story was going if you look for it. The book also has a collection of interviews, magazine columns, short stories, and many other otherwise-uncollected bits of Adams. He talks about how he was thinking of changing The Salmon of Doubt into a new Hitchhiker's novel rather than the Dirk Gently one it was being written as. Eight years later, the sixth book in the Hitchhiker's series, And Another Thing..., was written by Eoin Colfer (of the Artemis Fowl series) with full support from the Adams estate.
Robert Adams, author of the Horseclans series, died before the series could be wrapped up.
James Agee is generally regarded as one of America's greatest and most lamented writers after his second novel, A Death in the Family, was published posthumously (winning the Pulitzer Prize in 1958). Two novels, a handful of screenplays and some of the most influential film criticism of the 40s, cut short at age 45 due to depression and chronic alcoholism.
Dante Alighieri is supposed to have died with the location of the final portions of the Divine Comedy unknown. His ghost is said to have appeared to his son letting him know where the manuscript was. In a strangely related example, Dorothy L Sayers died before completing her translation of the Divine Comedy; it was finished by Barbara Reynolds.
V. C. Andrews actually became more prolific after her death in 1986. She wrote only seven novels while alive, while the ghostwriter currently working under her name has written close to seventy original novels.
Fantasy author Robert Asprin died leaving several projects in various stages of completion. He was already co-writing his Myth Adventures books with Jody Lynn Nye, and she has continued the series solo. (Or at least written one new novel after several years delay.)
Jane Austen first averted this fate for Persuasion: she originally planned it for the three volume length of her other novels, and one can even see her building up for what would probably have been the cliffhanger for the second volume, but then she became terminally ill and hastily ended the novel early. However, she left a fragment of another two novels, Sanditon and The Watsons, unfinished. They've been completed by other people more than once.
When young-adult author John Bellairs died, he left behind two unfinished manuscripts and outlines for two other stories. The finished versions of those four books, completed by Brad Strickland, were so well-received that Strickland has since been commissioned to write several more books in the series.
Roberto Bolaño died in 2003, shortly after submitting to his publisher the first draft of the novel that would become known as 2666. He had completed four and a half parts of the five-part thology. This percentage of the novel being complete, as well as notes for the unfinished section that were found in his desk (notes that included the title of the story), allowed it to be published the next year. It has since been proclaimed by many critics to be Bolaño's greatest work.
Pierre Bothero, a French writer of four separate series that all intertwined, died shortly after writing a book introducing a fourth world, two new societies, and a plentitude of new characters to the mythos, and writing a somewhat cliffhanger ending at the end of this book.
The Cat Who Smelled Smoke was to be the thirtieth volume in the popular The Cat Who... mystery series by Lilian Jackson Braun. It was to have been published in 2008, but was put on hold due to the author's failing health. When she passed away in 2011, the book was canceled entirely, and so the series will remain unfinished.
Chris Bunch, author of the Seer King and Star Risk, Ltd. series and co-author of the eight book space opera Sten passed away (fittingly for a soldier) on July 4th, 2005. Bunch left notes for the final volume of the Star Risk series and it was completed by Steve and Dal Perry, both known authors in their own right, as a tribute to Mr. Bunch. The ending of Bunch's Corsair leaves the reader with the sense that there will be an additional book forthcoming to explain some missing backstory. Unfortunately, this book was never published and it is unknown if there are any notes to enable another author to complete Bunch's vision.
Olive Ann Burns wrote one novel, Cold Sassy Tree, and died after writing about fifteen chapters of the sequel. The existing chapters were published as Leaving Cold Sassy, unfinished.
Edgar Rice Burroughs's "Skeleton Men of Jupiter", the last story in the John Carter of Mars series, was intended as the first in a series of novelettes with ongoing plot, so the story ends with the plot unresolved. The followups never got made, and ERB died a few years after the story's publication.
Octavia Butler hinted before her death that she planned to continue her Hugo Award-winning two-volume Parable series with several more titles, Parable of the Trickster, Parable of the Chaos, and Parable of the Clay. However, she died shortly after publishing one more novel, an unrelated standalone called Fledgling whose ending also left room for a possible sequel.
Lord Byron died with his masterwork, Don Juan, unfinished. That the last completed canto is a return, after some that are a bit of a mess, to the narrative verve of the first couple makes this all the more annoying.
Albert Camus'a quasi-autobiography The First Man was an unfinished manuscript in a briefcase in the car crash that killed him. There are also fragments.
Cao Xueqin died before he could finish off and publish The Story of the Stone (a.k.a. Dream of the Red Chamber). It breaks off at chapter eighty, although it isn't entirely clear to what extent this is because he died. Current versions usually use an ending provided by a different, somewhat inferior, writer.
Truman Capote had planned for Answered Prayers to be his magnum opus, but he died with only three chapters written. He seemed to have lost his will to write it in his last years, though there are still Capote scholars looking for any more of it that he may have had (while they have been unsuccessful, they did find the first novel he ever wrote, Summer Crossing, which he had claimed to have destroyed).
Giacomo Casanova died before he could finish his 12-volume autobiography.
Raymond Chandler died after having completed only four chapters of the eighth Philip Marlowe novel, which he had given the working title The Poodle Springs Story. Thirty years after his death, mystery writer Robert B. Parker (author of the Spenser series) was commissioned to finish the novel, which was released under the title Poodle Springs.
Geoffrey Chaucer died after completing only a handful of The Canterbury Tales he had planned. He also quit working on several poems, any one of which could be considered a great and masterful work; in attempting to think past some medieval tropes, he made several stabs at collections of tales (usually older ones translated into Middle English, with his own embellishments), of which The Canterbury Tales were the latest and greatest, and experts (as is their duty) haveseveraltheories on why more than one of his earlier poems are apparently unfinished.
Chrétien de Troyes, medieval composer of Arthurian romances, died before finishing Perceval, notable for being the first appearance of the Holy Grail. There are at least three continuations to the original romance, and Wolfram von Eschenbach's Parzival is an expansion and conclusion of the story. This is interesting, because Chrétien's original ideas about the Holy Grail appeared to be quite different from what later writers envisioned and it's odd to wonder What Could Have Been if he had finished it. Toward the end of his Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, de Troyes also left his scribe Godefroi de Leigni to finish it. The reasons why he did so are unknown, but he may have fallen ill and been unable to complete it himself.
Tom Clancy's last novel Command Authority is the last in the 'next generation' of warriors in his Jack Ryan series. Rest In Peace.
Michael Crichton was about a third of the way through a contracted novel with Harper Collins at the time of his death. This was completed from his notes by Richard Preston and released as Micro. He also had a completed manuscript, Pirate Latitudes, which was published a year after his death.
The death of Brian Daley in 1996 didn't keep three more Robotech novels (which he co-wrote with James Luceno under the name Jack Mckinney) from coming out. The last three novels were written by Luceno alone but still using the Mckinney pseudonym. Unfortunately, fans did notice a difference.
Philip K Dick was working on a novel called The Owl in Daylight at the time of his death. His widow Tessa later published a book by the same title; notably, she ignored his sketchy notes on the characters and drew on his considerably more developed notes on the book's proposed themes.
Charles Dickens died before he could finish The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Since the book was published in serial form, a lot of people were left hanging on that one. A musical based on the story was later made, but rather than trying to figure out what ending Dickens had in mind, it just used Audience Participation to decide how things ended. There was also a novel called The D. Case which included the full text of the original book, with a Framing Device of several famous fictional detectives being called together to determine the ending. Charles Dickens allegedly told his son that Jasper did it before he died.
Gordon R. Dickson died after completing the 9th of an unknown number of books in his Dragon Knight series, leaving Jim Eckert's journey from 20th Century grad student to Master Magickian incomplete. The 11th book in his more famous Childe Cycle series, Antagonist, was completed by his assistant and friend David W. Wixon and published in 2007.
Fyodor Dostoevsky intended The Brothers Karamazov to be the first book in an epic story titled "The Life of a Great Sinner", but died four months after publishing it. Given that The Brothers Karamazov is widely considered Dostoevsky's greatest work, the fact that more was planned has bibliophiles smarting to this day.
Claudia J. Edwards died shortly after writing the first of three books in the Eldrie the Healer series.
"My wife has instructions that the instant I die, she has to burn all the unfinished stories. And there may be a hundred unfinished stories in this house, maybe more than that. There's three quarters of a novel. No, these things are not to be finished by other writers, no matter how good they are."
The eighth and final book in the Seafort Saga by David Feintuch was not published before his death. According to The Other Wiki, the manuscript was completed, but not published.
F. Scott Fitzgerald died before finishing The Last Tycoon. It was finished from his notes and published the next year, in 1941.
Ian Fleming's final James Bond novel, The Man with the Golden Gun, is regarded as unsatisfying by many fans. It was the draft he had completed at the time of his death, and lacks many of the characteristic "Fleming" touches he would have added with subsequent revisions. Perhaps because of this, over the years a myth arose that noted author Kingsley Amis actually completed the book, but this has since been debunked. (Amis did however go on to write the first post-Fleming Bond novel, Colonel Sun, under the pen name Robert Markham.) It has also been suggested that the draft published was indeed Fleming's final approved draft.
C. S. Forester died in the middle of yet another Horatio Hornblower story, Hornblower during the Crisis. It was published by The Powers That Be, along with the author's notes on finishing it.
French philosopher Michel Foucault destroyed most of his unpublished manuscripts before his death from an AIDS-related illness in 1984, and his will prevents anything he missed from being published, most notably the fourth volume of his History of Sexuality.
George MacDonald Fraser created an elaborate fictional C.V. for Flashman, and despite 12 volumes in the series having been published at the time of Fraser's death in 2008, there are still large whacks of Flashman's career that have yet to be publicized. Among the most glaring omissions are his time in Australia as a prospector (which apparently involved serving some time in jail), his time as an aide-de-camp to His Imperial Majesty Maximilian I of Mexico during the Second Mexican-French War (which ended with Maximilian being shot), and his service in the American Civil War (during which he fought on both sides and was awarded the Medal of Honor).
Historian Douglas Southall Freeman both exemplifies and averts this trope. He sent out the sixth volume of his biography of George Washington to the publishers on the day he died. Alas, there was a seventh volume (later written by J. A. Carroll and M. W. Ashworth) yet to be completed.
Victorian author Elizabeth Gaskell died halfway through writing the final installment of Wives and Daughters, the book many believe was her best work. Her editor had to leave a note assuring the readers that the two romantic leads do indeed get together. However, he also told them that Gaskell was planning to separate them for a whole year before the planned happy ending. The BBC miniseries for the book took the shorter route of having the heroine run after the hero and interrupting his confession of love with just a "Yes".
English author David Gemmell died with his novel Fall of Kings only 3/4s finished. Fortunately he had made detailed notes on each chapter beforehand, and his wife was able to complete the novel (the finale to a trilogy) using them.
It is said that Nikolai Gogol wrote Dead Souls (his only novel) to be part of a series, wherein the characters are eventually redeemed. After completing the first book, he was so depressed that he felt he couldn't redeem these characters, took what he had completed of the second volume, threw it into a fire, then subsequently took ill and died.
Roots author Alex Haley passed away while writing Queen, a sequel to Roots. It was finished by David Stevens.
Czech humorist Jaroslav Haek died while writing part four of a planned seven volume novel series The Good Soldier vejk, making it one of the few war novels where you never see any kind of war. Then Robert Kurka died before finishing his opera based on it. Moral of the story: don't work on vejk.
Robert A. Heinlein started a novel in 1955 but never finished it. Almost 20 years after RAH's death, Spider Robinson finished the novel under the title Variable Star.
Frank Herbert died in 1985, leaving his Dune series unfinished, though Herbert had been tacking books onto the series for some time. After his death, his son Brian Herbert, along with Kevin J. Anderson, wrote a handful of sequel and prequel books to the series.
At the time of Reginald Hill's death in January 2012, one more Dalziel and Pascoe novel had been announced for release in August 2013.
Evan Hunter (also known as Ed McBain, the pseudonym he used for his crime fiction) left several works unfinished with his death:
The novel Becca in Jeopardy, the second in his planned Women in Jeopardy series. The unfinished novel has not been published.
Hunter's death also ended McBain's long-running 87th Precinct series. Hunter had once expressed an intention to write a final 87th Precinct book called Exit, to be published after his death, but no such book has materialized.
McBain himself was hired to complete a mystery novel Craig Rice had left unfinished at her death. The first half was completely finished, but no drafts or notes for the second half could be found. So McBain had to solve the mystery before he could complete the book.
Aldous Huxley's Ape and Essence has a bizarre in-universe example, with the framing device being the discovery of the manuscript of a story which ends with the characters discovering the now deceased author's grave.
Shirley Jackson died with her last novel, Come Along with Me, barely begun. After her death, her husband published the existing material (six chapters, three in draft and three revised) along with several short stories and some non-fiction material.
Brian Jacques, author of the Redwall novels, died of a heart attack on February 5th, 2011. He had planned to never stop writing the series, and the last book he'd been working on, The Rogue Crew, was left complete but unpublished at the time of his death. It was released three months later.
W.E. Johns, prolific author of the Biggles series of books, managed to die not only in the middle of a book, but in the middle of a sentence. Johns's last novel, Biggles Does Some Homework, was thus abandoned in 1967 on the note: "With considerable reluctance Bertie backed away from ..." It was published, eventually, in 1997, still as incomplete as it had been at the time of Johns's unexpected heart-attack. Epic.
Robert Jordan died before he could complete the "definitely, probably final" 12th book of The Wheel of Time series, but he left behind extensive notes. Before his illness was discovered, he used to joke that if he died before the series was over, his will was going to dictate that his notes be destroyed. Fortunately, he relented, and spent much of his remaining time leaving behind notes for whoever would finish the series. Following his death, Brandon Sanderson was picked to finish the draft. Although the work was split into three separate books, it was released to much acclaim.
A lot of Franz Kafka's stuff was unfinished, including the novel The Trial and a bunch of short stories. He still had fragments. What's more, he never intended to publish any of it; his papers were to be burned unread upon his death, and we only have them today because no one followed instructions. Many people have speculated that Kafka left his papers to Max Brod because he knew Brod would under no circumstances obey his request to have the papers burned.
John Keats managed to become one of the most influential poets of the Romantic era by the time he died at the age of 25. Many believe he could have been among the greatest writers in history if he had lived long enough. One candidate for his potential magnum opus is The Fall of Hyperion, an epic poem left unfinished when he died.
Andrew Keith, who co-wrote the Wing Commander IIInovelization and False Colors with William Forstchen, passed away in 1999 before he and Forstchen could work on a planned sequel to False Colors that would have bridged the gap between that book's end and the start of Wing Commander IV.
Narrowly dodged by Stephen King, who had finished only four out of seven books in The Dark Tower series when he was struck by a van and sent to the hospital with severe injuries. He later references this, at least indirectly.note After he is written into the story, fictional King says he became motivated to finish the story after coming so close to death.
With the death of Kaoru Kurimoto, some readers initially thought the Guin Saga would never have an ending. However the main story had actually ended somewhere around volume 100, with the continuing volumes being various side stories and prequels. It was recently announced that other writers would finish these based on notes she left behind.
Stieg Larsson died of a massive heart attack in 2004 after having completed the third book of his supposed-to-be-decalogy Millennium (The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, The Girl who Played with Fire and The Girl Who Kicked the Hornet's Nest). All of the completed novels were only published after his death.
The death of Mary Jane Latsis, half of the writing duo known as Emma Lathen, brought the John Putnam Thatcher series to an end.
Madeleine L'Engle left unfinished a novel called The Eye Begins to See about the adult Meg Murry O'Keefe. There has been no word on whether the incomplete novel will be published, or whether it sheds any light on the question of what happened to Charles Wallace Murry as an adult.
C. S. Lewis left unfinished upon his death a manuscript of The Dark Tower, which would have been a sequel of sorts to The Space Trilogy. It was published in its fragmentary form with some of his unfinished short stories.
Older Than Feudalism: The ancient Roman writer Lucan was still writing his epic Pharsalia(The Civil War) when he had a heavily foreshadowed Author Existence Failure. The first parts of the epic are very heavily pro-Nero. Then he had a falling out with Nero, and the rest of the epic is very anti-Nero. Nero was not the kind of ruler who tolerated this behavior. He was part of Piso's conspiracy against Nero, and had to commit suicide at age 25.
John D. MacDonald died leaving the major revelation at the end of The Lonely Silver Rain, the 21st book in his Travis McGee series, to frustrate his fans. Rumours of a manuscript (Black Border for McGee), intended to be published after his death as a conclusion to the series, were denied by his publisher and his widow.
William Manchester passed away in 2004, leaving his stellar three-volume biography of Winston Churchill one volume short. Fortunately he had begun collaborating on the final volume with a long-time friend, journalist Paul Reid, who took up the project after Manchester's death. It was published in November 2012.
Anne McCaffrey managed to avoid this with the long-running Dragonriders of Pern series by collaborating with her son, Todd, on a few books before turning the franchise over to him entirely. So even though she passed away in November 2011, Pern survives. Their final collaboration has been finished and 'in the can' for quite some time. The publisher is sitting on it for unknown reasons, perhaps to avoid a Too Soon release that could be construed as capitalizing on her death. There's also the "final" Pern book she worked on for years, with a working/joke title After the Fall Is Over. No word on whether or not Todd will finish it.
Nicholas Monsarrat left unfinished his two-volume historical novel The Master Mariner. The second volume was published incomplete.
Author/producer Perry Moore died in 2011 of a drug overdose, leaving any possible sequels for his award-winning Hero unfinished. He also had plans to get a TV show of the book and write another novel about werewolves.
Vladimir Nabokov died before finishing The Original of Laura. What remains is a series of notecards with isolated scenes and plot which only his family and a few selected scholars have seen. He requested that the notecards be burnt in the event of his death, but his son, believing that the story was Nabokov's best, agonized for 30 years before deciding in 2008 to publish it.
Andre Norton died with several unfinished projects. One manuscript, A Taste of Magic, was handed off to Jean Rabe before her death. The fate of others, including the Elvenblood collaboration with Mercedes Lackey, remains a mystery.
Patrick O'Brian, author of the Aubrey-Maturin series, died after finishing the first three chapters of the 21st book. The Powers That Be published it anyway. It was surprisingly well-received. O'Brian had previously foreshadowed in his books that he had no intention of ending the series, with two characters discussing how many nearly-great stories through history would have been better off with no ending whatsoever.
Robert C. O'Brien, author of the Newbery Medal Award-winning Mrs. Frisby and the Rats of NIMH, passed away shortly before finishing his post-apocalyptic children's novel Z for Zachariah. Luckily, his wife and daughter (authors themselves) finished it based off the notes he left behind and published it posthumously. His daughter, Jane Leslie Conly, went on to publish two more NIMH books.
Robert B. Parker, writer of the Spenser novels (as well as 3 other series novels and the occasional western, plus the completion of Raymond Chandler's last novel, as referenced above) died in his office chair, at his typewriter, in January 2010. Parker was known to write very fast, and to write ahead, but there's not been any news from his editor at Putnam as to what might be on the spike. In late 2010, what is probably the last Stone/Randall novel, a crossover, was published, and as a final book, it ends things well, with the two main characters, who had been struggling with personal issues, making a good effort to find happiness with each other much the way Spenser and Susan had in the Spenser novels. Since the series were mostly ongoing, there's nothing specific really missing, but those who were enjoying the various Spenser/Stone/Randall crossovers were hoping really hard for a nice three-way. Perhaps it's the Holiday Spenser Novel we're being told about by Bowker.
Mervyn Peake died when Titus Alone, part three of his Gormenghast trilogy, was still in early drafts. His widow, Maeve Gilmore, submitted his manuscript to the publisher with notes on how it could be improved. Unfortunately, the publishers took these notes as the intended changes themselves, and published the novel as is. The novel was later re-edited by Langdon Jones into something (presumably) closer to Peake's intended version. In 2010, a manuscript of the fourth novel, completed by Gilmore, was discovered by the family. It was published in 2011 as Titus Awakes.
Nicholas Pekearo intended The Wolfman to be first in a series involving a "detective werewolf" and his unique crime-solving method. He was also a police officer, and unfortunately he was gunned down in the line of duty, chasing the gunman armed with nothing but his hands and courage.
H. Beam Piper committed suicide before he could finish Fuzzies and Other People. The manuscript was lost for 20 years (and thought destroyed), so they had two different authors write sequels, which were contradicted when Fuzzies and Other People was finally published.
Tragic poetess and author Sylvia Plath committed suicide a month after The Bell Jar, her only novel, was published in Britain under a pseudonym. Most of her poetry went up in a bonfire when Plath was in a rage one day, and ex-husband Ted Hughes destroyed most of her journals, his reasoning implying that her final journal entries revealed that she had gone off the deep end and become a madwoman who couldn't be saved from suicide. Plath hinted she was in the middle of writing a sequel before she passed away.
Completing the wooden-navy trifecta (with Forester and O'Brien), Dudley Pope, author of the Ramage series, died just after his eponymous hero's career had taken a fresh turn. Ramage and the Dido put Lord Ramage at the helm of a shiny new 74-gun ship of the line, and a strong hint at the end of the story that he was about to be sent on another mysterious adventure; but what that was will never be known.
Since Terry Pratchett is still writing, it is likely that something will be left unfinished when his Alzheimer's progresses too far. Sir Terry has already mentioned in interviews that his daughter Rhianna, who's intimately familiar with Discworld and a writer herself, will take over the franchise once Pratchett Senior isn't able to write any more. However, Rhianna has clarified that "taking over the franchise" means maintaining quality control over adaptations and merchandise, and ensuring no-one other than Sir Terry writes more books, including her.
Marcel Proust died before finishing In Search of Lost Time. The final book was published mostly unedited, and contradicts some things that happened in the earlier volumes. C. K. Scott Moncrieff then died before he could finish translating it, and Stephen Hudson had to finish the job. The last three books were all unedited and published posthumously. However all of them were in an almost-completed form, including the last page of the last book. Although some of the small contradictions went through as a result of Proust's death, at least we got a completed series written by his own hand.
The death of Ellery Queen collaborator Manfred B. Lee left a novel, The Tragedy of Errors, unwritten. The very detailed outline by Fredric Dannay was eventually published.
Sir Walter Raleigh began compiling an anthology called The Historie of the World about the history of ancient Greece and Rome while he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. He was successful in completing the first volume, but his execution in 1618 prevented him from ever finishing the series. This trope was parodied over three centuries later by Mel Brooks (who is himself still alive) with the aptly titled History of the World Part I.
Z.A. Recht died with the third book in his Morningstar Strain trilogy unfinished.
Philippine national hero Jose Rizal was executed before he could finish Makamisa, the third installment to the Noli Me Tangere series.
Kate Ross (Katherine Jean Ross) was a mystery writer/attorney in Boston, Massachusetts. She died of breast cancer at just 42, after publishing only 4 novels (and 1 short story) in her award-winning Julian Kestrel Regency-period mystery series. As one fan says in her Amazon.com Listmania description, "After revealing her hero's past with exquisite subtlety for 3 3/4 books, she suddenly tells us everything about him in the last few pages of the fourth one, because she knows she's dying. So this is a very short list of great books."
Four of Dr. Seuss's books were published posthumously - he was able to write but not illustrate Daisy-Head Mayzie and the lesser-known My Many Colored Days, while Hooray for Diffendoofer Day! and Gerald McBoing-Boing were finished using the notes and fragments of rhyming verse Seuss left behind.
Shen Fu's Six Records of a Floating Life, the autobiography of a Ching Dynasty minor bureaucrat which also chronicles the life of everyday people during the period, was left unfinished by the author's demise.
Shel Silverstein's last poems and sketches have now been published, posthumously. Although he cannot see your face, as you flip through his poems a while, somewhere in a far off place, he hears you laughing — and he smiles.
Cordwainer Smith died at 53, leaving behind notes and unfinished manuscripts for a number of stories. A few were completed by his wife Genevieve Linebarger (and at least one written by her out of whole cloth), while others remain as tantalizing fragments. In the epilogue to his collection Space Lords Smith had written "I am glad to report that I expect to type many hundreds or thousands of pages before I, in my turn, stop". This is dated April 1965, just 14 months before his death.
Edmund Spenser died after completing only 6 of his planned 24 books of The Faerie Queene, meaning said queen never once makes an appearance.
John Steinbeck spent the latter years of his life creating a modern English translation of the original Le Morte d'Arthur, but died shortly after finishing Lancelot's story.
In early 1990s, Arkady & Boris Strugatsky set out to write a final Noon Universe novel. Unfortunately, Arkady Strugatsky died before the novel could be completed. Boris Strugatsky chose to shelve the novel rather than finish it — as he explained in the subsequent interviews, he could not bring himself to complete it.
William Makepeace Thackeray left his final novel, Denis Duval, unfinished.
Thucydides' history of the Peloponnesian War breaks off abruptly partway through the eighth book. Fortunately Xenophon picked up where Thucydides left off, so we know how the war ended. Athens lost.
J. R. R. Tolkien died with his life's work, the history of the First Age of Middle-earth, in a fragmentary, unfinished, self-contradictory state; his son Christopher combined several of the main fragments into a publishable work, The Silmarillion. Christopher later published more of the unfinished stories, poems, and notes from his father's large collection in Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth, the 12-volume History of Middle-earth series, and The Children of Húrin. Several statements J. R. R. made during life would seem to indicate that he didn't want any of his unfinished works to ever be published. Fortunately, his son disagreed and we now have a relatively good understanding of how incredibly detailed Tolkien's world really was, and what his creative process looked like.
Mark Twain left behind three unfinished versions of his novel The Mysterious Stranger which are referred to, in chronological order, as "The Chronicle of Young Satan," "Schoolhouse Hill," and "No. 44, the Mysterious Stranger: Being an Ancient Tale Found in a Jug and Freely Translated from the Jug."
A version of the novel was published in 1916 by Albert Bigelow Paine as "The Mysterious Stranger," based on the first version, with substantial alterations and an ending taken from later versions. "No. 44, the Mysterious Stranger" is the only version where Twain actually wrote an ending, and is considered the definitive version. (It is effectively a full novel, but considered by scholars to not be as polished as Twain would have wanted.)
All three versions were published, unaltered, in 1969; with the last re-published in 2005. The last version shows Twain at his darkest, clearly highlighting his growing depression, and hostility toward organized religion.
A scene from The Mysterious Stranger also somehow made its way into the 1985 claymation film The Adventures of Mark Twain (the infamous "Satan" sequence.) Talk about your Small Reference Pools.
Even the bad fanfic continuations are Older Than Feudalism: The ancient Roman poet Virgil died before he could finish editing his epic poem The Aeneid. Some short passages and placeholder lines remain, as well as some incongruities with the characters. He left instructions for it to be burned, though a literate slave read it and saved it because he recognized the merit of the work. The ending is often considered contradictory to the hero's nature, resulting in medieval poets and scholars writing terrible conclusions with a "book 13."
David Foster Wallace committed suicide when his antidepressant meds lost their effectiveness and his depression became severe. He left his last novel The Pale King unfinished. It was published in its unfinished state in 2011. For several years before his death, Wallace published fragments of The Pale King as stand-alone short stories in several magazines. Given that Wallace's previous novel was a monster of a book, these fragments didn't give much of the overall plot away (especially since, as mentioned before, many are presented as stand-alone stories, not pieces of a larger novel).
Robert Anton Wilson died after completing only 3 books in his projected 5-book epic romance The Historical Illuminatus Chronicles. There has been some talk that his friends and/or children might finish the story based on his notes, but only time will tell whether that's possible. Wilson himself refrained from publishing the fourth book even two decades after the third came out.
Although there wasn't much carryover between the Blandings Castle books, the death of P. G. Wodehouse left the aptly-named Sunset at Blandings — which he knew was going to be his last — completely unfinished. And, judging by how complicated the plot was getting, the ending was going to be great.
Willard Huntington Wright (writing the Philo Vance novels as "S.S. Van Dine") died before he finished the last novel. However, he'd finished the core of the novel — what was undone was the elaborate descriptions and foreign quotations the series was known for. His publisher printed The Winter Murder Case as is, making it by far the shortest of the Philo Vance novels.
Donnerjack and Lord Demon were completed from his unfinished manuscripts by Jane Lindskold and published. The Chronicles of Amber series remained unfinished (except for the prequels by another author).
And there's Changeling Saga, left unfinished after two books, Changeling and Madwand.
In a similar vein, Zelazny himself finished Psychoshop after the death of its primary author, Alfred Bester. The book was then published after Zelazny's own death. Science fiction writers are apparently superstitious: it's rumoured that, given the toll the book had already exacted, the publisher experienced some difficulty finding a writer to pen an introduction for it. Greg Bear, who wrote the introduction, remains among the living.
Psychoshop is remarkably Zelazny-like, while Lord Demon ends on a jarring note (by being very different from his style). Changeling Saga may feel unfinished but was finished in 1981, which implies Roger wasn't keen on working on it further. Finally, Amber was concluded properly with the 10th book. Any major additions would require at least a major novel (and a son to Merlin?).
James Blish died before he could complete his multi-volume series of short stories adapting scripts from the original Star Trek. His wife, J.A. Lawrence, completed Star Trek 12, the collection Blish was writing when he died, and Lawrence later completed Blish's work by adapting the Harry Mudd episodes (along with an original novella) as Mudd's Angels.
Stephen King was "outed" as Richard Bachman before he completed what would have been Bachman's next book: Misery. The novel was therefore released under King's own name, but Bachman's death from "cancer of the pseudonym" didn't silence him. Two more novels by Bachman were released: The Regulators (1996) and Blaze (2007). Both books were supposedly found in a trunk in the attic of the Vermont home Bachman shared with his wife, Claudia Inez. One wonders how many more Bachman books have yet to be "discovered."
The Amber Brown brown books were written by Paula Danziger, but came to an abrupt conclusion after Danziger passed away from complications of a heart attack in 2004. Fortunately, Bruce Coville and Elizabeth Levy continued the series beginning in 2012.
The Junie B. Jones books were generally released once a year, but suffered a long Schedule Slip afterwards and the next one in the main series wasn't released until 2012. The author passed away in late 2013 and it was revealed that she had a long battle with ovarian cancer.
Eric Hill, creator of Spot the Dog and inventor of the Lift-the-flap book, passed away on the 6th of June, 2014. However at this point there has been no new episodes of the show since 2001, but there are new books were still scheduled to be published according to Amazon. It's also reasonable to believe that a ghostwriting team has been set up to take his place.
Norman Bridwell, writer of the Clifford the Big Red Dog books, passed away on December 12th, 2014. At this point the TV show has stopped and has had no new episodes since 2005, but he has two books that is still unpublished. Also, the next movie won't be released until 2016.
Live Action TV
Doctor Who writer Robert Holmes died while writing the concluding episodes of 1986's The Trial Of A Time Lord story. When the series' script editor, Eric Saward, quit afterward — mainly because the show's producers pretty much rejected Holmes's planned ending (which featured the Doctor and the Valeyard [or the Master] falling through a "time vent", with no way out) as being too risky, given that the show was hanging by a thread and that said ending would give the BBC the excuse to cancel the series, legal complications meant that the writers who eventually took on the job (Pip & Jane Baker) weren't allowed to be told how Holmes and Saward had planned to conclude the story.
The show's spin-off series, The Sarah Jane Adventures, was prematurely killed by Elisabeth Sladen's death from cancer. Half of Series 5 was finished by this point, but with the show revolving around her (and canon having established that her character would live longer), they had to stop production of any future episodes then and there. The final complete episodes were aired, drawing the series to a close.
Shotaro Ishinomori died while writing Kamen Rider Kuuga. He knew he would die soon, and wanted to get one more Kamen Rider out before he died.nIn addition, he wrote the story-intended-to-be-series Onigeki Hibiki, which was only published posthumously as Kamen Rider Hibiki.
Kindred: The Embraced, a tv series based on Vampire: The Masquerade, was cancelled after 8 episodes. However, any hope that the series could be picked up again was lost when Mark Frankel, the actor who played the Prince of the City (and was considered one of the show's assets), was killed in a motorcycle crash soon after the final episode aired.
Riget ended after two seasons with many loose ends and at least one further season completely scripted, due to the deaths of three key actors: Ernst-Hugo Järegård (Stig Helmer), Kirsten Rolffes (Mrs. Drusse), and Morten Rotne Leffers (male dishwasher).
Father Ted just managed to avoid this. Dermot Morgan, the actor behind the titular character, tragically died of a sudden heart attack 24 hours after filming wrapped on the series' final episode. To quote Wikipedia, "The irony of Morgan's death, at a time when after twenty years of struggle, he had finally achieved financial and artistic freedom, was not lost on his family and friends and commented on by his colleagues in the media." This has actually led to a belief that Father Ted was cancelled because of his death, when in fact, it was intended to end after three seasons. British TV show seasons are very short compared to American TV show seasons, which can either go on for 30 to 50 years or get cancelled after only a season. His death did however invoke this trope as a new series he was thinking of doing had to be scrapped.
Treme writer David Mills, who had also worked on The Wire, died of an aneurysm while on set just days before the show's premier.
Deadliest Catch: Rest in peace, Captain Phil Harris. He had a stroke, was put in a medically-induced coma, woke up, wrote to the film crew to keep shooting, and then died. In case you couldn't tell, he was something of a Bad Ass. Phil was also the only member of the show who had previously come closest to dying (he broke a rib, which dislodged a blood clot).
Steve Irwin, aka the Crocodile Hunter, was killed in a freak accident with a stingray while filming the documentary Ocean's Deadliest with Philippe Cousteau Jr. He was posthumously featured in his daughter's show, Bindi the Jungle Girl. According to his wife, Terri, he had laid out ten years' worth of plans for Australia Zoo, their family's home base, before he died.
Shari Lewis died right after her spinoff of Lamb Chop's Play Along got off the ground.
An in-show example: The Supernatural series of novels by Carver Edlund (aka Chuck Shurley) is actually a written account of the lives of Sam and Dean Winchester, written by a divine prophet. The series ends on the sadistic cliffhanger that is "No Rest for the Wicked," (the finale of season 3) when the publishers ran into financial troubles, mirroring fears of the effects of the writers strike at the time. Despite this he kept writing his books but can't publish them because Sam and Dean found out about it. "We have guns, and we'll find you." It's possible that the series through "Swansong" will be published posthumously. Unfortunately, this will not improve the cliffhanger situation. At the end of "Swansong" Chuck disappears and is presumed dead by Castiel (Word of God initially stated he was God himself and simply left Sam and Dean to it) so the series can never be resumed. In season nine it is revealed that new volumes of the series are being published on the Internet. They are published under the Internet handle of Becky Rosen, a fan obsessed with Sam Winchester and the former girlfriend of Chuck.
NewsRadio continued after the tragic death of Phil Hartman but the show was never the same. It only continued for one season, and only because Phil wouldn't have wanted them to stop.
Same thing with John Ritter and the sitcom 8 Simple Rules..., only it lasted a bit longer.
The Sandbaggers' creator Ian Mackintosh died in a mysterious plane crash halfway through the third season. The season was finished with three episodes written by other writers, and the show wasn't continued after that.
A particularly sad example with Chico And The Man: Freddie Prinze killed himself towards the end of the third season. They wrote it into the script that Chico was visiting family in Mexico and then later stated that he died, and they tried to replace him with Raul, but ratings dipped in the final season and it was canceled. All the more disturbing and sad because he killed himself a few hours after taping his final episode, "Ed Talks to God."
Former Jackass cast member Ryan Dunn died in a car accident in June 2011, after just one episode of Proving Ground - a MythBusters-inspired Experiment Show series he co-hosted on G4 - had aired. The show was pulled immediately, a presumed difficult decision for the network, considering that the series premiered to decent ratings and they had spent quite a bit of time in the preceding weeks promoting the series on their other programs. They eventually aired the remaining eight episodes later in the Summer of 2011, with co-host Jessica Chobot becoming a correspondent for X-Play in order to fulfill her contract for Proving Ground, which was discontinued with no chance of revival.
Pitchmen, a Discovery Channel show about finding (and shilling) unknown-but-great products and inventions, had as one of its costars legendarily loud huckster Billy Mays. After Mays' death, the show floated in limbo for a while, until it was eventually revealed (almost two years later) that his son would start doing the show.
The Britcom In Sickness And In Health, one of two sequels to the classic Till Death Us Do Part (best known outside of Europe as the inspiration for All in the Family), was initially written to deal with the fact that Dandy Nichols, who played Alf Garnett's wife Else, was terminally ill and confined to a wheelchair. When Nichols died in real life, the character of Else died as well. (Ironically, the episodes concerning Else's very real death were adapted from the Archie Bunker's Place episodes centered around Edith's death - which only occurred on the show after Jean Stapleton quit.)
Andy Whitfield, who played the titled character on Spartacus: Blood and Sand, was diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in 2010. This caused production to halt while Andy went through treatment. During this time, Starz produced a prequel series Gods of the Arena. Andy gave his blessing for the network to recast his character so the series could resume. He was declared cancer-free two months after Gods of the Arena aired, but succumbed to a reoccurance disease in September 2011.
On Fox's Glee, main cast member Cory Monteith, who played Finn, died in July 2013. It was decided that Finn would be killed off in the 5x03 episode "The Quarterback", and the show will end in 2015.
The producers of Game of Thrones have reportedly planned for this in advance. In 2013, 60-something George R.R. Martin, author of the book series upon the program is based, revealed that he has outlined his planned conclusion for the series to the showrunners, both so they can plan ahead, and also as insurance should he ever be unable to complete the final two books.
On HBO's Silicon Valley, one of the lead actors, Christopher Evan Welch, died in December 2013, before the series premiere and after shooting only 5 of the 8 planned episodes. Instead of re-casting his character, the writers wrote his character out.
The Beast: Despite positive reviews, the show had low ratings due to Patrick Swayze's struggle with pancreatic cancer, which made him unable to promote it himself. The show put on long-term hiatus in June 2009, after its first and only season, so that Swayze could take the time to deal with his health issues. The intention was that the show would return once Swayze got better, but he passed away in September, and then the show was canceled as a result.
Depending on who you ask, there are between ten and two hundred unreleased Kurt Cobain and/or Nirvana songs (the truth, likely, is somewhere in between the two extremes). How "finished" the hypothetical tracks are is also a subject of some debate, with Grohl, Noveselic, Love, and any number of other people often contradicting one another, and occasionally, more often than that in Love's case, contradicting themselves. The only thing they all seem to agree on is that there are Kurt Cobain tracks the fans have not heard, and probably never will until Love dies, and even then only maybe. The massive 2004 box set With the Lights Out which contains many unreleased Nirvana songs and demos alongside previously released rarities, is considered merely the tip of the iceberg of the Nirvana cache to fans. A previously unreleased but well-known late period Nirvana recording, "You Know You're Right", was attached to a greatest hits album in 2002 and (along with already released contemporaneous tracks like "Sappy") merely hinted at what directions a fourth Nirvana album could have gone.
Johann Sebastian Bach rather famously failed to finish the fourteenth fugue in his Art of the Fugue, cutting off right at the point where he introduced his own name as the subject (Bb-A-C-B, which, in the German way of naming notes, where Bb is B, and B is H, is B-A-C-H), although this was more a case of setting it aside for a while and not getting back to it before his death rather than dying while working on it. This is referenced in Gödel, Escher, Bach ("Contracrostipunctus"), where a glass goblet supposedly made by J.S. Bach shatters on the Musical Trigger of the Tortoise playing the four notes on a violin. The fugue specifically cuts off after the first entrance of the "B-A-C-H" subject in counterpoint to the first and second subjects; the order in which the first three subjects appear in each of the four voices has led to speculation that Bach intended to make the final fugue a quadruple fugue, with the main subject from the previous fugues as the fourth subject. Some of the speculative completions of the fugue include the fourth subject (most notably that of Hungarian musicologist Zoltan Goncz), others only use the three already introduced by Bach.
Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 10 had a similar fate. Beethoven was already laying the groundwork for the symphony while composing his famous Symphony No. 9, and planned it as a sort of purely instrumental answer to the choral finale of No. 9. However, he only completed a few hundred bars' worth of sketches for the first movement before setting it aside, and he never returned to it. The English musicologist Barry Cooper produced a speculative completion of the first movement and released a recording in 1988, but critics almost universally agree that the results are far less impressive than they would have been had Beethoven finished the symphony himself.
John Lennon recorded a large number of demos before his death in 1980 that were not used on Double Fantasy (his 1980 album with recorded with his wife, Yoko Ono).
Six were released after being polished by Ono in 1984, along with six of Ono's compositions and released as the album Milk and Honey. Four more were given to the surviving Beatles by Ono in early 1994. The other three Beatles and producer Jeff Lynne reworked the demos into new Beatles songs, and "Free As A Bird" and "Real Love" were later released as singles and on "Anthology" albums.
These new songs - which rather split the fanbase - were parodied by Mitch Benn in "Please Don't Release This Song" in which John Lennon pleads for his unfinished music not to be re-recorded and released after his death.
George Harrison died while working on the album Brainwashed; it was completed by his son Dhani Harrison and former Travelling Wilbury bandmate Jeff Lynne. They made it considerably more lavish than George would have if he had lived—we have Word of God on that; Lynne felt that doing otherwise would've dishonored his memory. George Harrison was also one of the producers of Cirque du Soleil's Love; in the making-of special his wife and son are seen watching the troupe's dress rehersal some months after George died, and it's eerie seeing Dhani (with wide, bright eyes) looking through a giant projection of his nearly-identical father.
On the subject of The Traveling Wilburys, the band averted this by continuing after Roy Orbison died shortly after their first album's release, but it severely shortened their intended plans, and they released one more album in 1990 before splitting.
Jimi Hendrix died before completing a planned double album provisionally titled 'First Rays of the New Rising Sun'. It was subsequently released over three posthumous albums; Cry of Love, Rainbow Bridge, and War Heroes. When the Hendrix family regained control of his estate in 1997 they withdrew these albums and released a re-compiled First Rays..., based mostly on Jimi's notes, as an 'official' Hendrix album. The "non-family" posthumous albums featured various session guitarists overdubbed and intermingled with Hendrix's work, and given that Hendrix's guitar is pretty much why people listen to Hendrix, fans were not amused in the slightest.
Gustav Mahler dreaded the "curse of the Ninth", so snuck in an unnumbered symphony (aka the song cycle Das Lied von der Erde, although referring to it as a symphony is contentious) after his Symphony No. 8, thought he'd beaten the curse by finishing his Symphony No. 9 which was in fact his tenth... and died before completing his next symphony. The drafts of the 10th symphony at least were worked through to the end, but they were only partially orchestrated and a little sketchy. Deryck Cooke's completion of the symphony was the first and remains the most popular, but even this is bitterly contested, since so much of the appeal of Mahler's symphonies lies in their orchestration.
Hideto Matsumoto (better known as "hide") from the band X Japan died before completing his third solo album, Ja, Zoo. It is still debated today whether his death was an accident or a suicide, though most agree it was an accident. hide and Yoshiki had also planned, up until hide's death, to reunite X Japan with another vocalist than Toshi or with hide on lead vocals in 2000.
Former X Japan and Loudness bassist Taiji Sawada has also died (of a likely homicide covered up as suicide), becoming the second person out of both the original X Japan and the third formation of Loudness to die.
After the breakup of 90s alt-rock one hit wonders School of Fish, the band's singer Josh Clayton-Felt began an acclaimed solo career as a singer/songwriter and the success of his second solo album led to him touring with the likes of Tori Amos. While working on his third album, to be called Center of Six, he was diagnosed with cancer, and died in 2000 before the album could be completed; he was 32. The songs eventually got released on two albums: one by Dreamworks Records in 2002 under the name Spirit Touches Ground, and another under the Center of Six title by Talking Cloud Records in 2003.
It is hotly debated just how much of his RequiemWolfgang Amadeus Mozart managed to finish before his death, and how much was done by his assistant afterward. Süssmayr claimed to have composed the Sanctus, Benedictus and Agnus Dei from scratch, though it's been speculated he used some Mozart sketches. For instance, the second half of the Agnus Dei, the "Lux Aeterna" section, is just the first movement with new words. Which is a valid decision, but does damage Sussmayr's claims of originality.
Giacomo Puccini died before completing the opera Turandot; he had finished up to about the point of Liu's death and the rest was finished by Franco Alfano. At its premiere at La Scala, Toscanini laid down his baton here and said, "Qui finisce l'opera, perché a questo punto il maestro è morto" ("Here the opera ends, because at this point the maestro died"). Another recollection of Toscanini's statement is "Qui, il maestro fini" (Here, the master finished). This is more in keeping with Toscanini's terse, no-nonsense character. Puccini also died before deciding on an ending for La rondine. This has contributed to it being performed so infrequently afterwards.
Jacques Offenbach left his opera Les contes d'Hoffmann (The Tales of Hoffmann) unfinished when he died in 1880. In addition, much of the music he did complete for it was long mislaid or omitted from performances, especially in the Giuletta Act. The original edition of the opera was completed by Ernest Guiraud, but editors and producers have continued to tinker with the work ever since; its acts are not even always performed in the same order. Two of the best known numbers in the Giuletta Act, the aria "Scintille, diamant" and the Sextet with Chorus, were not composed by Offenbach at all but merely based on his work, and were first performed as part of Hoffmann in a 1908 production.
Ferruccio Busoni left the opera Doktor Faust unfinished. Completions of it have been prepared by Philipp Jarnach, a pupil of the composer, and by Antony Beaumont.
Alban Berg left his opera Lulu unfinished. Although little work remained to be done to complete it, the composer's widow successfully vetoed any attempt to do so until her death in 1976, forty-one years later, after which it was successfully completed by Friedrich Cerha.
Dmitri Shostakovich planned to write a set of twenty-four string quartets, one for each of the major and minor keys. However, he had only completed fifteen of them (and had written a few sketches for a sixteenth) by his death in 1975.
Liechtenstein-born composer Josef Rheinberger planned to write a set of twenty-four organ sonatas, one for each of the major and minor keys, but he had only completed twenty of them by his death in 1901.note The four keys left unused were B-flat major, F-sharp major, E major, and C-sharp minor.
Bela Bartok was working on his third piano concerto and his viola concerto at the time of his death from leukaemia in 1945; he had finished all but the orchestration of the final 17 bars of the piano concerto, which his student Tibor Serly polished off before the work's premiere (and which are now accepted as canonical in performances of the work). The viola concerto was in a much more fragmentary state, with much of the instrumentation and texture still to be completed; although both Serly and, fifty years later, the composer's son Peter (in collaboration with Paul Neubauer and Nelson Dellamaggiore) produced performance versions of the work, they are much more speculative than the performance version of the piano concerto.
Marc Blitzstein was working on the operas Idiots First and Sacco and Vanzetti when he was murdered. Both were subsequently completed by Leonard Lehrman.
Tupac Shakur has become incredibly prolific after death. After a stint in prison and making a deal with the devil in the form of signing with infamous record label Death Row, Tupac churned out a mammoth number of songs (mainly by way of recording the vocals for said song in marathon recording sessions) prior to his death. The logic for this was to both make up for lost time after spending a year in prison at the height of his career and get his Death Row label contract fulfilled ASAP due to him realizing what a huge mistake it was to sign with the infamous label. Since then, a good number of posthumous albums have been made and they've even constructed a lifelike hologram of him for Doctor Dre and Snoop Dog to perform tracks featuring Tupac alongside them in concert. Naturally, a common Epileptic Tree is that Tupac is still alive and producing new material.
Franz Schubert left no less than four unfinished symphonies upon his death, including his 8th, the "Unfinished Symphony". He also left around half a dozen piano sonatas in partially completed states, most of which have been speculatively sketched to completion by some performers but all of which are generally either performed in their incomplete states or simply dropped from the repertoire. Schubert generally sketched pieces to the point where he could easily complete them if he found a publisher for them, but his success rate at finding publishers for his work during his lifetime was rather modest, meaning he left many unfinished manuscripts at his death.
The day before Brazilian satirical band Mamonas Assassinas were to start an international tour (which would be followed by a break to record their second album), they were killed in a plane crash.
The Visual KeiSymphonic Metal band Versailles had gone major in 2009, was recording their second full-length album, and was about to embark on its first world tour as a major band when, on August 9th, bassist Jasmine You, one of the most notable names in the VK scene, suddenly fell ill and died (with the exact cause of his death never announced publicly). Understandably, the band's activities were halted and the album release postponed. Unlike many of the examples on this page, however, they didn't break up; they went on their world tour the next year with Masashi (who later became a permanent band member) on support bass, and guitarist Hizakifilled in Jasmine's missing bass parts for the album.
Michael Jackson died in 2009, weeks before the scheduled start of his planned This Is It concerts in London. He had been working on new songs in the last few years of his life as well; some were completed posthumously (with infamous Michael soundalike Jason Malachi reportedly handling vocals on several tracks), bundled together with unused songs from older albums, and released as Michael in 2010. Most of Jackson's unused material was released in his lifetime to fill out reissues and a box set; so far the only post-Michael release with more "vault" stuff was the Bad reissue in 2012.
It didn't take Led Zeppelin long to decide to break up after John Bonham died. Bonham's death was particularly ill-timed: it happened on the day Zep were rehearsing for a new US tour.
After their brief reunion at Live 8, it seemed like we might finally hear a new Pink Floyd album. Then Syd Barrett and Richard Wright died...
David Gilmour had flatly squashed the idea of any new work before the Live 8 show took place. And Syd Barrett, who sadly became increasingly mentally unstable due to his drug abuse while in the band, had left the music business for good by the mid-1970s.
Gilmour and Mason have recently announced that a new Floyd album, based on recordings done in 1994 during the sessions for The Division Bell, that feature Richard Wright, will be released in the fall of 2014. Fans whipped out the Epileptic Trees theory again that Waters would be involved in a new Floyd project like the chatter post-Live 8, but the pair again put that quickly to rest.
After Queen frontman Freddie Mercury died in 1991, many of his final recordings with the band were completed in 1995 for the Made In Heaven album. Mercury's final vocal performance is on the song "Mother Love,", in which Brian May sings the final verse as Mercury left the studio to rest, and then ultimately never returned to finish it.
Brian May and John Taylor recruited Bad Company singer Paul Rogers to revive Queen, but the results, while not disastrous, were received lukewarmly by critics. May & Taylor intend to revive the band yet again with Adam Lambert for a pair of tours in 2014.
May is working on a new Queen album, Queen Forever, based on long-lost demos and other recordings featuring Freddie Mercury, that is also meant for release in 2014.
John Paul Larkin, aka Scatman John, sadly died of lung cancer in his Los Angeles home on December 3, 1999.
There's been speculation that Otis Redding intended "(Sittin' on) The Dock of The Bay" to be part of a Sgt. Pepper-like concept album, but he was killed in a plane crash 18 days after recording it, and he didn't record anything else before then.
Buddy Holly wrote a bunch of new songs in the months leading up to his death (including "Peggy Sue Got Married" and "Crying, Waiting, Hoping") and recorded acoustic guitar demos of them. We'll never know how he intended to arrange them, but that didn't stop his label from overdubbing and releasing them on two separate occasions.
Former La Bouche singer Melanie Thornton died in a plane crash before her solo album could be completed. The vocals from two of her unreleased songs were used in a Posthumous Collaboration with the rest of the group.
Keyboardist Dwayne Goettel of Skinny Puppy died of a heroin overdose while the album The Process was in the works, and the rest of the group disbanded for several years. Cevin and Ogre reformed the group in 2003 with Mark Walk.
Run-D.M.C. producer Jason "Jam Master Jay" Mizell was murdered in 2002, and the group more or less died with him.
Influential Manchester Post-Punk/Goth band Joy Division had just finished a well-received European tour, completed their second album, had just produced a promo video for their soon-to-be hit single "Love Will Tear Us Apart", and were poised on the brink of international recognition. The night before they were due to leave for a major tour of the USA, frontman Ian Curtis committed suicide by hanging in his home. His history of depression and severe epilepsy made suicide almost inevitable according to his friends and family; but no one expected it that soon. The rest of the band changed their name to New Order, updated their sound to a more synth-based New Wave, and went on to greater commercial success.
Satirized by Peter Schickele in P.D.Q. Bach's Unbegun Symphony, which only has a third and a fourth movement; in his monologue describing the piece, he explains that he was born too late to write the first two movements.
Layne Staley, lead singer and co-songwriter for grunge outfit Alice in Chains died of a drug overdose in 2002. The band never officially split, but Staley's addiction meant that he was reclusive from the late nineties til his death, which meant that the band was also inactive. In 2005 the band reunited, replacing Staley with William DuVall.
T. Rex leader Marc Bolan was killed in a car crash, ending the band immediately.
After five years of rising success, three members of Lynyrd Skynyrd were killed in a plane crash while the rest were seriously injured. The band's fifth album, Street Survivors, was released three days before the crash; the album cover art originally superimposed a group shot of the band onto a city street engulfed in flames, and had to be pulled from store shelves and replaced with an alternate version of the group shot on a plain black background (recent CD re-releases have restored the original cover). Eerily, Steve Gaines, who died in the crash, appeared to have his eyes closed and had his head surrounded by flames on the original cover.
When Jeff Buckley drowned in the Wolf River in 1997, he left behind an entire album worth of material that the producers had to guess the order of the songs that were going to appear. The double album Sketches for My Sweetheart the Drunk was released the following year, reflecting the album's Troubled Production - the first disc contained the basically finished songs he and his band recorded with Tom Verlaine as Record Producer, and the second disc is home demos made on a 4-track recorder.
The Exploding Hearts were a punk-revival band from Seattle best known for their catchy songs and melodies. They probably could have made it big if it weren't for the fact that in 2003 their van rolled over, killing 3 of the members. This left behind only one completed album, Guitar Romantic, and several unreleased songs for a scheduled album for the following year, and very little live footage of the band. Shattered was released in 2006 with the songs and several remixes along with a DVD of probably the only recording of a live Exploding Hearts performance in existence.
Heaven and Hell singer Ronnie James Dio (formerly of Black Sabbath) died of stomach cancer in 2010. Since Heaven and Hell only existed so the non-Ozzy members of Sabbath could play with Dio again, the band pretty much ceased to existed after he died. Ronnie's main band, Dio, were also working on two follow-ups to their Magica concept album prior to his death. The story will never be completed now. (Making the way he cuts off the narration of Magica's storyline with some teases cut off by a michevious "Ah! But thats another story!" to make you wait for the next installment much Harsher in Hindsight.)
Randy Rhoads died at the age of 25, after just two albums with Ozzy Osbourne. Although Ozzy continued to record and perform (obviously) the sound of the band changed after Randy's death, since he made significant contributions to the songwriting of the band at the time.
Milli Vanilli was planning a comeback with Rob and Fab as the actual lead singers, with the "Girl You Know It's True" vocalists as back-up singers. Their album, "Back and In Attack," was cancelled when Rob suddenly died of a drug overdose in 1998. A few years earlier, Rob and Fab (who had already recorded as Empire Bizarre before the creation of Milli Vanilli) released a new album of their own performances, without the Milli Vanilli moniker. Despite a promotional appearance on The Arsenio Hall Show, the album fell afoul of distribution problems, and very few copies made it to stores. Since Rob's death, Fab Morvan has recorded as a solo artist, and has made European TV appearances singing Milli Vanilli's hits. Obviously, his renditions sound absolutely nothing like those of the original vocalists.
Jazz critics usually cite the 1961 live recordings by pianist Bill Evans and his trio at New York's Village Vanguard as Evans' Growing the Beard moment, but 10 days after those shows were recorded bassist Scott LaFaro died in a car accident. The incident traumatized Evans and worsened his already heavy heroin addiction. Evans himself died in 1980 (of a drug-related bleeding ulcer) just as he was entering a creative renaissance. LaFaro is an interesting case because, due to his elevation of the bass' role to counterpoint to instead of solely support to the soloist, he is frequently regarded as being one of the three most influential bassists in jazz. The other two, Jimmy Blanton and Jaco Pastorius, also died at similarly young ages.note LaFaro was 25, Blanton was 23, Pastorius was 35
In another case of Author Existence Failure making an album possible, a Linda McCartney collection called Wild Prairie, which contained everything that she ever professionally sang lead on, was released in 1998 or 1999, after she died. Paul wanted the world to know she was a great musician, regardless of the evidence... The Wings-era works are mixed at best, but her most recent songs are excellent if you can get past the lyrics. "The White-Coated Man" (a collaboration with Chrissie Hynde) is especially haunting.
George Gershwin died after writing five songs for the movie The Goldwyn Follies; when he died, he was intending to compose a ballet for the film's dancing star Vera Zorina to choreography by George Balanchine. After George Gershwin's death, Vernon Duke supplied the additional music necessary for the film.
Hard rock band Snot was receiving a lot of attention in the late nineties from their major label debut Get Some and their infamous antics on the 1998 Ozzfest tour. They were working on a second album until singer Lynn Strait was tragically killed in a car accident. Because Lynn died before he recorded vocals for most of the album, the band used the recorded instrumental tracks for the tribute album Strait Up with guest vocals. The only track that had Lynn's vocals, "Choose What?", was later released as a bonus track on the live album Alive. The band broke up immediately following his death, but a couple of the members started a new revision of the band ten years later called Tons.
Type O Negative frontman Peter Steele died of heart failure in April 2010, just as he was due to begin writing and recording for a followup to Dead Again. With his passing, the band ceased to exist as well.
A year after her only top-10 hit, "Lovin' You", Minnie Riperton was diagnosed with breast cancer, and passed away three short years later at age 31. Her daughter, Maya Rudolph, has found success in Saturday Night Live.
Hank Williams died quite young (29), leaving plenty of unreleased material behind and inevitably having several posthumous hits. Hank Williams, Jr. even overdubbed one of his dad's unreleased songs as a "duet". Furthermore, Hank Sr. is one of the most respected and best-loved artists in the genre despite his short life.
ES Posthumus' Franz Vonlichten died in May of 2010, effectively stopping the group.
Kino frontman Viktor Tsoi died in a car crash in 1990, and the last act of his band was to release The Black Album.
Rich Mullins died in a car accident in 1997 while working on The Jesus Record. It was released the following year as a double album - one disc of Rich's home demo recordings, the other disc featuring the same songs (plus one extra) given the full band treatment by Mullins' "Ragamuffin Band".
Chuck Schuldiner, the guy who pretty much invented Death Metal with his band Death, was diagnosed with brain cancer in late 1999 and underwent surgery and radiation therapy. Unfortunately the cancer recurred in 2001, and a series of chemotherapy threatments weakened his body to the point that he died of pneumonia in December 2001.
Rolf Kohler, the lead singer of Systems in Blue, died of a stroke in September 2007. The rest of the group still managed to produce a second album, Out of the Blue, the following year.
1980s Austrian pop singer Falco was working on a comeback album, when he died tragically in an car accident in the Dominican Republic in 1998.
Back to Black is the last album we'll ever hear of Amy Winehouse. She was working on her third album when she died in 2011. Her last song, a duet with Tony Bennett called "Body and Soul", was released not long afterward.
Francisco "Frankie" Gutierrez, frontman and face of the Eurodance act Captain Jack, made famous by the Dance Dance Revolution series, died of a hemorrhagic stroke in 2005, ending the group for all practical purposes; Until 2008, with singer Bruce Lacy taking on the character of "The Captain".
TLC member Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes was killed in a car crash in 2002, during the recording of the group's latest album 3D. The album was eventually finished by T-Boz and Chilli (they were determined to finish it in Left Eye's honour), in some cases using Left Eye's previously-recorded rap solos. There was also a posthumous album of unfinished solo material that was released in 2009 and was finished with contributions from many artists, including Missy Elliot, Chamillionaire and the remaining members of TLC, T-boz and Chili, as well as Left Eye's sister Reigndrop.
Mark Linkous, leader/only constant member of cult indie rock band Sparklehorse, had dealt with depression for most of his life and had notably attempted suicide in 1996 while his band was touring as Radiohead's opening act. That suicide attempt caused damage to his legs which never quite healed. Linkous eventually took his own life in 2010, shortly before the wide release of his Dark Night of the Soul collaboration with Danger Mouse and David Lynch. Another project, Sparklehorse's fifth album, was left in a near-complete state after his death and has not yet seen the light of day.
The B-52s began recording their Bouncing Off The Satellites album in 1985. The album was originally recorded early in this year, but the record company rejected this version. The band starting rerecording the album with producer Tony Mansfield. Unfortunately, guitarist Ricky Wilson died during the sessions for the second version of the album, which meant that the songs he hadn't recorded parts for had to be overdubbed by session musicians. They were so short on material that one of the songs on the album (Juicy Jungle) is an outtake from Fred Schneider's 1984 solo album. Whilst Bouncing Off The Satellites and several singles from it were released in 1986, the remaining band members were too upset due to Ricky's death to tour or promote it. Luckily, it got better - drummer Keith took Ricky's place on guitar in 1988 and they started recording new material. They have been together ever since.
The sudden death of Peter Christopherson in November 2010 put an end to Throbbing Gristle.
Bradley Nowell, the singer, songwriter and guitarist for Sublime died a few months before the release of his band's breakout third album. This meant their label had a hit album, no band to send out on tour and no chance for a follow up album. Instead, the surviving two members and Brad's dog Louie starred in a series of music videos released for each of the three singles released for the album. The label proceeded to fulfill the rest of the band's record deal with a continuous (and morbid) series of rarity and greatest hits albums that continue to be released to this day. The two other members went on to a series of other bands of varying success before reforming as Sublime with Rome, which is legally not the same thing as Sublime due to Nowell's estate owning the copyright on the name.
Similar to the Shostakovich example, Claude Debussy planned a collection of six instrumental sonatas, but only completed three before he died.
The fate of Beastie Boys' final album Hot Sauce Committee Part 1 is now uncertain with the death of Adam "MCA" Yauch in May 2012. The surviving members Ad-Rock and Mike D have said that they may perform together in the near future, but not with the Beastie Boys moniker.
Harry Nilsson, who hadn't released an album since 1980 (and that album wasn't even issued in the United States), began recording a comeback album starting in 1993. He died on January 15, 1994, and it's been reported that he finished the album a few days before that. A few tracks have been leaked, but there's never been any indication that the album, provisionally titled Papa's Got a Brown New Robe, will ever be released.
A plane crash in March 1963 killed Country Music artists Patsy Cline, Cowboy Copas and Hawkshaw Hawkins. All three had singles on the charts at the time (in fact, Hawkins' "Lonesome 7-7203" had just been released, and would go on to #1 two months later), but Cline was the only one of the three who had continued posthumous chart success.
Keith Whitley died of alcohol poisoning at age 34 in 1989, three months before the release of his most successful album, I Wonder Do You Think of Me. This album produced #1 hits in its title track and "It Ain't Nothin'", plus the Top 3 hit "I'm Over You". After that, he charted the Top 20 duet with his widow Lorrie Morgan on "Til a Tear Becomes a Rose", which appeared on a Greatest Hits Album. RCA Records released Kentucky Bluebird in 1991, which included several unfinished demos fitted with new instrumentation and other previously-unreleased tidbits ranging from already-finished songs to American Country Countdown interviews. Two of the songs on this album, "Somebody's Doing Me Right" and "Brotherly Love" made the charts, with the latter (a duet with Earl Thomas Conley) going to #1 on Radio & Records. It was followed in 1994 with a tribute album featuring various artists' covers of Keith's songs (most notably Alison Krauss' cover of "When You Say Nothing at All", which was a Top 5 hit), and a couple other previously-unreleased tracks, including a Posthumous Collaboration with Morgan. A year later, the same label released Wherever You Are Tonight, also composed of demos with new instrumentation dubbed in.
Now that Jeff Hanneman has passed away, Slayer may become a three-piece band with a touring guitarist, or else said touring guitarist may become an official member once work on their upcoming album is completed. Before Hanneman's death, Kerry King stated that if he recovered from his health problems, he'd be welcome to return to the studio, but now King's forced to record all the guitar parts himself anyway.
Mitch Lucker's fatal motorcycle accident left Suicide Silence without a vocalist and an uncertain future. )They eventually brought in Eddie Hermida of All Shall Perish to replace Mitch.)
KMD was a hip hop group in the early 90s that had success with an album titled Mr. Hood. However, shortly before the release of the controversial album Black Bastards, member DJ Subroc died in a car crash, leaving the album unreleased until 2001. KMD broke up, and member Zev Love X, brother of Subroc, was deeply affected by his death, put on a mask, and started rapping as the mysterious MF DOOM.
Folk-rocker Jim Croce died in an airplane crash in Louisiana in 1973, but had four chart singles after his death. The most famous of the four was his Top 10 hit "I'll Have to Say I Love You in a Song".
Similar to The Exploding Hearts, 90s Alternative Rock group For Squirrels had their career suddenly halted by a van accident around the time their only hit "Mighty K.C." was on the charts. Lead singer Jack Vigliatura and bassist Bill White were killed. They released two albums, and one of those (Baypath Rd) was self-released and is long out of print. The remaining trio reformed under the name Subrosa, and released one album, Never Bet The Devil Your Head, before splitting up.
Cali Swag District is an Los Angeles-based rap group that recorded the 2010 Dance Sensation "Teach Me How to Dougie". One of their members, Montae "M-Bone" Talbert, was murdered in a drive-by shooting in Inglewood, California in May 2011. They released the song "How to Do That" 3 days later in his honor. Their first album, which they were recording at the time, was released in July 2011 and they have only released one mixtape since. Although most dance sensations are one hit wonders anyway, the death of one of their members only a year after their hit song was release couldn't have helped matters.
Hi-NRG magnate Patrick Cowley died of AIDS just months after releasing his third album, Mind Warp.
Gary Gygax left many unfinished projects behind for Dungeons & Dragons, including his oft-promised but never delivered Castle Greyhawk dungeon complex.
Carl Sargent, a popular module writer for TSR, disappeared suddenly in the late '90s, leaving many D&D fans wondering what happened. According to a fellow module writer and friend of his, Sean K. Reynolds, the truth is that he was involved in a car wreck in 1997 and has been unable to write due the severity of his injuries.
In 1995, Nigel Findley, game designer and novelist who wrote for Dungeons & Dragons, Shadowrun, and other RPGs, died suddenly of a heart attack at age 35. His work introduced many key metaplot elements (e.g. bug spirits) to the Shadowrun game setting, which later authors expanded upon.
Jonathan Larson, the creator of the Rock OperaRENT, died the night before opening night of an aortic dissection, thought to be caused by an undiagnosed case of Marfan syndrome. Mourning his death, the cast performed half of the show sitting down before the high energy of the Act 1 closer, La Vie Boheme, caused them to continue the show as usual, minus costumes.
Late in his life, Eugene O'Neill began work on two massive drama cycles: A Tale of Possessors Self-Dispossessed, which was supposed to have as many as eleven plays, and By Way of Obit, which would consist of eight one-act monologue plays. He only managed to complete one play in each cycle, A Touch of the Poet from the former (the fifth play out of the projected eleven) and Hughie from the latter, before illness prevented further writing (though he did supervise the 1946 premiere of The Iceman Cometh). All the incomplete plays were destroyed, with the exception of More Stately Mansions (the sequel to A Touch of the Poet), which survived in draft form.
The death of John Latouche while working on the musical Candide with Leonard Bernstein is one major reason the show ended up having so many lyricists. Bernstein himself, librettist Lillian Hellman and Dorothy Parker all contributed a little, but finally Richard Wilbur became the principal lyricist and rewrote many of the Latouche songs.
The Legacy of Kain series was supposed to have one more game to tie up all the lose ends. However, the departure of series writer Amy Hennig for uncharted waters and the death of Tony Jay, one of the major voice actors, means that the series is now in limbo. Not only did Hennig leave, two of the other main writers (out of a group of four, with Hennig being the lead and most well known) left the company as well. The fourth? He passed away.
The death of lead developer Brian Wood of Relic may leave the fate of Dawn of War in limbo as well as the company itself.
Florian Husky, the creator of Super Mario War and one of the founders of 72dpiarmy committed suicide before progress of the game was ever finalized. While others working on the project tried their best to keep the it alive, development has officially ceased, with only a single bug release update left that has yet to show.
A sequel to Illbleed was going to be developed, but the death of the president of Climax Graphics, makers of the series, stopped all plans for it.
Tragedy struck for the Dynasty Warriors franchise when Tsuyoshi Takishita, the thirty-seven-year-old voice actor who'd famously voiced the character Sima Yi for every installment — seven main games plus side games, spanning over a decade — succumbed to injuries from a bad fall on his way home less than two weeks after the release of Shinsangokumusou 7 (Dynasty Warriors 8).
Cryptic Studios video artist and Star Trek Online Foundry author Mark "h2orat" Valentine died of cancer over the second weekend of September 2013. This left his Foundry mission series "The Rising Phoenix" with No Ending, the first mission having ended on a cliffhanger.
When Nasus, a playable character in League of Legends, was slated to have a visual upgradenote where a character's model, animations, artwork, and/or voiceovers change in order to maintain a high standard of quality across all champions, many people were worried because Riot would need to re-cast the character, as his original voice actor, Eugene McDaniels, had died. The new voice actor retained the Badass Baritone that the character is well-known for, and most players agreed that, while it was unfortunate that something like this had to happen eventually, the new VA proved to be a good Spiritual Successor.
Mechaspyder is a cute, fairly-popular 3D Flash browser game where you are a spider and you jump on squares to get to the gold square. The game ended with a note indicating a sequel in the works. Unfortunately, the game's creator, Richard Barron, died in a car accident before work would be started on the sequel.
M.U.L.E. was a classic of early computer gaming. Its creator Danielle Bunten was working on an online version when she died in 1998, and the game has sadly been officially out of print ever since.
The co-creator of the Oculus Rift (a VR headset designed primarily with gaming in mind,) Andrew Scott Reisse, was run over by gangbangers escaping law enforcement in the spring of 2013. This event helped soften up the sale of the company to Facebook several months later, leading many on the internet to wonder if the technology's future will continue to remain as bright as initially promised.
Joe D'Angelo, creator of webcomic Pirate's Cove, decided to avert this trope and created an "ending" that would be revealed if he died prematurely.
Similar to the above, the writer of Looking for Group and Least I Could Do has mentioned keeping a special script which should resolve things, and his notes on future plots, in a safe in the event that he passes away before his comics finish. Either the artist has the combination, or one of their wives do.
Paul Gadzikowski of Arthur, King of Time and Space is another example - his plan involves synthesising the many Arthurian legends into an overarching story to be told in "real time" over the twenty-five years of Arthur's reign (although he has jumped forward by a couple of years and has hinted that he will probably do so again). He has stated on several occasions that he has kept detailed notes about the rest of the story in case he passes away before the comic is due to finish in the mid to late 2020s. He ended up bringing the strip to an early end on January 6, 2014, in order to concentrate on his family's health.
Every so often, Megatokyo's Fred Gallagher will poke fun at his sometimes-glacial update pace, and on one occasion kinda hinted at this trope.
Scott Kuehner passed away in January of 2009, leaving the world of Look What I Brought Home with a bunch of unanswered questions. Now we'll never know what happens with Bess or Kunky.
N-Fans: The Series began to flounder in 2007, when creator Webster Swenson passed away unexpectedly. The people who inspired the other characters made a few attempts to revive the series and keep it going in his memory, but the entire website has stagnated since early 2008.
Angel "Inqy" Yates of Wicked Alchemy wrote on her LiveJournal about her declining health not long before her sudden death in the summer of 2009. In addition to the webcomic, she also had a slice-of-life comic strip, Onna Chance, and a pirate avatar game. Sadly, Onna Chance and her original site Mutedfaith are both down, a more than a year after her death.
Bad Bunny: After doing a reprint of a classic set of strips for Pennsic, it looked like the author Wolfie was going to get back to the original strip's storyline of pants too tight (this is a strip where the mundane becomes insanely funny). Unfortunately Wolfie - real name W. Michael Dooley - contracted H1N1, and died aged 41 in December 2009.
Tom Siddell, of Gunnerkrigg Court, joked that due to his strip buffer, if he were to keel over and die this instant, we'd still get about three months worth of strips.
The creator of Just Another Webcomic passed away after coming out of a coma. He was only 9 pages into the third volume of his work, which he was unable to continue after the coma because he had lost a lot of sensation in his drawing arm.
It's a common joke among the Schlock Mercenary fandom that no one will notice when Howard Tayler dies, due to his perfect update schedule.note The comic has gone its entire nearly 14 year run with new strips every day. Once, the day's strip was late by several hours. Because the server's power supply had exploded with enough force to destroy three walls. At the end of the universe, there will be a few scattered neutrinos, some clumps of exotic matter, and 'Schlock Mercenary'', still updating every 24 hours without fail.
In October of 2012, DrunkDuck featured The Adventures of Wristance on its front page. Unfortunately however, creator Distance Erin Larkins was unable to enjoy the attention, as she had committed suicide mere days before the featuring.
The future of Sugar Bits remains to be seen since the passing of the comic's writer Dondi "DMajorBoss" Bethea, who lost his life to cancer on May 6th, 2013.
Spoofed in PRIMARCHS, where the Emperor of Mankind! obliterates the writer at the keyboard for back-chatting him. He gets better.
The Gungan Council has had two confirmed deaths of writers: Skelosh Delaroch and Raven Darkness.
Just barely avoided by Brittany Murphy's character Luann Platter in King of the Hill, which ended in September 2009 (even though there were four episodes that FOX didn't air that ended up getting aired on [adult swim] and in syndication) - Murphy died of pneumonia (with secondary factors of iron-deficiency anemia and multiple drug intoxication, which led to cardiac arrest) in December of the same year, nixing any chance of a revival (unless Luann was written out or replaced with another voice actress). Previously averted with Victor Aaron, the original voice of John Redcorn. Aaron's only appearance as Redcorn was in the season one episode "Order of the Straight Arrow." Aaron died in a car accident shortly after recording his lines for the episode. As a result, "Order of the Straight Arrow" was dedicated in his memory and the crew hired another voice actor (Johnathon Joss) for John Redcorn rather than drop the character (as he was too important to drop; he was the guy who was dating Dale's wife, Nancy).
Phil Hartman's characters Lionel Hutz and Troy McClure on The Simpsons were retired out of respect following Phil Hartman's murder. Lionel Hutz was replaced by Gil Gunderson as the town's incompetent lawyer and Troy McClure disappeared, without so much of a mention as to what could have happened to him (though it can be said that the countless celebrity cameos the show has had since the Mike Scully era could be Troy's replacement for the actor who takes crummy roles just for the money).
Similarly, he was the original choice to play Zapp Brannigan on Futurama, but died before the first episode aired. Phillip J. Fry was named in Hartman's memory and Billy West was hired to play Brannigan, capturing a similar smug overtone that would make Hartman proud.
Similarly, The Simpsons retired Lunch Lady Doris for many years due to the death of her voice, Doris Grau, but in recent years she's speaking again (courtesy of Tress MacNeille), unlike Hutz and McClure.
Hartman also made a guest appearance in the third season cliffhanger of 3rd Rock from the Sun, but was killed before the resolution could be filmed. The part was re-cast.
Now that Marcia Wallace has died, long-running side character Edna Krabappel will be retired.
Kathleen Freeman, the voice of Ms. Gordon in As Told by Ginger, died before she finished her role in the episode "No Hope for Courtney." As a result, the character she played passed away instead of getting out of retirement as originally planned. The whole episode was dedicated to the voice actor.
Mary Kay Bergman, who originally voiced most of the female characters on South Park (including Mrs. Marsh, Mrs. Broflovski, Mrs. Mc Cormick, Mrs. Cartman, Wendy, etc.) killed herself after years of being plagued with depression and an anxiety disorder just after finishing recording her parts for the show's third season. "Starvin Marvin In Space" and "Mr. Hankey's Christmas Classics" were dedicated in her memory.
Toy Story 3 features Slinky Dog, formerly voiced by Jim "Ernest" Varney, who died in 2000. Varney's friend Blake Clark supplied Slinky's voice for the third films since it was felt that Slinky was too important to disappear offscreen.
Now that Mako, the voice of Aku in Samurai Jack has died, it won't be the same when the feature film is released with someone else voicing such a memorable villain.
Although Avatar: The Last Airbender was able to get by with Greg Baldwin doing a quite good impression of him. Rather eerily, the show's creators claim that they had always planned to have Iroh not speak in his first couple appearances in season 3, which ended up giving them some extra time to find a replacement.
Baldwin was apparently Mako's understudy, which explains why he was able to pitch the voice and accent so well - while there are differences, they're not too noticable and don't detract from quality much.
Mel Blanc passed away during production of The Jetsons Movie. While he had finished the majority of his role as Mr Spacely, some lines had to be filled in by Jeff Bergman. Allegedly, George O' Hanlon was a somewhat poignant close call, finishing his final line moments before passing away in the recording studio, a handful of lines were still filled in by Bergman in the final film however.
Similar to the Aku example above, Tony Jay's death means that any continuation of ReBoot will have to recast Megabyte since he's too major of a character to be phased out.
Acclaimed comic book writer Dwayne McDuffie died during the early production stages of Ben 10: Omniverse, which resulted a new series producer in Derrick J. Wyatt, who proceeded to undo a number of both McDuffie's and franchise creators Man of Action Studios' creative decisions.
A sidekick to Space Ghost was proposed to be in Space Ghost Coast to Coast during pre-production, and the producers were in negotiations with Fantasy Island star Hervé Villechaize to portray the sidekick. Sadly, Villechaize committed suicide before the negotiations could continue, resulting in the sidekick getting scrapped.
DuckTales had the characters Gyro Gearloose and Flintheart Glomgold played by Hal Smith, Mrs. Beakley played by Joan Gerber, and Fenton Crackshell/Gizmoduck played by Hamilton Camp. Hal Smith died in 1994, Joan Gerber passed away in 2011, and Hamilton Camp kicked the bucket in 2005. Because DuckTales: Remastered was made long after their deaths, all of their characters had to be recast (Chris Edgerly played Gyro, Eric Bauza was the new Fenton/Gizmoduck, Brian George was chosen to play Glomgold, and Wendee Lee was the new voice for Mrs. Beakley).
Walt Disney. Though, contrary to certain urban legends, he did not cryogenically (or otherwise) preserve any part of his body and did not tell his employees exactly what to do after he left. The last Disney film made entirely during his lifetime was 1967's The Jungle Book.
WWE superstar Michael "Hawk" Hegstrand appeared with his partner Joe "Animal" Laurinatis on the May 17, 2003 WWE RAW and despite his history of severe drug and alcohol abuse, performed exceptionally well, as he had finally gotten completely clean. According to those who knew him, Hegstrand had dedicated himself to staying drug-free for the rest of his life; unfortunately, his years of drug abuse had taken such a physical toll on his body that he died of a heart attack six months later.
The solution of Fermat's Last Theorem stymied mathematicians for over 300 years and was finally solved using mathematics unavailable during Fermat's own time. Famously Pierre de Fermat noted that he already had a proof for it, which the margin was too small to contain. That the eventual proof involved mathematical principles that wouldn't be codified until the 20th century casts some doubt on this claim.
Phil Stone co-created the Roy D. Mercer prank call character for his morning radio show on KMOD-FM in Tulsa, and the character was voiced by his co-host, Brent Douglas. For nearly 15 years, they released many of the Roy D. Mercer calls on CD as well. One month after the show ended in 2012, Stone died of heart disease.
24 aspiring Chinese artists were at an exhibition in Malaysia. Their return fight, MH370, was the last flight they would ever have. MH370 and all her crew and passengers went missing and has yet to be found.