The Canterbury Tales is a collection of short stories written in Late Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer in the late 14th century about a group of travellers on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedralnote Same guy who was murdered in T. S. Eliot's Murder In The Cathedral. To pass the time on what was then a journey of several days, they decide to hold a storytelling contest where each pilgrim will tell two tales on the journey to Canterbury and two tales on the return trip. Originally, Chaucer was going to write all 124 tales, but was unable to finish them before his death in 1400.The pilgrims' tales cover a wide variety of genres, from morality plays to romances to bawdy tales with lots of sex and fart jokes.The tales are often published these days in verse "translations" (or even in prose), but as the excerpt of the opening lines above shows, they are perfectly comprehensible in the original in a good edition with footnotes.Compare to The Decameron, another Late Medieval collection of stories within a Frame Story involving travel; some of the stories are similar, and indeed many of the stories seem inspired by those in Boccaccio's collection (that said, it appears that Chaucer never directly copied a story; he probably merely read The Decameron while on a diplomatic mission in Italy, and did not have access to a copy when he was writing the Tales).
Break the Haughty: The theme of the Monk's Tale. It's not just one story, he picks a famous great figure, then tells about how he failed and died, then moves onto another one, over and over again. He says he has a hundred, but the Knight cuts him off after seventeen when he gets to Peter of Cyprus — The Knight's former commander.
The Designated Hero of the Wife of Bath's tale also gets a well-deserved lesson or two on treating women right.
Broken Aesop: The incredibly greedy Pardoner gives a story teaching the evils of greed. He even mentions how ironic this is.
There's also the fact that the Merchant tells his tale with an intent of showing how marriage is terrible and women are lying liars who lie. Made hilarious due to the fact that the Merchant is drawing from his two months of experience in the realm of marriage to condemn the whole thing.
Content Warnings: In "The Miller's Prologue", the narrator makes an aside to warn the reader that the upcoming tale is going to be obscene, and whoever doesn't like it should "turn over the leef and chese another tale."
An indirect example: the miller himself basically tells everyone "Okay, I'm stinking drunk, so if anyone gets offended by what I say, blame it on the Southwerk ale."
Corrupt Church: All too common in the stories. Though the Church always formally condemned simony (i.e., the sale of sacraments and Church offices), there were also always those making end-runs around the rules.
Case in point, the Parson and the Nuns are about the only religious pilgrims in the story that aren't corrupt.
Country Matters: "queynte" (The Miller's Tale, The Wife of Bath's Prologue). In "The Miller's Tale" Chaucer makes puns from the double meaning of "queynte"—at the end of the 14th century that word meant both Country Matters and the modern meaning of "quaint".
Courtly Love: Arcite and Palamon for Emily in "The Knight's Tale".
Evil Will Fail: The three villainous protagonists of "The Pardoner's Tale" kill each other because of their greed.
Exact Words: In "The Pardoner's Tale", the protagonists are told that they can find Death under the oak tree. After killing each other over the gold they find at the oak tree, they do indeed find Death.
Fan Sequel: Some of the earliest examples in English literature, including:
Alexander Pope also wrote a few works that combined this with a pastiche/parody.
In one of the first pieces of Fan Fiction, there is a narrative tale The Tale of Beryn which makes the Pardoner's sexuality less ambiguous by showing his attempts to seduce a tavern wench.
The prologue of The Siege of Thebes by John Lydgate, one of Chaucer's literary successors, includes a Self-Insert Fic in which the author meets the pilgrims after their arrival at Canterbury, and is asked to provide the first tale on the return journey.
Numerous late medieval authors attempted to complete the unfinished bits of the Tales, as well; there are a few efforts at finishing the Cook's Tale, and two different efforts at a tale for the Plowman (the only pilgrim described in the General Prologue who doesn't tell even an unfinished tale), the better known of which was meant to suggest that Chaucer was essentially a proto-Protestant.
History of English: Hugely, hugely important in the development of English as a literary language. Chaucer's work is arguably responsible for the adoption of his London dialect as the standard from which modern English developed. The roughly contemporary Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, alliterative blank verse written in a northern dialect, makes a fascinating comparison.
It's All About Me: Pretty much the Pardoner's worldview. And he's shockingly proud of that fact.
The Joy of X: It's the origin of "The X's Tale" formula. The problem is that most references miss the "told by an X" instead of "about an" meaning of the original. For example, the film A Knight's Tale, is set in Medieval Europe.
Knight in Shining Armor: The Knight fits personality wise (or so he would have us believe), but actually has rather dirty, worn-out armor, because he's an experienced soldier who has got a lot of use out of it.
The Lady's Favour: An unorthodox example with the Monk, who basically acts like a typical nobleman in spite of his religious profession. He is described wearing a gold pin with a "love knot" (his sweetheart/mistress') hair inside it.
May-December Romance: Trope Namer, per Brewer's: The story of May and January in "The Merchant's Tale" (the expression having altered over time). note Until the 18th century, the English calendar began the year in March, so January was quite late in the year instead of being the first month.
Moral Myopia: The Prioress cares more for dogs than she does for Jews
No Ending: The tales simply stop before all the pilgrims have supplied one, and the framing narration never states that they have made it to Canterbury. Critics have argued about whether or not the story is unfinished. Chaucer's so-called retraction, which is usually appended to the tales as an ad hoc epilogue doesn't make matters any clearer.
Old Maid: Reading between the lines, the Prioress is getting past her prime and is overweight from her lifestyle, but is still pretty concerned with her features.
Put Off Their Food: Happens in the prologue. While the Cook is a Supreme Chef, Chaucer unfortunately can't enjoy a dish of his because its appearance reminds him too much of a nasty running sore the Cook has on his leg.
Refuge in Audacity: "The Pardoner's Tale" begins with the Pardoner bragging about his hypocrisy and all the fake relics he sells. At the end of his tale, an effective moral tale, he offers the same relics to the other pilgrims.
Rousseau Was Right: The Franklin's Tale — the knight releases his lady from the guilt of the promise she made, the lady fulfills her promise, the squire releases the lady from her promise to him, and the magician forgives the squire of the thousand-gold-coin debt he'd incurred, when hearing of the nobility of the above people. Awww.
Rump Roast: Absalom burns Nicolas's bottom with a hot poker.
Sexy Priest: The Friar loves associating with the fairer sex, and is kind enough to perform marriages which he has made necessary. The Pardoner also says he would like to keep a wench in every town, but considering how downright creepy he is. Probably the Monk too, given the love knot he wears, and the Host alleges the Nun's Priest is one of these (see Unwanted Harem below), but the Nun's Priest denies it. The Summoner's Tale features one, being a Take That against the Friar, as does The Shipman's Tale. Most of these examples are more along the lines of "lecherous priest" than necessarily "good looking priest", and the Nun's Priest is probably the only example who isn't a slimy bastard.
Short-Lived Big Impact: The Canterbury Tales was never even finished. It is still considered one of the most influential books of the English language despite the fact it was written in Middle English.
Sliding Scale of Idealism Versus Cynicism: One of a small number of works that manages to range successfully over every part of the spectrum from extremely idealistic (The Knight's Tale, The Franklin's Tale) to extremely cynical (The Miller's Tale, The Pardoner's Tale), thanks to the framing device and the multiple narrators. Where Chaucer himself fell is a matter of some debate.
Stylistic Suck: Chaucer assigns himself a badly written Arthurian romance in verse as well as an interminable and boring prose tale; both the Cook and Monk have their tales booed down by the other pilgrims, as the Cook's is too bawdy and in the Monk's case, everyone expected him to tell a light, bawdy story, but instead he chose to recite a list of the tragic ends of various powerful people from ancient times to the present. Part of Terry Jones' reinterpretation of the Knight is to dispute that the Monk's Tale was bad note Jones argues that Medieval commoners would have enjoyed hearing about the rich and corrupt brought low and the Knight cut him off because he ''is'' one of those corrupt aristocrats., but in any case, it's been traditionally assumed to be intentionally bad.
The awful prose tale told by Chaucer is actually a translation of a real work, and arguably the Monk's Tale, which fits a contemporary genre of tragedy, and gets cut off by the Knight.
In-story, "The Miller's Tale" is often read as a parody of "The Knight's Tale," and the Miller himself seems to treat it as such. "The Reeve's Tale" is a direct attack on the Miller, and response to his tale. "The Summoner's Tale" is an attack on the Friar whose story is told immediately before.
Tampering with Food and Drink: In "The Pardoner's Tale", the youngest of the three rioters sneaks a poison into the wine he was sent into town for, in the hopes of killing the other two rioters and claiming the gold they found for himself.
Unwanted Harem: There's an interesting subtext to the "Nun's Priest's Tale". His story is a beast fable whose protagonist is a rooster with a number of wives. There is an implied parallel to the Nun's Priest himself who is a confessor for a group of nuns (possibly Naughty Nuns). He asserts that he is chaste though, and might be telling the truth.
An alternate interpretation is that the Nun is the rooster, with the "wives" being the priests who work for her. Note the rooster's vanity and stupidity.
What Might Have Been: Chaucer was planning for the tales to be between 100 and 120 chapters long. He only finished the first 24 before he died. We'll never know how much richer our language would be today if the man who contributed to our lexicon such phrases as arse and knobbe had survived to tell the remaining three fourths of his epic.