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Literature: Horatio Hornblower
"I recommend Forester to everyone literate I know."

A series of stories of a British member of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars, and probably C.S. Forester's most well-known work. The eponymous character, Horatio Hornblower, starts as an overaged midshipman at the start of the Napoleonic Wars, shy and awkward but with a knack for innovation and an inner drive that propels him to attempt improbable and daring feats. Unfortunately, he also has a complete inability to think well of himself, crossing the line from Humble Hero to someone afflicted with genuine, miserable self-loathing who views himself with "a sort of amused contempt" at best.

Fighting the eccentricities of the Royal Navy and his own temperament as much as the French and other enemies, Hornblower rises through the ranks with difficulty, worrying about his poverty, the many ways his career could be ruined, and the constant possibility of violent and painful death; meanwhile he conducts his missions to the utmost of his considerable ability. His career is detailed in twelve novels (written out of chronological order) and several short stories, and he rises from seasick midshipman to Lord.

The books also describe the mechanics of sailing wooden warships in exquisite detail, but Forester does go to the trouble of (occasionally) explaining the jargon to his readers, which may make them more accessible to the average reader than the Aubrey-Maturin series.

The character of Horatio Hornblower was inspired by the career of real-life Thomas Cochrane.

Novels

Listed in chronological series order with publication dates.

  • Mr. Midshipman Hornblower: 1950. A collection of short stories about Hornblower's first years at sea. It later became the basis of the series starring Ioan Gruffud.
  • Lieutenant Hornblower: 1952. Narrated from the point-of-view of Lieutenant Bush. A captain's madness imperils the ship during a dangerous mission in the Caribbean.
  • Hornblower and the Hotspur: 1962. Hornblower's first independent command, mostly on blockade duty.
  • Hornblower and the Crisis: 1967. The last published book, unfinished due to C.S. Forester's death. It would have dealt with the Battle of Trafalgar. Also includes two short stories—"Hornblower and the Widow McCool" and "The Last Encounter."
  • Hornblower and the Atropos: 1953. Hornblower commands the Atropos as they recover treasure in the Mediterranean.
  • The Happy Return (UK) / Beat to Quarters (US): 1937. The first published novel. Hornblower travels to Central America to fund—and then fight—a local tyrant while transporting Lady Barbara Wellesley.
  • A Ship of the Line: 1938. Hornblower takes command of the Sutherland and fights various battles up and down the French and Spanish coasts.
  • Flying Colours: 1938. Hornblower, Bush, and coxswain Brown escape from imprisonment in France.
  • The Commodore (UK) / Commodore Hornblower (US): 1945. Hornblower commands a squadron of ships to aid Russia in their fight against Napoleon.
  • Lord Hornblower: 1946. Hornblower returns to France to deal with mutineers and Napoleon's attempts to regain power.
  • Hornblower in the West Indies: 1957. Hornblower becomes an admiral during peacetime and has several adventures in the Caribbean.

Short Stories

Of somewhat dubious canonicity (see Canon Discontinuity). Three of them were published in magazines, while the last two were included with the uncompleted text of Hornblower and the Crisis. All of them were compiled for The Hornblower Addendum, only available on e-readers.

  • "The Hand of Destiny" 1940. Newly-promoted Lieutenant Hornblower must mediate between abused seamen and their tyrannical captain; also, one version of the battle with the Castilla.
  • "Hornblower and His Majesty" 1940. Hornblower is tasked with taking George III on a naval outing while an American ship lurks in the fog during The War of 1812.
  • "Hornblower's Charitable Offering / The Bad Semeritan" 1941. Hornblower and the Sutherland try to help the inmates of a Spanish prison island.
  • "Hornblower's Temptation / Hornblower and the Widow McCool" Published in Crisis. Hornblower must guard an Irish rebel slated for the rope.
  • "The Last Encounter" Published in Crisis. An encounter between a retired Hornblower and a French visitor on a mission.

Adaptations:

  • Captain Horatio Hornblower R.N. (1951). Starring Gregory Peck in his prime in the titular role. Virginia Mayo played Lady Barbara Wellesley. The film at imdb.com Adapted from The Happy Return, Ship of the Line, and Flying Colours.
  • A TV miniseries from 1999 to 2003. Adapted from Mr. Midshipman Hornblower, Lieutenant Hornblower, and (very loosely) Hornblower and the Hotspur with a bit of "Hornblower and the Widow McCool".
  • Two radio plays were produced. The first, broadcast in 1952 and 53, cast Michael Redgrave as Hornblower. The second was broadcast on BBC Radio in 1979 and 1980, with Nicholas Fry playing the role.

Notable for inspiring modern works such as:

  • A little-known series called Star Trek has been described as "Horatio Hornblower Recycled IN SPACE!". The rumour has it that both captains best known in the mainstream culture, Captain Kirk and Captain Picard, are based on the two different sides of Hornblower's character.
  • The Hugo and Nebula nominated science fiction work, The Mote in God's Eye.
  • Science fiction writer A. Bertram Chandler based his John Grimes character on Hornblower, even making Hornblower a distant relative.
  • Honor Harrington - A Space Opera novel series by David Weber with a female version of Horatio Hornblower. The HH initials are not a coincidence. Author David Weber actually hangs a lampshade on this in the sixth book when he shows the title character reading one of the Hornblower books.
  • Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series. Takes place during the same time frame as Horatio Hornblower. Not sci-fi.
  • In a way, David Drake's RCN series, which are Aubrey/female-Maturin IN SPACE!. Sci-fi.
  • Dudley Pope's Ramage series. It's mentioned that Ramage and Hornblower were junior officers on the same ship for a time (Pope and Forester were friends). Not sci-fi.
  • Alexander Kent's Richard Bolitho series. Not sci-fi.
  • The Sharpe series of novels and TV movies, starring a soldier in the Napoleonic wars, sort of a land-based equivalent of Hornblower.
  • The Gaunt's Ghosts series of Warhammer 40,000 Tie In Novels, being based on Sharpe, are thus in turn based on Hornblower.
  • David Langford has written an article about the "Hornblower in Space" genre.

These stories provide examples of:

  • Abandon Ship:
    • Ship of the Line ends with Horatio and his crew forced to abandon the sinking Sutherland and surrender to the French.
    • Hornblower's first independent command, a midshipman sailing a small prize ship back to England, ends when it sinks due to a shothole and a cargo of rice.
  • Abnormal Ammo: In Commodore Hornblower, Hornblower ends up rallying a group of Russian defenders in a brief gun battle. So panicked are the defenders that one of them forgets to remove the ramrod from his musket after reloading, firing it at the enemy.
  • Accidental Truth: Hornblower tells one of these about Napoleon's death (and beats himself up about it).
  • A God Am I: El Supremo, who is Hornblower's primary ally and later the primary villain in Beat To Quarters.
  • Allergic to Routine: Hornblower. Of course, naval life is explicitly very routine, long periods of boredom interspersed with wild activity. Many of Hornblower's daring and innovative schemes arise out of a desire to do something other than just patrol for enemies on blockade service.
  • Ambiguous Situation: Lieutenant Hornblower being narrated from Bush's POV allows the creation of this in regards to the insane Captain Sawyer falling down the hold. Bush knows that both Hornblower and Midshipman Wellard had the motive and opportunity to push him, which frankly would have been a service to the ship if they had, but any direct questions result in Hornblower calmly asserting that Sawyer must have tripped and fallen. Further complicating things are the fact that Hornblower takes charge of the investigation, and the court of inquiry won't even touch it because they prefer to say that he died in battle rather than reveal that he went insane first. Wellard dies offscreen near the end of the book, so the only person who really knows the truth is Hornblower.
  • American Kirby Is Hardcore: The first book's title, as seen above. "Beat to quarters" is the era's Red Alert phrase. Because clearly Americans won't be interested in this "happy return" stuff.
  • Anachronic Order:
    • The books start in the middle of Hornblower's career, go to almost the end of it, and then jump back to the very beginning, jump ahead a little and then a lot before returning to near the beginning. The publishing order is Quarters, Line, Colours, Commodore, Lord, Midshipman, Lieutenant, Atropos, West Indies, Hotspur, Crisis (unfinished). In chronological order, these are books 6-10, 1-2, 5, 11, 3-4.
    • The short stories, too, are scattered all over his career. The two included in Crisis take place in 1799 and then the 1850s.
  • Anyone Can Die: Hornblower himself, obviously, makes it to the end of the series. There are no guarantees against anyone else being killed or seriously injured.
  • An Arm and a Leg: During the climax of Ship of the Line, Lt. Bush loses a leg.
  • A Taste of the Lash: As per the standard discipline of the Royal Navy, a flogging occurs in the first chapter of the first book. Hornblower himself avoids this punishment as much as he can, believing that it makes good men bad and bad men worse. (Although he considers this a rationalization of his unpardonable squeamishness.)
  • Author Avatar: According to his biography, C. S. Forester came up with Hornblower and The Happy Return during a one day cruise of the Bay of Fronseca in the motor launch with photographer Barbara Sutro, while on a freighter heading for England while escaping a paternity suit by a fading opera singer. He envisioned Hornblower as himself as he wished he had the courage to be.
  • Authority Equals Asskicking: Usually subverted. Hornblower might be a brilliant captain, but more than once he thinks that he couldn't match the men's physical capacity for backbreaking work or brawling. However, there are a few occasions where he does fight hand-to-hand.
  • Awesomeness by Analysis: This seems to be Hornblower's main method of gambling, seamanship, and war. In one incident, Hornblower challenges a man known to be a better shot then he to a Duel to the Death with the understanding that there will be one pistol randomly loaded, neither will know which one and the contestants will choose it unknowing and fight at point blank. Thus giving a fifty-fifty chance (better than his odds, Hornblower figures, than in any fair fight). Not knowing that the captain, not wanting to lose either midshipman, arranged for both guns to be left unloaded.
  • Badass Bookworm: Hornblower is a seadog who uses math skills and meticulous research.
  • Badass Army: The Royal Navy.
  • Bad to the Last Drop: Hornblower's supply of coffee tends to run short early in a voyage. The usual Royal Navy substitute is burnt toast in hot water, which obviously doesn't do much except look like coffee if you squint.
  • Batman Gambit: Hornblower is pretty good at guessing what the response of enemy captains is during battles. In Hotspur, for instance, he plays the Loire captain's cleverness against him; in Atropos he bluffs the Castilla into thinking that he has allies close at hand by signaling empty ocean.
  • Battle Butler: Brown was originally Hornblower's coxswain, became his servant at first as a ruse because he's a good man in an escape attempt, but he stays in the position afterward, then became his coxswain again.
  • Be as Unhelpful as Possible: You'd think the, say, Spaniards would give the British Navy all possible assistance when trying to retake crucial military positions. Nope. Heck, everyone outside the British Navy seems slightly or greatly incompetent, and a good deal of the people within. With the honourable exception of the Russians in Commodore.
  • Be Careful What You Wish For: Flying Colors ends with Hornblower getting everything he's wanted; wealth, fame, prestige, a title, and the way clear to marry Lady Barbara. He starts hating it before the end of the book.
  • Been There, Shaped History:
    • Usually inverted. Forester deliberately keeps Horatio out of the way of most of the major historical events of the time (for example, the first book has Hornblower way out in the Pacific in 1808 to keep him out of the Peninsular Wars), particularly tensions with America. This loosened as the books went on, although Hornblower doesn't become Admiral until peacetime.
    • There is one short story that takes place during the War of 1812, where Hornblower has a brush with an American ship. Since he's on a barely-armed ship to take the King on a day trip, he evades battle.
    • In Commodore Hornblower it is implied that his actions were essential to foiling the French attempt to take Riga. In the (unfinished) Hornblower and the Crisis, he helps lure the enemy into the Battle of Trafalgar with a false message.
    • It's mentioned several times that as a midshipman he served with Captain Pellew on the Indefatigable, and was present at the sinking of the larger Droits de l'Hommes in 1797. Mr. Midshipman Hornblower, which details his career as a midshipman, ends after his release from a Spanish prison in 1797, several months before the battle.
    • Played straight, though not world-shakingly, by the creation of a fictional Wellesley named Barbara whom Hornblower romances and eventually marries, making the Duke of Wellington his brother-in-law.
    • Hornblower is put in charge of Nelson's funeral procession. The leading vessel, carrying the coffin, nearly sinks out from under him. (His pocketwatch is also nearly laid to rest with Nelson after Hornblower leaves it hanging off one of the handles.)
  • Berserk Button: In The Happy Return, interrupting Hornblower during his morning walk, which is as solitary as he can manage it on a crowded warship. When Lady Barbara sends her maid up to invite Hornblower to breakfast, the rest of the crew try very hard to prevent it. It sets of an explosion of bad temper when she reaches him and a command that she never interrupt his walk again, and in fact forbids them from coming up on deck while he's on his walk.
  • Big Damn Heroes: Near the end of Lieutenant. After the Spanish prisoners escape confinement and capture the Renown—capturing Buckland and nearly killing Bush—Hornblower gathers his crew from the three prize vessels and crashes one of them into the Renown, sweeping across the deck and retaking the ship.
  • Blatant Lies: Napoleon's propaganda announcement decrying Hornblower as a pirate in Flying Colours.
  • Borrowed Catchphrase: Lady Barbara teases Hornblower with this by imitating his standard, ambiguous response of "ha, h'm."
  • Bowdlerise: Done in-universe in Hotspur, when Bush has to resign himself to calling the hapless midshipmen from the Naval Academy "young gentleman" rather than swearing at them, in view of Hornblower's preferences.
  • But I Read A Book About It: Hornblower considers constant research both a duty and a pleasure. It enhances his Badass Bookworm status.
  • Broken Ace: Hornblower is near-universally adored by his underlings and respected by his brother captains for his brilliance and continual success. Hornblower considers them to be Horrible Judges Of Character because he completely despises himself.
  • Byronic Hero: Hornblower is an honorable, dutiful, and humble man who acts with great courage under fire. However, he's also a brooding, melancholic mess whose view of himself is often actual self-loathing, often shocked that people might care about him. Underneath his stoic facade is a world-class worry wort, and his courage under fire (in spite of his fears) is matched only by his cowardice in matters of the heart. He's also tone-deaf and never gets over seasickness, much to his humiliation.
  • Call Forward: At the end of Hornblower and the Atropos, Collingwood mentions that the Lydia will be needing a new captain soon.
  • Captain Smooth and Sergeant Rough:
    • Hornblower is well-read and profoundly dislikes the brutality of war (including that inflicted by the Navy's own policies). Bush considers it right and proper to bellow at the junior officers and sees nothing wrong with floggings and such, more in common with the views of the time.
    • In Ship of the Line, Hornblower watches one of his petty officers apply an order with his fist and considers that he himself wouldn't have the physical strength to enforce discipline that way.
  • Canon Discontinuity: C. S. Forester himself discouraged reprinting of the short stories The Hand of Destiny, The Bad Semaritan and Hornblower and His Majesty because of the continuity snarl The Hand of Destiny caused (the capture of the Castilla and the powder burns to Hornblower's hand). All three were included in a very rare biography of C. S. Forester, but can be found here.
  • The Captain: Guess who. Bush is eventually promoted captain at the end of Flying Colours, in keeping with the odd custom of complimenting distinguished captains by promoting their first lieutenants (mostly out of the inability to promote the captains themselves).
  • Catch Phrase: "Ha... h'm." Lady Barbara's teasing compels him to stop after he marries her.
  • Card Games:
    • Hornblower is himself a great fan of the game of whist, and will often play it to pass the time during stressful situations, such as during a Stern Chase, giving him something to think about other than things he currently can't control. Forester often describes the games in great detail.
    • In Mr. Midshipman Hornblower, Hornblower finds an opportunity to challenge his tormentor to a duel when the latter angrily implies that Hornblower is cheating (in front of officers from another ship) and then pointedly refuses to apologize.
  • Casual Danger Dialog: The protracted discussion between Bush and another lieutenant in Beat to Quarters, where they academically debate how the Natividad's officers are laying their guns... while they are shooting at the Lydia. Hornblower, who is trying to concentrate (and slightly envious), eventually tells them to knock it off.
  • Characterization Marches On: Hornblower is also a lot more ill-tempered and choleric in the first book published than in the books first in chronology, although that can be rationalized by being older and more cynical.
  • Character Tics: Lieutenant Mound's habit of putting his hands in his pockets in Commodore. Or rather, the way he continually starts to do it before remembering that he's in the presence of the Commodore and shouldn't. Hornblower eventually orders him to put his hands in his pockets because it's driving him to distraction.
  • Chekhov's Gun:
    • The abandoned forts along the Turkish coast in Hornblower and the Atropos. Well-known to be abandoned. Until the Atropos is done hauling several loads of silver and gold out of a British wreck.
    • The set of double barrelled, rifled, percussion pistols Lady Barbara gives Hornblower at the beginning of The Commodore. One is stolen by his Finnish interpreter, Braun, who attempts to assassinate both Czar Alaxander and the King of Sweden at a banquet, for vengence over the conquest of Finland; he chose Hornblower's, which were likely the only of their kind in Eastern Europe, because they were very accurate, wouldn't misfire, and had two shots. Hornblower puts everything together (after remembering seeing the pistol in Braun's waist while embarking the boat to the palace which he forgot in the excitement), and stops him in time. He also retrieves the stolen pistol.
  • Child Soldiers: Midshipmen and powder boys. The typical midshipman starts at about twelve years old.
  • Cigar Chomper: Hornblower, at least in the earlier novels. In The Happy Return, he is so overjoyed he almost forgot to hide it at El Supremo's offer to supply him with several hundred cigars rolled in El Supremo's "domain" in Nicaragua of Havana tobacco, and reflects to himself that the last cigar he had was a rather mild Virginia cigar, and in The Commodore, Lady Barbara includes several boxes of Jamaican cigars in the supplies she gives him for his mission in the Baltic, which Hornblower smokes after most meals.
  • Cliff Hanger: Ship of the Line ends with Hornblower surrendering his ship to the French and Bush with his foot shot off by a cannonball.
  • Comeback Tomorrow: Midshipman Hornblower can't remember the French for "go to the Devil" while talking to the French supply ship's captain until he goes into the cabin. Then he says "allez au diable" to himself.
  • Comically Inept Healing: In The Happy Return, the ship's only surgeon is an unqualified and panicky assistant. Given that this is already 1803, this is bad news for wounded sailors. Lady Barbara takes over care of the wounded herself and is much more competent, providing better care and helpful suggestions.
  • Conscription: Unfortunately, C. S. Forester seems to have fallen for the modern misconception that the vast majority of seamen on British ships were conscripts dragged from their homes and family-supporting livelihoods by press gangs or criminals given a pardon if they join the King's service.note  Hornblower (illegally) presses outbound East India Company sailors who were legally exempt in Ship of the Line, and he also presses French prisoners he'd promised freedom in Flying Colours.
  • Continuity Drift: The Anachronic Order causes this, as the most evident changes in the series timeline occur when Forester jumped back to Hornblower's midshipman days. Hornblower's marriage to Maria goes from Childhood Friend Romance to their first meeting as adults, when Hornblower is in her mother's lodging house. Hornblower's birthday is Retconned, making him five years younger, and the length of his and Bush's acquaintance is changed to have started when they were both young lieutenants.
  • Dead Sidekick: Hornblower sees the loss of several protégés: Wellard in Lieutenant Hornblower, Longley in Ship of the Line, Mound in The Commodore, and finally, Bush himself.
  • Death by Childbirth: Maria, giving birth to Richard, their third child.
  • Death of the Hypotenuse: Admiral Leighton and Maria Hornblower die in Flying Colours, and Marie Ladon is killed in Lord Hornblower.
  • Death Seeker: In the very first Midshipman story, Hornblower feels that getting shot dead in his duel would be equally as desirable as victory, because both outcomes mean he doesn't have to deal with his tormentor anymore.
  • Deliberate Values Dissonance:
    • England in the 1800s was chock-full of racism, sexism, classism, and general disdain for anyone not white and British. Take a shot every time you see the word Dago or Frog! Then get a new liver.
    • One of the faults Hornblower finds with himself is his distaste for A Taste of the Lash.
  • Deus ex Machina: Played with by having the DXMs usually be actual historical events. If the series was an entirely original work, people would doubtless complain about the author pulling them from his unmentionables.
  • Die for Our Ship: Maria and Lady Barbara's husband. In-universe.
  • Dirty Coward: Seaman Grimes, from Hotspur. More sad and pathetic than evil, though.
  • Downer Ending:
    • At the end of Atropos, Hornblower has to give up his ship to the King of Sicily because the man is a full-grown Royal Brat who would turn against England on a whim. Then, when he returns to England with at least the assurance that he rates a ship of the line, he finds his son and newborn daughter dying of smallpox.
    • Ship of the Line with the sinking of the Sutherland and Hornblower and his crew captured by the French.
    • Lord Hornblower has Hornblower succeeds in his mission and he was raised to the peerage because of it, but Bush, the closest person Horatio had to a friend, dies in the process. Then when Napoleon escapes and Horatio tries to escape, he fails, and in the process loses his mistress. Only news of the Battle of Waterloo saved him from dying again.
  • Dramatic Irony: Hornblower spends a good portion of Commodore worrying about Napoleon's unstoppable advance into Russia. Any moderately knowledgeable reader knows that did not work out so well.
  • Dressing as the Enemy: Hornblower's ruse flying the French tricolour in Ship of the Line, and later when Hornblower himself dresses as a Dutch customs officer in his escape from France.
  • Drink Order: Contrary to the common English stereotype, Hornblower prefers to drink coffee rather than tea, or at least whatever passes for coffee depending on supplies (in one book, the coffee is described as being made with crushed burnt bread, with enough sugar to mask the taste.) This was possibly because most of the readers of the Hornblower series were American. Or alternatively, because tea was expensive and Hornblower was poor. Some consideration though should also be given to the hypothesis that Forester knew enough history to be very well aware that coffee was enormously fashionable in England for many years, and London in particular was lousy with coffee-houses in the 1700s.
  • Duel to the Death:
    • An accepted practice at the time the books take place, which allows Hornblower to challenge a bullying midshipman during his first voyage. He asks one gun be loaded and the other not so as to compensate for his dubious aiming skills. However, challenging a higher-ranking officer is illegal (for obvious reasons).
    • One takes place in Atropos between McCullum the salvager and Eisenbeiss, the self-styled chamberlain of His Serene Highness, which results in McCullum being severely wounded and nearly scuttling the ship's mission before it even reaches their destination. Hornblower is incensed.
  • During the War: Set during the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Early-Installment Weirdness: Readers following the series in chronological order rather than publishing order may scratch their heads when the opening paragraph of Beat to Quarters, the first published book, suggests that Lt. Bush has only just gotten to know Captain Hornblower in the last few months.
  • Earn Your Happy Ending: The short story "The Last Encounter" is set after Hornblower's retirement at the rank of Admiral with his son grown and successful, comfortably settled with his wife Barbara. Hornblower being Hornblower, he quickly adds some reservations to his present state of contentedness, but at least this time they're worries about external forces of war and politics rather than the "pitiless self-analysis" he employed during active service.
  • Embarrassing First Name: Hornblower thinks his first name is pompous and ludicrous. He prefers not to use it and signs his personal correspondence with a discreet 'H.'
  • Embarrassing Nickname: His first wife Maria calls him "Horry", much to his dismay. In the midst of a battle, an unidentified member of Hornblower's crew refers to him as "Old Horny", but the officers are unable to figure out which sailor said it.
  • Enemy Eats Your Lunch: Midshipman Simpson does this to all of the other midshipmen on the Justinian, helping himself right off their own plates.
  • Everybody Knew Already: Hornblower's sea sickness, which he goes out of his way to keep secret from his men. It takes him years to figure out that his officers and crew are plainly aware of it, and simply choose not to comment on it out of respect.
  • Fair for Its Day: Invoked with Hornblower's general worldview. He can be quite racist at times, as well as sexist, but he also expresses some anti-slavery sentiments and doesn't share the Navy's general fondness for A Taste of the Lash.
  • A Father to His Men: Not Hornblower, Sir Edward Pellew.
  • Food Porn: Usually, Hornblower dines on brine meat, weevily biscuits, and burnt-bread coffee. Whenever he gets to eat something more palatable, it's described in great detail. Particularly notable is Pellew's dinner in Hotspur, which goes on for several pages about the steak-and-kidney pies, cheeses, wines, ragout, and fresh veg.
  • Forgets to Eat: Hornblower has a habit of not realizing he's just spent the entire day conducting an on-and-off battle battle (or some other action requiring physical and mental rigor) only on the strength of his breakfast.
  • Genre Savvy:
    • Hornblower is acutely aware of how his every move will appear, which is strange, because this is the book that started the genre. Hilariously, he has trouble believing anyone could like him, despite evidence to the contrary. Even when he does believe it, he finds some way to make himself rationalize or downplay it.
    • In Hotspur, his ship is being fired upon by shore artillery. He hears noise aloft, and a howitzer shell falls to the deck at his feet. He takes a fraction of an instant to realize that there's about a quarter-inch left on the fuse before he hurries to extinguish it. When he stands up, he sees everyone on the deck staring at him, and realizes he's about to become Shrouded in Myth.
    • He has his men dance the hornpipe during a long battle specifically because it will keep morale up. The narration goes on to describe how the battle would become legendary because of it. It also describes how one man kept dancing even after someone's brains were smashed out by a cannon ball and blown onto him.
  • Good with Numbers: Hornblower is very good with numbers.
  • Guile Hero: Horatio steps into this role at different points over his career, but the guiliest would probably be Lieutenant Hornblower. He is the least senior lieutenant aboard, but he sets the tone for what the senior lieutenants do after Sawyer's fall and persuades them to implement all of his subsequent ideas.
  • Hand Rubbing: Bush isn't obsequious like most of the examples on that page, but he does rub his hands together when he's pleased a lot.
  • Having a Gay Old Time: Horatio's men occasionally refer to him as "Old Horny" or simply "Horny."
  • Heroic Sacrifice:
    • Horatio's ship at the end of Ship of the Line.
    • Bush blowing up the powder barge.
  • Historical-Domain Character: A number of real captains (and other officers) from the Royal Navy appear in the novels—mostly cameos, but some of them have a more significant role. Some of the more prominent examples are Admiral Cornwallis and George III. The Other Wiki has a comprehensive list.
  • Historical In-Joke:
    • In Flying Colours, Hornblower sees an American ship and thinks it inevitable that they'll have to give up their neutrality soon—the only question is if they'll fight Napoleon or if they'll decide to have another go at the British.
    • The plot of Commodore Hornblower is about Napoleon's plan to invade Russia. Wonder how that one will go.
    • Basically any well-known historical event can be seen that way. Such as when Hornblower is involved in a naval action off Cape Trafalgar in 1805 in "Crisis".
  • Honor Before Reason:
    • Deconstructed, as Hornblower is profoundly aware of the difference between the right thing to do and the logical thing to do. On several occasions, he's actually dickered over courses of action, then justifiably angsted afterward.
    • Played straight in a couple of Midshipman stories, where he feels obligated to request staying aboard the Justinian rather than transfer to the Indefatigable, even though it would basically kill his career before it started, and when he refuses to take credit for stopping a privateer to punish himself for losing his damaged prize vessel (a loss that Pellew casually waves off).
    • In West Indies he gives an ex-Colonel of Napoleon's Imperial Guard his "word of honour as a gentleman" that Napoleon had died on St. Helena, believing it to be a lie, in order to prevent said Colonel from breaking Napoleon out of exile. His ship then goes into port, and Hornblower is about to confess to the local British Governor and resign his commission when the Governor casually mentions that Napoleon has died after all.
  • I Can Still Fight: In Lord Hornblower, Hornblower loses his temper when Bush and his other officers suggest that he take it easy after his medical leave for the case of typhus that knocked him out at the end of Commodore, but he apologizes for the outburst a moment later.
  • I Just Shot Marvin in the Face: There are a handful of gun-handling failures throughout the series. At one point, Hornblower narrowly remembers to put his fllintlock on half-cock before putting it into his belt, which would likely have blown his genitals off.
  • Imitation Is The Sincerest Form Of Flattery: In Commodore, Hornblower realizes, with amusement, that Mound is modeling his aloof, cool-under-fire attitude on Hornblower's own.note 
  • Improbable Age: Inverted, since Hornblower, when the series begins, is improbably old to be a beginning midshipsman. He is in his late teens, while his messmates went to sea at age 12 or thereabouts.
  • Indy Ploy: Hornblower has to make plans up as he goes along to get out of the various scrapes he gets into.
  • Infant Immortality:
    • Averted. Hornblower has to sit and watch his first two children die of smallpox.
    • Averted. Longley, a Plucky Middie in Ship of the Line, is shot dead in the Sutherland's desperate Last Stand.
  • In Harm's Way: Hornblower sometimes does this because he's ashamed of his private fears.
  • In-Series Nickname: "Horny" Hornblower, as well as the various other real-life officers with nicknames.
  • Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Bush is a hardass who brooks no incompetence or disrespect and doesn't question the Navy's draconian discipline, but he takes the first watch after he and his men have gone over a day without sleeping, gives nearly all his pay to his sisters and mother, and extends subtle kindness to Wellard after he's beaten without cause.
  • Late-Arrival Spoiler: The fourth book wasn't completed by Forrester before his death, and has two short stories, from Hornblower's lieutenant days and retirement, added to it. This means that if you flip to the wrong page, you now know Hornblower marries Lady Barbara.
  • The Laws and Customs of War:
    • In Flying Colours, Napoleon sentences Hornblower and Bush in absentia to be executed for a Dressing as the Enemy maneuver performed in Ship of the Line (There were several precedents that proved what they did was legal; courts conducted in absentia are also a violation of the defendants' rights. Napoleon didn't care; he needed a propaganda coup.) Hornblower later mentions that Napoleon put a "quite flattering" bounty on his head.
    • In Midshipman Hornblower, Hornblower, while a prisoner of war, takes a crew of Spanish fishermen out into a storm to rescue men from a wrecked ship. The storm prevents them from returning, afterwards, and they are picked up at sea by a British frigate. The Spaniards are returned to Spain because it was bad form (and against Admiralty Instructions) to take prisoner men who had gone to sea to save lives. And Hornblower returned with the Spaniards because he had given his parole to not try to escape.
  • Lightning Bruiser: Bush in Lieutenant Hornblower, who is described as immensely strong and lightfooted.
  • Long-Running Book Series: Eleven books published from 1937 to 1967, and multiple short stories? Hornblower's a busy man.
  • Lost Episode: The short stories, namely The Hand of Destiny, Hornblower and His Majesty and The Bad Samaritan. Because of the Continuity Snarl caused by The Hand of Destiny and Hornblower and the Atropos, Forester discouraged their reprinting. Fortunately, scaryfangirl.com has found them, as well as the (increasingly rare) biography of C. S. Forester they were published in. They were also compiled in the Hornblower Addendum for e-readers.
  • Lots of Luggage: Subverted in the first (written) novel. Hornblower starts to lecture Lady Barbara on the impracticality of bringing a huge amount of luggage onto a warship, but she irritates him by showing that she only has a couple of sea-chests, which is a perfectly reasonable amount.
  • Made of Explodium: Black powder. This was Truth in Television; men who worked in the powder stores even had to wear slippers because a spark from a nailed shoe could send them sky-high.
  • Master Actor: Hornblower can put on the appearance of a scowling, bloodthirsty tyrant as easily as putting on a hat; he can conceal his fatigue and human doubts behind an imperturbable mask just as easily. (Bush is generally not fooled.) He's also able to perfectly convince Maria that he loves her.
  • Meaningful Look:
    • In Lieutenant, Hornblower gives a few of these to his fellow officers and Wellard in the aftermath of Captain Sawyer's fall. To the lieutenants, they mean "don't worry, there is no evidence to implicate us in a crime." To Wellard, it's more ambiguous—Bush thinks it could be telling the kid to get to it before Buckland vacillates, but it could also mean that a secret (about you-know-what) is still safe. It's also mentioned (before Sawyer's fall) when Hornblower is clearly avoiding these to prevent any appearance of collusion.
    • In Commodore, Hornblower can't order Mound to follow him out of the Czar's reception as it would arouse suspicion, instead giving the lieutenant a Look with as much meaning as he can put into it so that Mound will help him foil Braun's attempt to assassinate the Czar.
  • Meaningful Name: Inverted. Horatio Hornblower is absolutely tone-deaf, unable, on at least one occasion, to recognize even "God Save the King."
  • Mentor Archetype:
    • Pellew, though more in the TV series than in the books.
    • Admiral Cornwallis is this to an extent in Hotspur, encouraging Hornblower's innovative tendencies and promoting him to captain at the end.
  • Must Have Caffeine: Hornblower is an avid coffee drinker... when he can get it. Usually it's an infusion of burnt bread ends.
  • Mutual Kill: The Sutherland and the four French ships at the end of Ship of the Line.
  • My Girl Back Home: Despite not actually loving Maria, newlywed Hornblower is surprised to realize he does miss her. Books set later in his life subvert this since he's grown to dislike her quite a lot. Played straight with Lady Barbara, since they both love each other.
  • Napoleonic Wars: The primary setting of the books. Apart from The Happy Return, Atropos, and Admiral Hornblower, every novel has him fighting the Corsican's forces one way or another.
  • Narrative Profanity Filter: Always in place for words more serious than damn or hell. We're left to imagine what sort of curses the sailors are saying. In one notable scene in Atropos, we are told that the ferryman expresses his appreciation for Horatio's help by swearing an "oath", and then several more "oaths", and in The Happy Return Hornblower is in a situation where none of the fifty five oaths he has ready will be enough.
  • Naval Blockade: Hornblower and the Hotspur involves the British blockade of the French port of Brest and Hornblower's deeds during the blockade.
  • Nerves of Steel:
    • Hornblower has these, even if he thinks otherwise.
    • Bush as well; he never thinks about it at all.
  • Never Give the Captain a Straight Answer: Inverted. Hornblower doesn't tell his men his plans so it looks better if he succeeds. It works.
  • Nice Job Breaking It, Hero: Nearly, in Commodore. It isn't actually Hornblower's fault that the Admiralty gave him a translator with a hugely murderous grudge against the Czar, but that's certainly where the blame would have fallen.
  • Nicknaming the Enemy: Frenchmen are always referred to as Frogs, and the Spaniards are called Dagos. Napoleon is often called "Boney".
  • Noble Fugitive: The German Prince serving as a Plucky Middie in Hornblower and the Atropos.
  • No Name Given:
    • In general, you don't see a lot of first names (although you can find the full names of historical officers fairly easily).
    • His Serene Highness the Prince of Seitz-Basau is never actually given a name. While he's serving on the Atropos, everyone just calls him Mr. Prince.
  • Obfuscating Stupidity: The Turkish mudir in Atropos, who asks for Hornblower to guard the bay from "pirates" and lets Hornblower think himself quite lucky that he's being given time to carry out his secret salvage operation. Hornblower only realizes when he sees the abandoned forts being manned that the Turks probably have telescopes, too, and have just been waiting for him to do the work so they can come in and claim it.
  • Obnoxious In-Laws: Mrs. Mason; Hornblower compares living with her after his first child's birth to serving under Captain Sawyer. "His Nibs," the Marquis Wellesley, also outdoes Horatio in the realms of sarcasm.
  • Obstructive Bureaucrat: The Royal Navy might be the greatest enemy besides Napoleon. During the Peace of Amiens, they refuse to confirm his promotion to commander and then put him under pay stoppage for months because he has to "repay" the commander's salary he drew, forcing him to pawn or sell anything valuable he owns and support himself entirely by playing whist. In Hotspur they try to reprimand him for using too much stuff while he's on the front lines of blockade duty; Cornwallis tells him not to worry about it.
  • Officer and a Gentleman: It takes Hornblower some time after his promotion to captaincy to achieve the gentleman part, as he rarely has any prize money with which to supplement his pay.
  • Oh Crap: Numerous.
    • One particularly large one happens during the incident mentioned in Chekhov's Gun, once Hornblower realizes the Czar, with whom he is supposed to form an alliance, is about to be shot by Hornblower's own aide with Hornblower's own pistol. Cue giant flashing CAREER DEATH alert.
    • Bush in Lieutenant Hornblower when he realizes that the Reknown has run aground while being fired at by multiple shore batteries. The third-person narration breaks into an "Oh my God!"
    • The sailor's traditional blasphemous prayer when they're about to be hit with a broadside. "For what we are about to receive..."
  • Overly Polite Pals: One Midshipman story has Midshipmen Hornblower and Kennedy going through a variation as Kennedy relays a message to Hornblower that the Captain needs to speak to him. The two take turns addressing each other formally and bowing politely in jest (it's midway through a very uneventful watch), and they only cut it short when one of the Lieutenants notices.
  • Painting the Medium: Hornblower thinks of Bush as having little imagination. Lieutenant follows Bush instead of Hornblower, and there's a profound lack of Hornblower's usual metaphors and similes, especially when compared to Atropos.
  • Pants Positive Safety: They don't wear holsters, so the standard place to put a pistol is shoving it down your belt (which as noted above, can be really dangerous if done carelessly).
  • Parental Substitute: Inverted. Bush loves Hornblower like a son, even if he's too out-of-touch with his own emotions to realize it. When they first served together, this was more of Big Brother Instinct for Bush.
  • Patriotic Fervor: Bush. He's disturbed when he finds himself edging close to "red Revolutionary" notions (mainly in feeling admiration for a junior officer, Hornblower) and despairs of what England would think if the Renown was captured by the Spanish prisoners. In Commodore, rather darkly, he wants to call a surgeon for the botched suicide of a turncoat so that they can hang him.
  • Plucky Middie: There are several capable young midshipmen. However, any time you meet one, there's about a 75% chance of them dying. The more endearing they are, the more likely this is. Hornblower himself gets to be one in Mr. Midshipman Hornblower. (He's one of the ones who survives.)
    • Others, like Midshipman Simpson, are just the opposite. At 33 and having failed so many times that he's more than halfway to an automatic promotion to Lieutenant at age fifty (something of an Epic Fail by itself - most passed on their first or second attempts after only three or four years at sea), he would have better served the Navy as an Ordinary Seaman.
  • Plunder:
    • Subverted. Hornblower is usually unlucky in the matter of prize money, and has a dislike for the entire system. He doesn't mention this in front of others, though, and is aware that his views would likely be different once he won a prize. It does in Ship of the Line, when he takes nearly a dozen prizes, and escapes back to England in Flying Colours with The Witch of Endor, a Royal Navy cutter captured by the French a year earlier.
    • Played straight by the French at the beginning of Flying Colours. They even strip the gold off of his sword, and the brasswork from the Sutherland. They also gorge themselves on the unappetizing rations.
  • Popcultural Osmosis: You've probably encountered the tropes this series popularized long before you ever heard of the series itself.
  • Posthumous Collaboration: Several other authors have written their own conclusions to Crisis.
  • Potty Emergency: Hornblower uses this as an excuse to get out of a reception line at a Russian event so he can go and stop Braun from assassinating the Czar. He even dances from one foot to the other in his anxiety to get away, which adds to the veracity of his excuse.
  • Precision F-Strike: "The Lydia, so graceful and willing when under sail, was a perfect bitch under tow." One of the few times anything worse than "damn" is ever included.
  • Privateer: There are numerous encounters with them. The ship's entire mission in Lieutenant Hornblower is to incapacitate a Spanish privateer base in Haiti.
  • Protagonist Title: The series as a whole. Individual books vary. Also, The Commodore was changed to Commodore Hornblower in the States.
  • Purple Prose:
    • Invoked in Beat to Quarters when Hornblower thinks of the morning light on the ocean as "argent and azure," and then realizes he's used the exact same mental phrasing every day for the past two weeks.
    • Subverted in Lieutenant Hornblower, where the narrator describes at length how a block-and-tackle arrangement looks and what a poet might see in the "spider lines cleaving the perfect blue" just to point out how Bush would never see it as anything beyond a couple of ropes.
  • The Quiet One: Hornblower is naturally inclined towards shyness and maintains a deliberate reserve beyond what would be typically expected of a captain, and despises what he calls "unnecessary words."
  • Reasonable Authority Figure: Admiral Lord Collingwood, Hornblower's superior in Hornblower and the Atropos. Gentlemanly and courteous, he quickly recognizes Hornblower's value. When he has to tell Hornblower to hand over his ship, he's clearly reluctant and does as much as he can to soften the blow, promising to recommend him to command of a ship-of-the-line. In Real Life, Cuthbert Collingwood was beloved as A Father to His Men.
  • Rare Guns: Lady Barbara gives Hornblower a pair of ebony handled, double barrelled, rifled percussion pistols, which he muses must have taken some craftsman months in rifling and handmade caps alone, in The Commodore. Which is set in 1812. Nearly two pages are dedicated to describing them.
  • Recycled IN SPACE!: Got recycled as Honor Harrington and others, as seen above.
  • Refuge in Audacity: At one time Hornblower scares away a Spanish ship bigger then his by sailing towards it to while signalling to his nonexistent backup.
  • Retcon: Hornblower's age in Beat to Quarters, set in 1808, is given as 37, and his exact birthdate is stated by Word of God as June 11, 1771. Mr. Midshipman Hornblower changes it to July 4, 1776, so his career could start just before the French Revolution instead of peacetime. Lieutenant establishes that Bush and Hornblower met as young men, contrary to statements in The Happy Return. There's also the story of how he received powder burns on his hand and the capturing of the Spanish ship Castilla. Forester overwrote the events of the short stories in the novels; later discouraged their reprinting. See Series Continuity Error below.
  • Royally Screwed Up: Practically all non-British nobility, royalty, and other civilian leadership. Examples that embody this trope include The Marquis of Pouzauges from Midshipman and "El Supremo"note  from Quarters. Worst of all, these are England's allies.
    • George III by 1810, who is actually featured in the short story Hornblower and His Majesty.
  • Running Gag:
    • Not in the series, but on this wiki; Honor Harrington is frequently described as Horatio Hornblower IN SPACE!
    • Bush rubbing his hands together when pleased.
    • Hornblower's seasickness when setting out to sea after a long period on land.
  • Sensitive Guy and Manly Man: Hornblower is a broody, self-loathing mess when he's not being a brilliant naval captain and can't stop thinking about the prospect of death and mutilation in battle even if he never shirks from it. Bush is a stolid and stoic Lightning Bruiser who's unfazed by hardship but also lacking in Hornblower's genius.
  • Series Continuity Error: How Hornblower received the powder burns on his hand and, subsequently, the capture of the Spanish ship Castilla. Even which hand is burned is inconsistant. In Beat to Quarters, he mentions his right hand was burned during the Castilla's capture while he was a lieutenant, yet in the short story The Hand of Destiny, which details the capture while he's a lieutenant, it's his left hand that's burned, and Hornblower and the Atropos, in which he's a post captain in command of the 20 gun Atropos (a post ship, the smallest ship to warrent a post of full captain), he aids in the capture of the Castilla in a completely different action from what's described in The Hand of Destiny, and doesn't receive a powder burn to his hand.
  • Shoot the Dog:
    • During one battle, Hornblower orders a gun's crew to stop trying to lift a cannon off of their mate's leg and clear away sail wreckage instead; being forced to give that order gives his voice a hysterical edge.
    • One particular scene in Ship of the Line switches to the POV of the hot and weary conscripts marching on a coastal road, going out of its way to tell the reader that these are just ordinary men who have been taken far from home by the war. When they see a pretty ship offshore, they're quite happy to benignly watch it and even wave to it. Then, the ship—Hornblower's Sutherland—opens fire. (After he's slaughtered or dispersed most of the soldiers he has the cannons turned on the pack animals. His men are more upset about shooting oxen and donkeys than people.)
  • Shout-Out: Hornblower shares his first name with Lord Nelson.
  • Shower Scene: As a captain, Hornblower is known to his crew for taking a daily shower by having a couple of sailors at the pump with a hose—even in the Baltic where the water is freezing, and an incident partway through has him moving around the deck without any clothes on for about half an hour. The first time this habit appears chronologically is in Lieutenant Hornblower, where it's described in great detail.
  • Shown Their Work:
    • The books are exceptionally well-researched in terms of understanding naval matters and the period. It's relatively easy to miss that this was written as historical fiction.
    • Remember the bit in Hotspur where Hornblower arranges for Doughty's escape to the U.S.S. Constitution at Cadiz? That ship was actually there that day and took on new crew.
  • Significant Birth Date: Hornblower was born on July 4, 1776. Occasionally remarked on by individuals who find his views to be dangerously republican (for instance, the idea that a republic could be a legitimate form of government.) Otherwise, it's not significant at all—he never even meets any Americans.
  • Smart People Play Chess: A variant; the card game whist is treated this way. Hornblower excels at it due to his mathematical mind.
  • El Spanish O: There are a number of occasions where British sailors and officers gamely attempt to communicate with Spanish, French, or Italian people (either their prisoners, or their erstwhile allies, depending on what is going on) by speaking slowly and adding vowels to the ends of their words. It generally doesn't work.
  • Spirited Young Lady: Although she's out of the 16 - 25 age bracket, Lady Barbara Wellesley fits all the other qualifications. She's traveling without a male companion, doesn't mind the tiny accommodations, and is basically described as being so capable that it aggravates Hornblower, who thinks that a properly feminine woman should at least be a little incompetent. His opinion changes significantly by book's end.
  • Squick: In-Universe, Hornblower has a little bit of this when he cuts a wedding cake with his sword because his sword had cut other things before.
  • The Strategist: Hornblower always comes up with clever schemes.
  • Stealth Insult / Snark-to-Snark Combat: Hornblower's conversation with his brother-in-law Richard Wellesley in The Commodore. Hornblower will have a translator, but it will be his problem how the translator is rated on the books, to which Richard adds, "I believe that's what it's called". Hornblower calls him by his Christian name, which he is entitled to use as brother-in-law, and calls Richard a "master of all trades" just to annoy him by insinuating the Marquis was in a trade. Wellessley makes an equally snarky comment, and Hornblower gives up, deciding it was just too difficult because Richard was so good at it.
  • Stiff Upper Lip: Horatio acts like he has one, even if he's panicking on the inside. This is also one of Bush's key traits—at one point he muses that having to endure injustice (such as being beaten without cause) in a world that is essentially unjust is an important part of growing up.
  • Stuff Blowing Up: In Hotspur, Hornblower witnesses sets off a huge explosion in a French powder magazine on the coast of Brest that rains heavy debris on the retreat. Later he witnesses a ship get blown to bits by a howitzer shell.
  • Tap on the Head: Averted in one of the Midshipman stories. During a cutting-out expedition, when stealth is key, Hornblower has to silence an epileptic sailor and thumps him quite hard with the boat's tiller; he is almost certain that he he killed the man by doing so. The boat is later set adrift somehow during the fight, meaning that even if he wasn't killed by the hit, he would have certainly died at sea.
  • Tempting Fate: Near the end of "Midshipman", Hornblower attends a banquet where a toast is made to the hope of the Spanish fleet leaving Cadiz. Hornblower is also ordered to convey a Duchess to England in a small sloop. Guess what fleet he sails right into the middle of?
  • Twenty One Gun Salute: Hornblower encounters a megalomaniacal would-be Central American despot who demands a 23-gun salute in The Happy Return. (21 is usually the max, reserved for heads of state). Hornblower agonizes and then decides that since a 21-gun salute is the upper limit, a 23-gun salute is meaningless.
  • Two-Part Trilogy: The first book published, The Happy Return (or Beat To Quarters) was a stand alone adventure. The next book, Ship of the Line proceeded directly into Flying Colours via a Cliff Hanger ending.
  • Unbuilt Trope: Even in what's arguably the flagship of the Wooden Ships and Iron Men genre, Hornblower is brilliant captain, and a frequently self-doubting man who has difficulty remembering or believing that people actually like him.
  • Unreliable Narrator: Hornblower excoriates himself for his cowardly feelings and how he's secretly terrified in battle. However, narration during battles tends to be clear and only harried about dealing with tactical and shiphandling problems; it's usually in hindsight or anticipation that Hornblower thinks about the danger.
  • Unwanted Harem: Marie (not Maria) points out that he is a very easy man for women to love but a man who finds it hard to love in return. She's mostly right.
  • Unwanted Spouse: Horatio essentially marries Maria out of guilt because he can't bear to hurt her feelings when she throws herself at him. He spends as much time as possible avoiding her at sea and finds writing letters to her to be a chore.
  • Vehicular Turnabout: Frequently, a ship is boarded and turned against its order. In Flying Colours, Hornblower, Bush, and Brown steal a ship that had been captured from the British in the first place.
  • Villainous Breakdown: El Supremo, after being turned over to the Spanish.
  • Viewers Are Geniuses: Don't know a halyard from a hawse-hole, a maintop from a mizzenmast, or a sea-anchor from a sea-cucumber? Good luck!
  • War Is Hell: Forester goes out of his way to describe what happens to men who are hit by cannonballs, then what happens to them when they visit the surgeon, and then the funeral. Not to mention the weevils and bad water.
  • Wooden Ships and Iron Men: The books are a fairly pure distillation of this trope, most adaptations somewhat less so.
  • You Don't Want to Catch This: The turncoat privateer in Commodore poses as the captain of the ship he's just captured and claims that they're infected with smallpox to keep Nonsuch away. It almost works, but Hornblower calls his bluff since the yells from belowdecks sound more like shouting for help than overloud fever rambling.
  • Your Cheating Heart: Hornblower is not faithful to either of his wives, under different circumstances.

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alternative title(s): Horatio Hornblower
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