Colonel Badass: After he recovers from his injuries sustained in the pilot.
Dysfunction Junction: Young is trying to repair his marriage (redefining the term "long-distance relationship" in the process) while being stuck on Destiny with T.J., whom he had an affair with (and unknowingly knocked up).
Scott even hallucinates that Young is indeed his father in "Cloverdale".
Power Trio: Either the Superego or a second Id in the Young/Rush/Camille trio. YMMV
In the military one he's definitely the Superego.
Team Dad: Even lamsphades this in the final episode.
Trauma Conga Line: Let's see: his unborn kid is dead, he had to Mercy Kill someone under his command, and now Telford has been lost. You can hardly blame him for hitting the bottle again and again.
You Are What You Hate: Young and Rush tend to despise each other, giving a special color to their respective morally ambiguous actions.
Your Cheating Heart: Cheated on his wife with TJ before the start of the story. She evidently caught him or he came clean. Telford uses this against him later, by claiming it's not over to Young's wife.
The Atoner: Ever since the events of "Human", Rush seems to have been taken off of his high horse and has actually been trying to help the crew.
For a few episodes anyway. Now he's back to being morally ambiguous, making it Aesop Amnesia. However, he can still be said to be trying to help, just trying to balance that with his own interests, which predictably isn't panning out as well as he'd like.
Bad Ass: Kills one of the catfish aliens with his bare hands, rescues Chloe, and gets them both safely back to Destiny.
In Subversion, Kiva assumes he's military because she doesn't believe a civilian could withstand torture for that long.
Better to Die than Be Killed: His alternate self in "Time", who elects to run through an unstable wormhole, instead of letting himself be killed by the nocturnal creatures. It's implied it was either the transit or the virus they were suffering from that killed him instead.
Break the Haughty: It's happening, slowly but surely. And, as of Malice, has kicked into overdrive
Chewing the Scenery: THERE IS NO MORE POWER!. Somewhat justified given that he was under an incredible amount of stress trying to handle the ship's power issues effectively singlehanded, in withdrawal, hadn't slept for days, and was generally in the middle of a complete nervous breakdown.
Consummate Liar: He doesn't even skip a heartbeat to lie in normal conversation. And he's so good, he can even fool himself!
Dead Person Conversation: In the second season, he speaks to his dead wife and Franklin, who may or may not have died. He claims that either the ship is creating holograms to help him or he's just gone crazy; his wife's flippant attitude toward the affair convinces him it's the latter.
Rush makes this even scarier because he doesn't treat this as surprising. In fact, he eventually gets tired of his wife questioning all his decisions and asks to see Franklin, because he at least is helpful when he does it.
For Science!: His main motivation, even if the means to pursue said science, might put people in jeopardy.
Future Me Scares Me: In "Twin Destinies", his interaction with Future!Rush demonstrates that he doesn't even trust himself.
Insistent Terminology: He rarely refers to Chloe by her given name, instead referring to her as "Miss Armstrong". With everyone else onboard Destiny, he either calls them by their first name or their surname.
Presumably this Affectionate Nickname derives due to Rush having been first introduced to her as Senator Armstrong's daughter. As the series progresses and she begins to forgive him for his role in her father's death, and after he begins mentoring her, he begins to refer to her as Chloe.
Jerk with a Heart of Gold: In "Deliverance", he proves to be this, as he hands Chloe over the aliens so they can cure her, despite the fact that it'll be putting the ship in danger. As Camille points out, he's putting a single life before the mission, which contradicts what you'd expect from him.
Kick the Dog: Separating Destiny from the seed ship while Telford was still on board and fixing the problem. Dick move, Rush.
Left for Dead: "Dear diary, my friends left me on an empty planet all alone. FML."
Must Have Caffeine / Must Have Nicotine: Was forced to quit both cold turkey, which in addition to being awake for several days and under constant stress, leads him to collapsing whilst suffering a complete nervous breakdown in "Darkness".
Never My Fault: Occasionally invokes this after his keeping secrets has made the situation worse.
Pet the Dog: Despite himself becomes sort of a mentor to Eli. And has reached an understanding with Young. They may not like each other, but will hold off trying to harm the other. He is also surprisingly nice to Chloe - Even Camile was surprised that Rush seemingly put the ship at risk to save her.
Episode 16, "Sabotage", very much.
Then again in "Resurgence".
Phrase Catcher: Drinking everytime you hear someone say "Whole lotta work" or "Dammit, Rush!" is not advised.
Token Evil Teammate: While not really evil, Rush is quite willing to sacrifice people for the greater good. Or what he considers the greater good anyway. Others might describe it as "his own convenience". He plays it much closer in the second season, where people keep getting harmed while he plays with his secret bridge.
Lampshaded in the last episode when Young compares them all to a family, defining Rush's position as;
Violent Glaswegian: At times, and usually subverted because Rush isn't a very good fighter. He does manage to get the "Glasgow Kiss" in at one point.
What You Are in the Dark: In "Divided", after waiting to the last possible minute to allow the transfer to complete on it's own, he cancels it and lets Eli restore the docking clamps on the Ancient Shuttle, saving Young and Scott from being vaporised when the ship jumps to FTL.
MIT dropout who solved the problem of dialing the ninth chevron (it was embedded in a video game), and Ascended Fanboy subsequently brought onboard. Now acts as The Smart Guy and foil to Rush. Also in charge of the kinos. 25 years old.
Apocalyptic Log: Eli is keeping one using the Kinos. It comes in handy in "Time".
Ascended Fanboy: Eli played an online game loosely based on the vaporwareStargate Worlds game (which in-universe was probably based off of Wormhole X-Treme!). Plus, he's an avowed science fiction geek who makes constant references and shows the most genuine glee about being on a spaceship.
Promoted Fanboy: Eli's actor was already a fan of Stargate before joining the show. The producers call him an actor and technical adviser in one package.
For Want of a Nail: Relates to Ginn how his parents bought him a hamster to teach him responsibility, but he accidentally left the cage door open and his father stepped on the escaped hamster. Since then he's been unsure of himself and refused any kind of responsibility put on him. This lead him to drop out of MIT and spend all his time video-gaming, where he solved the Ancient code that stranded both the expedition, and later, the Lucian Alliance on Destiny. Ginn points out that without that hamster, they would have never met.
Refusal of the Call: Eli is completely unconvinced when O'Neill and Dr. Rush show up on his doorstep, informing him that he is their Chosen One. Unlike most examples, however, this doesn't end all that badly for him (well, other than the whole stranded on the other side of the universe thing, but that has nothing to do with him refusing the Call).
He actually took to the call pretty well when he learned all the details. And was standing in a spaceship
I Just Want to Be Special: She wants to be a part of Destiny's mission to give her fathers death a reason. So even though she's probably the last person that would be useful on the ship (alien knowledge later changes that), she tries her best and even volunteers to stay on the ship when the option to return home becomes available.
Just Friends: With Eli although she considers that type of relationship as very important due to her realization that he's the first real friend she's ever had. So unlike the usual situation of the trope, she's aware of... you know... but she doesn't want to screw things up by getting involved with Eli.
That last bit probably hinges on exactly when she figured out Eli's feelings for her, compared to when she hooked up with Scott.
The Load: And she acknowledges this fact, which is part of the reason she sides with Rush in "Divided". Leads into the Wangst somewhat. She seems to be trying to rectify it by becoming this show's Daniel Jackson.
Daddy Issues: Has a mild case of this, due to his veteran father becoming abusive after developing Gulf War Syndrome. In "Air Part 3", Rush unwittingly implies this is why he and Scott are so insistent on "playing soldiers" to gain someone's approval, leading to Greer immediately kicking him on his ass.
Odd Friendship: Greer is a stoic soldier with a deadpanned humor, Eli is an excitable Geek a little too uncertain in himself. Greer sincerely respects him and offers him advise regarding his love life.
Made even more significant by the fact that Greer seems to dislike or at least distrust civilians in general.
Noodle Incident: It has never been completely explained exactly what Telford did that provoked Greer into striking a superior officer. Young at least believes that Telford deserved it. Though from what we know of Greer, it must have really been something to make Greer develop such a long-lasting hatred for the guy. To put it in perspective, Greer has as of "Malice" only just begun to really outright dislike Rush (in his own words, he's not going to watch Rush's back any more).
Power Trio: In the military one he's definitely the Id.
IOA representative on Icarus (and now Destiny). Seems to have taken up the leadership of those who haven't sided with Rush or Young and otherwise representing a more humanitarian approach to things. As of "Awakening," she seems to have taken up tending to the hydroponics garden.
Only Sane Woman: To a certain extent from the beginning but increasingly so as Young and Rush get progressively unhinged in the second season.
Pet the Dog: Can be viewed as abrasive, and openly hostile towards the military. Her relationship with Sharon shows a very loving woman. And her willingness to be trapped in a paralyzed body for weeks shows she has conviction. She also likes Eli, letting his mother visit him aboard Destiny.
Another Air Force officer on Destiny. As with Riley (see below), despite being military, she seems to be on pretty good terms with the civilians and scientists compared to the drama that occurs among the more prominent members of both sides.
Boobs of Steel: She's among the few female military personnel shown and the only to be shown in a combat role. Seems to be the second-in-line for command of away teams after Scott.
When Riley piloted a kino into her room (he supposedly made a wrong turn), she tells him "I can, and will, kick your ass."
Made of Iron: She takes a blast from an alien lightning storm (okay, so it was a few feet away but close enough to knock her back) and comes away none worse for wear. Maybe she's just immune to electricity.
Ms. Fanservice: Even more so than Chloe. She is normally the first example that fans bring up when accusing this series of deciding that Darker and Edgier means needs more half-naked women.
"I'm up here." Said to, of course, McKay, who was ogling her assets. Again.
Colonel David Telford (Lou Diamond Phillips)
Air Force officer who was assigned to Icarus, but got out on the Hammond instead of going through the Stargate to Destiny. He seems to be Colonel Young's designated body-swap partner.
Brainwashed: Up until he's brought to the edge of death to break it.
Expendable Clone: Well, time-displaced duplicate from 12 hours in the future. For a brief moment, there are actually two Telfords, one on Destiny and one on Earth... until Rush accidentally kills the Destiny one during an argument.
Jerk Ass: While YMMV on Rush or Young being the Jerk Ass, Telford is almost universally accepted as one.
Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Post-brainwashing he still has a habit of going on the occasional jerk streak, but he has the crew's best interests at heart and just wants to get everybody home.
What the Hell, Hero?: Gives one to Young for his indecisiveness in dealing with the Lucian Alliance invasion.
Sgt. Hunter Riley (Haig Sutherland)
Essentially a combination of Siler and Walter from Stargate SG-1. He is usually seen supporting the staff at various points. He seems to be good friends with pretty much everyone on the ship; he, among the rest of the military, seems to be particularly competent with Ancient tech as he's identified the address to send them to Earth, helps with major repairs, mans the Stargate console on occasion, and can interpret Ancient. In one of the webisodes he even rigs one of Destiny's consoles to show a false self-destruct signal as a prank on Brody. He died in the second episode of season two.
Escalating War: The Kino videos show he has a long-running prank war with Brody. He once turned him purple!
Heroic Sacrifice: Though he didn't actually die, he shoved Brody out a corridor with an overloading power conduit so Brody wouldn't get caught by the blast. He was also trying to fix it so the ship wouldn't blow up. Didn't quite get far enough to keep himself out of harm's way, but he saved the ship. It puts him out of action for the latter half of the first ten episodes. He lampshades all of these incidents before his death; having survived an improbable number of incidents, he assumed it just it just wasn't his time yet.
Mauve Shirt: His purpose really. He's not quite as widely seen as, say, Brody and Volker, but every time he appears helps to paint him as practically the one guy on this ship who's taking the whole thing in stride. That's why, when they kill them, it really hits home.
Mercy Kill: Young gives him one upon request. Not a quick kill, either. Young has to suffocate him because Riley isn't willing to take a bullet. Not because he's afraid to, mind you, but because he doesn't want the others to know that Young killed (or helped kill) him.
Soundtrack Dissonance: Used to perfection when he dies. That is to say, there is no sound at all. Just complete and utter silence until Young finally lets out the breath he was holding. And it's that much more tear jerk-ing. It doesn't stop there. This episode doesn't even have the usual song ending the others do; instead we get Riley's video diary, which is almost as depressing as his death.
Airman Darren Becker (Jeffrey Bowyer-Chapman)
Runs the mess hall, more or less, and as a result is the go-to guy for meals and making alien food palatable.
Camp Cook: But to be fair it's not his fault since he has to work with such low-grade crap. He actually does pretty good, all things considered.
Adam Brody (Peter Kelamis)
An engineer and computer expert. Friends and prank rival with Riley (he gets turned purple for his efforts). Also runs a still used to make alcohol in a makeshift bar for the crew. According to The Other Wiki, Telford's gambit to dial Earth and thus getting Riley injured was why Brody sides with Rush against the military. Which explains why a guy that probably isn't all that violent is willing to space Telford in "Subversion" - hurting Riley, blowing up Icarus, etc. There is the implication that Riley's death has hit him particularly hard out of the secondary characters due to their friendship. As of Season 2, he's also started to get a bit more of an active role in things as well as developing somewhat of an angry snarker personality (though for good reason).
Never Live It Down: In-universe, no-one lets Brody forget his Novus counterpart named a nation "Futura"
"Its a font!"
Those Two Guys: With Volker to Rush, though a fairly light version of the trope as they're pretty involved in the story as side characters go.
Doctor Caine (Tygh Runyan)
An I.T. tech who shows up near the end of the first half of the season, apparently just to remind us there are more than ten people on the ship. James tries to hook up with him but he turns her down, then he decides to stay on an alien planet because he thinks the people that built it (long story) have a better chance of getting the crew home.
Chekhov's Gunman: He started as a random guy sent on a mission because main characters had another thing to do. As the beginning of season 2 he became some kind of higher force's messenger. Or not. Who knows?
Is This Thing Still On??: Has to remind James of this trope when she starts going on about how attractive he is over an open Kino line.
The Bus Came Back: Assuming TJ didn't imagine it, which is hard to say one way or another, he shows up again in "Intervention".
Reality Ensues: Despite being part of a group of intelligent scientists, what happens when you leave a dozen individuals on a planet alone, with next-to-no supplies, who have only built settlements for summer and then a bad winter comes along? They all freaking die, that's what!
Doctor Jeremy Franklin (Mark Burgess)
A scientist who, straight from the beginning, just has the worst luck.
Brain Uploading: this is what the chair did to him. His body's disappearance is still a mistery.
Idiot Ball: There's really no other excuse for him sitting in the chair which downloads a ridiculous amount of information into the user's brain, which is potentially fatal.
Spirit Advisor: Assuming Rush isn't just insane, which we really can't rule out, Franklin serves this role to him in "Aftermath".
He's later revealed to be an hallucination generated by Destiny, the real Franklin having been uploaded into it's memory.
What the Hell, Hero?: His distrust of the military aboard Destiny is due to Greer shooting him during the pilot (although to save his life).
The Woobie: This man cannot catch a break. He gets shot in the pilot for heaven's sake, though admittedly he did bring it on himself. It gets worse from there.
Doctor Dale Volker (Patrick Gilmore)
Astrophysicist and one of Rush's core team of scientists.
Ascended Extra: Originally intended to be a simple side character, the actor' portray impressed the showrunners enough to make him a more in-depth and involved character. Probably a CMOA for the actor considering how little most side characters have to work with.
Only Sane Man: At times. At the very least, he has a thread of common sense some of the other scientists seem to lack, though one may attribute this to being overly cautious.
Those Two Guys: With Brody to Rush, though a fairly light version of the trope as they're pretty involved in the story as side characters go.
Dr. Amanda Perry (Kathleen Munroe)
Quadriplegicphysicist on Earth; joins the crew via the communication stones in a number of episodes to work on the ship's drive. Love Interest to Rush (whose nickname for her is "Little Miss Brilliant"). NOT Killed Off for Real along with Ginn by Simeon. Since she was killed while connected to another body via the stones, her consciousness stuck in the ether, then linked to Chloe and was downloaded to Destiny. Yes, it's quite a Mind Screw.
Punch Clock Villain: Win or lose, he just wants everyone to get along now that they're stuck together. While he is now free, he remained the only Lucian Alliance member alive due to a hunting accident.
Ginn (Julie McNiven)
A scientist in the Lucian Alliance and one of the handful that were allowed to stay on board the ship. She was forced to join the Lucian Alliance or have her family killed.
Punch Clock Villain: Like Varro, she just wants to be helpful now that the incursion has ended. She's also quick to point out, she only joined the Lucian Alliance because they threatened to kill her family.
She Knows Too Much: Simeon killed her when she was going to reveal the details beyond the attack on Earth.
Stuffed into the Fridge: Simeon explicitly left Rush alive so her death (or rather that of who she was connected to) would haunt him.
Simeon (Robert Knepper)
A soldier in the Lucian Alliance and one of the handful that were allowed to stay on board the ship.
Bad Ass: When he wanted to silence Ginn, he ended up killing three people (including Ginn), wounded four others, escaped the ship, and evaded around a dozen people tracking him for the better part of a day.
Enigmatic Minion: We don't see much of him, and he usually only speaks up to make quips. He interrogated Telford about how Kiva was shot and obviously didn't believe his story, yet made nothing of it. He also tried to get rough with TJ; he regretted it.
Mind Screw: Destiny can play around with the crew's brainwaves. Confirmed hallucinations include Young's dreams, while TJ's baby and Rush's wife are possibilities, but unconfirmed yet.
Confirmed eventually. Destiny was trying to help TJ deal with the pain of losing her child and Rush's wife is one it's chosen forms when communicating with Rush on the bridge, along with the uploaded Franklin.
Ragnarok-Proofing: Considering it's held up for several million plus years, it's amazing that it's only now starting to break down.
Setting as a Character: Destiny is definitely a lot smarter than your average spaceship, Ancient or other. Rush has asserted that it doesn't actually have any personality, but apparently just freakishly appropriate deductive reasoning. One way of looking at it would be like your desktop computer with all the different programs on it (anti-virus, word processor, USB ports, etc) only more powerful and advanced. It has no real emotions or whatnot, but the complexity of it all can sometimes mean that when it tries to do something non-routine or something changes in its environment, something crashes (and usually when you're doing something important).