The Rebuild of Evangelion continuity comes down firmly on Rei's side, to the point that the love triangle is nuked. Asuka the Veronica never gets so much as a hint out to Shinji that she likes him, and once she realizes that Rei the Betty liked him first, she gives up her feelings without any fuss. There's also the fact that Asuka's bitch slap to Rei in the original gets blocked, and that Rei becomes the Barrier Maiden/Apocalypse Maiden in the film's climax. And then the whole deal gets much, MUCH worse.
Haou Airen: Kaafai (Betty) and Hakuron (Veronica), for Kurumi. Until Kaafai goes Yandere too.. and kills Hakuron. There's also Kurumi (Betty) and Reilan (Veronica), for Hakuron. Until Reilan deploys a Thanatos Gambit.
Macross in all its incarnations is actually built around this:
Super Dimension Fortress Macross had Lynn Minmay as the Veronica and Misa Hayase as the Betty. Minmay herself had a similar case, with Hikaru as the Betty and Lynn Kaifunn as the Veronica.
Macross 7 had a gender-reversed version of the trope, with Gamlin as the Betty and Basara as the Veronica.
Macross Frontier has Ranka as the Betty and Sheryl as the Veronica. In the second movie, The Wings of Goodbye: The End of the Triangle, it's resolved. Alto apologizies to Ranka for being unable to return her feelings and declares his love to Sheryl before going Missing In Action. Word of God confirmes Alto comes back, Sheryl wakes up and relationship ensues
Subverted in Double Arts. When "Betty" (Ellie) tentatively inquires about Kiri's feelings for the obvious "Veronica" candidate (Sui), he practically goes into a Heroic BSOD. Turns out they already tried dating. And she dumped him. Three times. So much for thatLove Triangle...
In Maid-Sama!, Misaki is the Archie, with her childhood friend Hinata as the Betty and her mysterious, popular, wealthy love interest Takumi Usui as the Veronica. Interestingly Hinata is a brunette while Takumi is a blond.
Hamtaro has a genderswapped example with Pashmina (Archie) as the love interest of both Dexter (Betty) and Howdy (Veronica).
Full Metal Panic! inverts this: Chidori is the Veronica despite being the Ordinary High-School Student, while Tessa, who is a captain in a covert paramilitary organization and has command of a submarine and several hundred troops, Sousuke included, is the Betty personality-wise.
To Love-Ru subverts this. Lala is the obvious Veronica, while Haruna is the obvious Betty, the twist being that Haruna is the one Rito chases (their inability to confess to each other is a Running Gag after while). Although Lala does end up bringing the two closer together (Rito goes from hyperventilating in Haruna's vicinity to being able hang out with her in a large group of friends). The series also seems to be leaning toward a Marry Them All, which includes Lala (a galactic princess, so if Rito marries her, the harem option comes into play. Lala actually suggests this, say, if she marries Rito, "the rules of Earth don't apply" . If you assume Lala is a given, this would make Momo the obvious Veronica, although she really does most of the chasing. It's that type of series.
In Nana, rock star Takumi would probably count as a male version of Veronica for Hachiko while Nobu serves as a male Betty.
In Naruto, you get this trope in spades with Naruto. There's Sakura who seems to be choosing between Naruto (Betty) and Sasuke (Veronica). With Sasuke as Archie, you really have Sakura as Betty, Ino as Veronica and Karin as the Third-Option Love Interest. And with Naruto as Archie, you get Hinata as Betty and Sakura as Veronica.
In Nanatsu No Taizai to Meliodas, Elizabeth's a royal Betty due to being a generally calm regular human while Diane's a common Veronica due to being a clingy easily jealous exotic giantess.
Ordinary High-School Student Kagome is the Betty and Dark Magical Girl Kikyo the Veronica (who once was more Betty-ish). Solved when Kikyo dies for a second time but now is able to go in peace, so Inuyasha finally lets go of his regrets and stays with Kagome.
Almost every guy Kagome gets shipped with will be the Betty to Inuyasha the Veronica, with the sole exception being Kouga.
Kouga has Kagome as the Betty and Ayame as a mix of Betty (she was his childhood friend as well as very cute) and Veronica (she's somewhat of a Clingy Jealous Girl, and a pretty efficient Cute Bruiser). The anime states that Ayame is the winner.
In an anime episode, Sango has Kuranosuke Takeda as the Betty and Miroku as the Veronica. Since Kuranosuke didn't appear again, Miroku remains alongside her for a Happily Married family.
Bleach: The kind and pacifist Girl Next Door Orihime Inoue looks like a good Betty and the Tsundere Rukia seems to be a nice Veronica. Ichigo and Rukia are considered more than friends but less than lovers; on the other hand, Orihime already confessed her love for Ichigo but he wasn't conscious at the time to hear. Ichigo is more than willing to scale both Soul Society and Hueco Mundo in order to rescue both of them (in separate arcs) and has the 'other' help participate in the rescue: Orihime is the Barrier Warrior and healer in Soul Society who actually came up with the idea of rescuing Rukia, while Rukia recovers her Action Girl credentials by the time the Hueco Mundo arc kicks in and joins Ichigo's quest for Orihime heartily.
Other candidates for a Veronica or Betty includes Karate champ Arisawa Tatsuki, childhood friend of Ichigo, and Riruka Dokugamine from the latest arc.
On the other hand, the Fanon that has Orihime as a female Archie switches the deal around. Ichigo is a Hot-Blooded potential Veronica who fights for his friends without hesitation while Uryuu Ishida is a booksmart potential Betty who methodically snipes the enemies with his bow and arrow... and maybe, maybe, there'd be a Cheryl Blossom in Ulquiorra's Man in WhiteNietzsche Wannabe. Except for the fact that, well, Ulquiorra is dead.
If we see Rukia as the Archie instead, a possible Love Triangle would have Ichigo as the Veronica with Renji Abarai as the Betty. Yes, Renji is as Hot-Blooded and passionate as Ichigo, but on the other hand he has known and cared for Rukia ever since they were children (which happens more often than not with Betties) and became a Shinigami as well as a Vice-Captain for her sake. And, on Ichigo's side, there's the fact that he resembles an orange-haired Kaien Shiba, who was Rukia's juvenile crush when she was his lieutenant.
Love Hina has a pretty basic version of this: Cloudcuckoolander Mutsumi versus Tsundere Naru. Keitaro, however, makes his preference the latter quite transparent halfway into the series, no matter if she's the little girl of the promise or not.
In Hana Yori Dango, the heroine Tsukushi Makino is the object of both Rui's (the calm, supportive Betty) and Domyoji's (the violent, passionate Veronica) affections. Subverted in that Makino initially has unrequited feelings for Rui, while it is Domyoji who has (initially) one-sided feelings for her, and in that the Veronica triumphs while the Betty moves on to someone else.
In MÄR, Snow and Dorothy are the Betty and Veronica respectively towards Ginta. In the manga, nothing is really resolved and both stay behind in MÄR Heaven, although Ginta eventually hooking up with Snow's real-world counterpart Koyuki isn't out of the question. In the anime, Ginta resolves things with Dorothy by explicitly not choosing her. Snow merges with Koyuki to become one whole person to be with him on Earth, and the ending heavily implies a mutual relationship occurs, so in this case, the Betty wins.
The Kuno/Akane/Pig-Tailed Girl triangle of Ranma ½ is an interesting case. You could say Akane is the Veronica trying to be the Betty and Ranma is the other way around, but we're talking about the warped mind of Tatewaki Kuno here.
Akane's somewhat sheltered and naive due to being the youngest child in a middle-to-high-class and very traditional family. Well, at the same time, she's rather popular at school, shuns the boys who chase after her (specially Kuno), has a quick temper towards Ranma and despite her tries has very few traditionally feminine traits. These are all Veronica-ish qualities/flaws, so Kuno is somewhat right with this one.
Shampoo a Supreme Chef, works full-time in her grandma's restaurant, and can be almost kittenish when she's happy (pun intended). Also added is that she came from a lower-class setting than Akane, is a lot smarter than she looks, and is also multi-talented. She also pines after Ranma. That's quite a dosage of Betty-ness.
This becomes transparent when she's placed in contrast with Kodachi, whose upperclass lifestyle makes her a full-on Veronica, what with the Mad Love she feels towards Ranma pushing her to the point of being an active would-be hypothenuse murderer.
With Akane as the center figure, the bumbling Gentle Giant Ryoga can be considered the Betty to Jerk with a Heart of Gold Ranma's Veronica. And with Ranma as the snarky yet ultimately well-intentioned Betty to Kuno's delirious, hammy Veronica.
In Angel Densetsu we have Ikuno as the Veronica and Ryoko as the slightly less scary and Ax-Crazy Veronica Betty.
In School Rumble, Harima initially has his sights set on Tenma alone but it's clear from the start that he has no chance of winning her heart as she's already in love with Karasuma. The two girls who do express interest in him are Tenma's sister Yakumo and local OjouEri who fit the Betty and Veronica dynamic well.
And just in case your head isn't spinning enough yet, there are numerousfanon combinations of other characters with many of them bouncing back and forth between the Betty and Veronica roles depending on who their designated romantic rival is. To list all of them would take up half of this page, especially since this fandom is way more prone to OT3s than most other fandoms.
Death Note has Misa as Betty and Takada as Veronica when it comes to Light. A genderswapped version in the Death Note spin off novel Another Note: The Los Angeles BB Murder Cases is Beyond Birthday as the Veronica and Raye Penber as the Betty to Naomi Misora's Archie.
If Setsuna of Angel Sanctuary is Archie, then Demon Princess Kurai is Veronica and sweet, kind-hearted Sara is Betty.
Elfen Lied gives Kouta (Archie) the conflicting and very different love interests Lucy (Veronica) and Yuka (Betty).
In Mekakushi no Kuni, Arou (Betty) and Namiki (Veronica) are rivals for Kanade's affections, even though Arou wins from Volume 2 onwards.
Takemoto (Betty) and Morita (Veronica) both fall in love with Hagu in Honey and Clover. Even though Morita wins Hagu's affections, neither of the guys end up with her.
Gakuen Alice: Mikan has Ruka (The Prince) and Natsume (The Bad Boy).
Shugo Chara!: Amu has Tadase (the Prince) and Ikuto (the Bad Boy).
Fruits Basket: Tohru has Yuki (the Prince) and Kyo (the Bad Boy).
Cardcaptor Sakura: Sakura has Yukito (the Prince) and Syaoran (the Bad Boy). Played with in the end: Yukito ended up with Sakura's brother, and by the time Sakura fell for Syaoran, he was far more of The Prince than the Bad Boy.
In the anime, Syaoran has Sakura (Betty) and Meiling (Veronica). Again, Sakura and Syaoran get together, and shortly before that Meiling says "I Want My Beloved to Be Happy!".
Tokyo Mew Mew: Ichigo has Masaya (the Prince), Ryou (the Bad Boy), and Quiche (the Bad-er Boy).
Complicating matters are other potential Veronicas or Cheryls: Mizore, Yukari and inner Moka.
In Peach Girl, Momo spent years with a crush on the chivalrous and polite Toji, until she finally gets him. They guy helping her out on the way is Kairi, a lecherous, school-skipping bad boy she discovers she now has feelings for. Throughout the series she bounces back and forth between them, until finally she ends up with Kairi.
Pretear seems to set this up between Himeno, Sasame and Hayate, especially in the manga. The anime is more... complicated.
Princess Tutu plays with this trope in a way that approaches Cyclical Trope levels. First, we have Fakir (the Tsundere Bad Boy) and Mytho (the Prince) for Ahiru. However , their roles are subverted in the second season with Fakir as the the Betty to the Raven Prince Mytho's Veronica. On the other hand, while Ahiru seems The Betty to Rue's Veronica... Rue's certainly The Betty to Princess Tutu's Veronica for Mytho. And if we bring Princess Kraehe in this, this starts all over again. Plus, Autor could be the Betty for Rue while Mytho is The Veronica.
The Hellsing anime has a twisted, 'sort of' affection triangle between Alucard, Integra Hellsing, and Seras Victoria that creates an animosity between the women. While Seras looks as the Veronica (being the one with sultry clothes and the newest addition to the Hellsing group) to Integra's Betty (long-standing bond with Alucard and with more tomboyish traits), personality and role wise could be switched: Integra's the Rich Veronica that has Alucard's affection while Reliable Betty Seras longs for it. Studio Gonzo claims that in the Anime, Alucard actually turned Seras because her eyes reminded him to Integra during her youth, but he was mistaken. The manga averts this situation with an emphasis on a platonic bond between Alucard and Seras, but curiously adding Les Yay subtext between Seras and Integra, and having Pip Bernadotte as Seras' Love Interest.
In Higurashi: When They Cry, there are two different triangles that could be seen as this. The easier one is between Rena and Mion, with Rena as Betty and Mion as Veronica. Earlier, the twins Mion and Shion are set up as another one of these, but it's a little harder there to say who'd be Betty and who'd be Veronica. The best assumption would be Mion as Betty and Shion, who is introduced as a bit of an outsider and certainly has a bit more danger to her, as Veronica.
Gender-flipped in Kimi Wa Petto. Sumire, the tall, smart and successful businesswoman, made a rule that she would only date her equal. One day, she finds a down-on-his-luck dancer sleeping in a box and... takes him on as a pet. She names him Momo and they form a relaxed, if unusual relationship. Soon after this, Hasumi (Betty), her tall, dark and intelligent sempai from university appears. He's everything she's been hoping for, but when they start going out, she feels that she has to present her best side at all times, instead of the unconditional, doglike affection offered by Momo (Veronica). The dramatic tension between "I can be myself around him" and "He's everything I ever wanted" drives the plot.
In Tenshi Ni Narumon Noelle is Betty and Natsumi is Veronica for Yuusuke. Also, Muse is Betty and Silky is Veronica for Eros
Maison Ikkoku has a male version where Kyoko has to choose between the awkward, indecisive, but fundamentally kind-hearted Godai (Betty) and the suave, flashy Mitaka (Veronica). Godai himself encounters an interesting variation on this trope: although he has romantic options that play the Betty and Veronica options straight (his good-natured fellow student Kozue and his outspoken, sexually aggressive pupil Ibuki respectively), his true romantic interest, Kyoko, is a blend of the two types, as she is both a responsible, supportive, somewhat traditional young lady AND an independently minded woman with a temper who is unafraid to criticize Godai or defy her parents when necessary.
Kimi ni Todoke has two that overlaps, Sawako is Betty and Kurumi is Veronica for Kazehaya, who is the Betty and Kento is Veronica for Sawako. Color inverted since Sawako and Kazehaya are dark-haired.
Voltron has a male version. Boy Scout Keith (Betty) and Evil Prince Lotor (Veronica) both love Princess Allura. But Allura only loves Keith- so this may actually be a subversion. Some fans try to pair up Allura with the rebellious Lance (Veronica)- but in the canon anime and other series they show absolutely no interest whatsoever in each other.
Male example in Rose of Versailles: Andre is Betty and Fersen is Veronica. But Oscar realizes that her feelings for Fersen were just infatuation and that she truly loves Andre. And every woman in the kingdom has a crush on Fersen. And Fersen does not return Oscar's love.
Magic Knight Rayearth has a few possible instances of this trope, both male and female. Hikaru likes both Eagle Vision (Betty) and Lantis (Veronica). Umi is loved by Ascot (Betty), but she likes Clef as well (Veronica). And both Emeraude (Betty) and Alcyone (Veronica) are in love with Zagato- but he only loves Emeraude and dislikes Alcyone very much.
Wandering Son had this early on, between siblings. It was between a Bratty Teenage Daughter, her gentle trans sexual younger brother, and the boy who the former was attracted to who had accidentally fallen for her brother when he was dressed as a girl.
GE - Good Ending has Shou and Yuki for Seiji, the protagonist. One is bubbly, the other one is more serious. One comes from a mid-class family background, the other one from a high class family. One is blond, one is black-haired.
In Ratman, Shuto's female admirers are both a mix of Betty And Veronica traits while still in stark contrast to one another. On one hand is Mirea Mizushima, his exotically gorgeous Yamato Nadeshiko classmate whom he's known for some time, however her family are the ones who turned him into the Anti-VillainProtagonist, Ratman. On the other hand is Rio Kizaki, who better fits the "cute and spunky" type, but is also the wealthy and tomboyish daughter of the Hero Association's president, and the two of them bond over their shared dream of being heroes.
Nana to Kaoru tries its best to steer clear of this. Kaoru is the Archie, but A) Tachi, the supposed Betty, is the Secret Keeper of Nana & Kaoru's 'breathers' and acts more like a little sister, continually trying to push them together; B) Kaoru has ZERO interest in Tachi; C) the titular couple are afflicted with oblivious to each other's love on a Charlton-Heston-epic scale and D) the whole thing is skewed by the fact both get tied up by him.
In Tenchi Muyo!, Ayeka is clearly the Betty (traditional, reserved) to Ryoko's Veronica (sultry, unreserved). And then it's subverted because some side materials reveal that Ayeka, who's seen as kinda prudish in canon, actually has more knowledge of S&M than most Betties have...
Gantz has calm, reserved normal Tae as Betty to Reika's Veronica, which it averts by Reika's cloning of Kei.
The one-episode Love Triangle from Kaleido Star had Sarah as Archie, Kalos as Betty, and Andy as Veronica. Sarah chooses Kalos — in fact, she had chosen him quite a while before and that's why she had stayed in the Stage in the first place. Andy never really stood a chance, and he immediately acknowledges it.
In The King of Fighters: KYO manga (a Spinoff from the KOF games), there are several prospect love triangles like this:
At first, Kyo Kusanagi is the Archie to Yuki's Betty and Athena Asamiya's Veronica. Since Yuki is already Kyo's girlfriend when Athena comes into Kyo's school to be closer to him and see how his powers are like, she "wins" this round.
If we have Athena as Archie, then Kyo switches to the Veronica while Sie Kensou is the Betty. As said above Kyo stays with Yuki, but Athena never really "switches" to Kensou anyway.
Later, due to a series of meddling and misunderstandings, Yuki becomes the Archie with Kyo as Veronica and Takaya Maeta as Betty. Maeta does get a serious chance to get closer to Yuki and Kyo hasothermatters to attend... but ultimately he gets better, Yuki stays by his side, and Maeta relents.
Mobile Suit Gundam: Mirai (Archie), Bright Noah (Betty), Liutenant Sleggar (Veronica) and Cameron Bloom (Third-Option Love Interest). Sleggar dies few after he and Mirai share a kiss, Cameron is soon out of the picture until the Char's Counterattack movie, Mirai marries Bright.. Also Lalah Sune (a very... strange Archie), Amuro Ray (Betty) and Char Aznable (Veronica) And then Lalah dies protecting Char from Amuro.
Gundam X: Garrod Ran (Archie), Tiffa Addil (Betty) and Ennil El (Veronica). Tiffa already had the first round won since Garrod had a huge crush on her from the start, so she wins in the end too.
Gundam AGE: Flit Asuno (Archie), Yurin L'Ciel (Betty), Emily Amonde (odd mix of Veronica and Betty, as she's the Childhood Friend like most Betties but Yurin is that sweet and gentle) Yurin dies horribly, so Emily "wins" by default. While being aware that Yurin is The Lost Lenore, though.
And later there's Romary (Archie), Asemu (Betty) and Zeheart (Veronica). Bonus for the Ho Yay between Asemu and Zeheart. Romary is... very confused but ultimately chooses Asemu, since Zeheart is an Anti-Villain.
The Flowers of Evil gives us Saeki (Betty) and Nakamura (Veronica), this being a very dark take on both.
Official parodies for Attack on Titan portray Eren as the clueless Archie to Mikasa (Betty) and Annie (Veronica). In the main canon, there are implications of such a dynamic, but it's left ambiguous due to the series' avoidance of romance.