C.C.'s a pretty good fit, not so much in the short or undeveloped part, but she does contrast child-like mannerisms (like playing with a stuffed animal) with being so snarky that Lelouch initially thinks of her as downright inhuman.
Momoka from Daa! Daa! Daa! is a three-year-old little girl whose first scene in the series has her berating the heroine, Miyu, for aiding global warming by not recycling. From the back of a tricycle. Her snarkiness only increases as the series goes on.
A Rare Male Example is Naota from FLCL. The light novel explicitly mentions that his body hasn't kept up with his mental maturity. In the anime, his pajamas don't even fit a 12-year-old girl. He overuses 'ore' to compensate.
Saki in Shikabane Hime. She has a habit of speaking aloud her contracted monk's inner thoughts.
Loco in MÄR. Her aloof, gloomy attitude is sort of justified because she's actually much older than she appears, a curse induced by her choice weapon keeps her adult self looking like a very coldhearted 10-year-old.
Felli Loss from Chrome Shelled Regios fits this rather well, with a bit of Emotionless Girl mixed in, which is promptly subverted in her introduction, where she is seen her screaming and shouting insults down one of the city's ventilation shafts to relieve some frustration.
Dani from Hocus Pocus. To begin with, the eight-year-old little sister of Max, the protagonist, comments on Max's crush on Allison and lack of sex-life in general. After Max lights the black-flame candle and all manner of visuals and sound effects occur:
Max: What happened? Dani: A virgin [adjusts her witch's hat] lit the candle.
Ironically, Shirley Temple becomes a bit of a Little Miss Snarker in the film Little Miss Marker, after hanging around the gangsters who've unofficially taken her in, after she was left with them by her suicidal father.
Live Action TV
Modern Family: In episode "Fulgencio", Cameron and Mitchell wonder if Lilly is becoming sarcastic as a result of overhearing their snide remarks to each other. At the end it turns out she's picking it up from Claire, who drives her to dance classes.
The little girl on Friends (played by Dakota Fanning) that lived in the house that Monica & Chandler were going to buy. She has an attitude about her parents moving out, and she snarks at thirty-something Joey who is more child-like and way less mature than her.
Doctor Who: Young Amelia Pond has her moments, both when she meets the Doctor as a child, and when we see flashbacks of her and Rory and Mels growing up.
On The Addams Family, Wednesday Addams, usually in Black Comedy way, although adaptations tend to vary as to how snarky and how dark her humor is.
Jenny Wren in Dickens'Our Mutual Friend. She has a good reason for being so jaded, since her father's irresponsibility and severe alcoholism leave her, at the age of about thirteen, to be the responsible adult of the household.
Ivy aka The Archive from The Dresden Files makes an attempt to snark on behalf of the incapacitated protagonist. He notes that she's not very good at it yet, but he gets choked up nonetheless.
While her childish curiosity or perceived psychological instability are the character traits usually played up in adaptations, Alice could be surprisingly sarcastic and was never one to suffer fools gladly.
Rachel from the Sword of Truth series. Has no problem calling out Chase when he complains about the poultice he's forced to apply by telling him that if he'd just listened to her in the first place, he probably wouldn't have been hurt by the Eldritch Abomination he was surprised by and he wouldn't have to take the burning medicine.
The littlest Whistlers don't show this, but twelve-year-old Blush has a very sardonic remark about seventeen-year-old Corelle in A Brother's Price.
Skeeter Traps from Chroniclesof Magic is a ten year-old girl whose sarcasm is rivaled only by her love of violence.
Right from her very first appearance, Lucy van Pelt in Peanuts may well be considered the queen of Little Misses Snarkers. Of course, sarcasm was far from the only thing that made her what she was.
Little Mary in The Women has a fine time mocking the deceitful social conventions ladies like her mother are bound by.
Etna from Disgaea. Despite being Really 700 Years Old, she appears and acts much younger than she is, as with most demons and angels. In her case, she has the look and personality of a fourteen-year old, and a lot of snarkiness to match, helped by the fact that her upbringing has made her Wise Beyond Her Years.
Shiori Momono in 11eyes, a returnee from Italy who spends most of her time reading. The other part of her time is spent berating Tadashi. Everyone berates Tadashi, but she does it in a manner that hits him where it hurts.
The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess' Midna; though she isn't technically a little girl (She actually seems to be a late teenager or young woman), she appears as a small and adorable imp for the majority of the game. She is snarky towards pretty much everything and everyone, though she mellows out as the game goes, due to taking a level in kindness.
Shantotto is this in Dissidia: Final Fantasy. Technically she isn't a little girl, she's 35, but as a Tarutaru she's diminutive. And almost all of her battle quotes are insults, specially her greetings to the other characters:
To Exdeath: Inside your head is the Void!
To Cloud: Your hair is a distraction!
To Kuja: Narcissists are so last Windsday!
The Mists of Pandaria expansion to World of Warcraft brings us Li Li, the young and very snarky companion to Chen Stormstout.
Jinora from The Legend of Korra has shown shades of this trope. Case in point: Tenzin demands that his children promise that they won't be as rebellious or annoying as Korra when they become teens. Jinora calmly looks over her book, point-blank says "I will make no such promises," and then goes back to reading.
Her sister Ikki seems to be becoming this in Book 4.
Gosalyn from Darkwing Duck. It helps that she's a tomboy, and that the titular hero is a total show-off with a massive ego.
The Simpsons: Lisa Simpson. Her snark is her defence mechanism amidst her dysfunctional family. She's the smart one and educated one among the uncultured and the others are boorish or stupid. Her mother alternates between being like the others or a sophisticated, artistic woman.
Kimi Finster from Rugrats would eventually become Snarker in All Grown Up!, contradictory to her lovable self in the original series (with the exception of the newspaper comic strips), more less towards her brother, Chuckie Finster (and sometimes the other "Rats") on separate occasions.