"... it was a winged creature: if bird, then greater than all other birds, and it was naked, and neither quill nor feather did it bear, and its vast pinions were as webs of hide between horned fingers; and it stank. A creature of an older world, maybe it was..."Large flying creatures are a staple of Fantastic Fiction. This trope comes in a few distinct flavors:
- Large Flying Predators: Many Giant Flyers are simply large aerial predators who swoop down on unlucky characters from above and carry them off to their dooms. Generally, the Flying Predator version isn't outright evil.
- Leathery Winged Avians: (Never mind the fact that many of them are feathery winged instead.) These Giant Flyers will act much like the first type, but will do so on the local Big Bad’s account, and will often look uglier or more monstrous than the "natural" kind to reflect this. They may either attack the heroes on their lonesome, serve as steeds for the Big Bad’s servants, or both. The name was coined by Diana Wynne Jones' in The Tough Guide to Fantasyland.
- Deus Ex Machina Airlines: Giant Flyers as Big Damn Heroes. As mentioned in Horse of a Different Color, an animal that can fly and be ridden on is probably the most-desired fantasy mount. Where such Giant Flyers appear, expect there to be at least one scene where they must swoop down to rescue a non-flying character who has fallen from a great height. Such scenes in The Lord of the Rings earned this subtype the name "Deus ex Machina Airlines" from the Harvard Lampoon parody Bored of the Rings.
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Examples of Large Flying Predators
Anime & Manga
- In Great Mazinger — one of the Mazinger Z sequels — an entire division of the army of Robeasts were giant birds.
- Yu-Gi-Oh! Slifer The Sky Dragon, The Winged Dragon of Ra, and many others.
- Lots and lots of these in Digimon. Often times it's someone's partner Digimon (such as ShineGreymon), though there are a few notable exceptions (such as Azulongmon).
- The Mass-Production EVAs from End Of Evangelion. Picture a bone-white humanoid vulture with a 200-foot wingspan, no eyes, a permanantly-grinning mouth with incongruous red lips and bad teeth, and you may end up like Shinji or Asuka.
- Grown up shadow dragons from Naru Taru.
- Several types of insects from Nausicaä of the Valley of the Wind.
- These exist in Hunter × Hunter. There a scene in both Anime and Manga where it cuts to Ging, sitting on the back of giant frog. It pans out, and it shows that giant frog is on the back of a giant dragon, which takes off and flies off into the distance.
- In Naruto, there is the Seven-Tailed Demon Beetle, a cross between a 6-winged dragonfly (plus tail) and an armored rhinoceros beetle.
- Flying-type Pokémon that can evolve will usually end up being (relatively) large in their final stages. Even non-evolving ones can be this, including Skarmory and any flying Legendary — in the latter category, special mention goes to Articuno, Zapdos, Moltres and Rayquaza.
- In The Dragon Dentist, the dragon of the title is an extremely giant flying beast slowly undulating through the sky, with a village perched like cliff-dwellings on it to house the dentists, also of the title. A predator in the sense that it can be employed in war.
- Magic: The Gathering has several.
- With the largest one so far being the Marit Lage, a Sealed Evil in a Can Eldritch Abomination capable of killing a player in a single hit.
- Second prize is Eldritch Abomination Emrakul, the Aeons Torn, which is known as the "Flying Spaghetti Monster" and has a habit of ending games the second it appears.
- In both cases the limitation of fliers are ignored due to both being Eldritch Abomination, with the latter even being able to warp reality around itself (and destroy it in the process).
- The Roc in 1,001 Arabian Nights doesn't menace the hero of the story, but she is big enough to carry off an elephant.
Films — Animation
Films — Live-Action
- As mentioned elsewhere, large Pterosaurs fill this role in damn near every movie they appear in:
- In Peter Jackson's King Kong (2005), this is filled by bat-like creatures which A Natural History of Skull Island describes as rodents which have separately evolved wings.
- One-Million B.C.
- The Valley of Gwangi
- Jurassic Park III
- Jurassic World. They can even swim.
- And the inevitable Sci-Fi Channel original movie, Pterodactyl!
- The generic Azhdarchids from the 2014 film adaptation of Walking with Dinosaurs. They're a much more accurate example, though.
- Ray Harryhausen was a big fan of this trope. (How's that for an animation challenge?) In addition to the Pterosaurs mentioned above:
- Q: The Winged Serpent
- Pitch Black has a whole flock of nasty things.
- The Giant Claw, as big as a battleship!
- Rodan, of Godzilla fame, is a bit of an odd duck here as he's just as likely to fit into any one of the other categories, depending on the director's mood. More often than not, he's a good monster.
- James Cameron's Avatar has two main kinds of giant flying predator: the Banshees (or Ikran), which are dragon-like, four-eyed and four-winged blue creatures often mounted by the Na'vi; and the very rare Great Leonopteryx (or Toruk), a similar species, only even bigger and red, that only the most badass Na'vi (and the odd Mighty Whitey Bodysurfing in a Na'vi-human hybrid body) have ever been able to ride.
- More specifically, banshees have a wingspan of 13.9 meters while the "Leo" is at least 25 meters. The size of those creatures is deceptive because the Na'vi riding them are 3 meters tall.
- The dragons from Reign of Fire qualify, especially the male.
- Pacific Rim: Otachi is a massive kaiju with wings that can fly. And it doesn't reveal these wings until it decides the only way to beat Gypsy would be to simply drop it from 50000 feet. Nice plan, but Gypsy had a sword.
- It's unclear yet exactly how big he is due to limited points of comparison, but the film incarnation of Smaug is enormous. To put it into perspective, the Fell Beasts in The Lord of the Rings already have a wingspan as big as or bigger than a 747 jumbo jet. Smaug utterly dwarfs them.
- The male Muto from Godzilla (2014) has a pair of enormous wings in place of one set of legs.
- Starship Troopers had a scene where a scout was grabbed by a flying bug, until Rasczak uses a sniper rifle to kill his own man instead of shooting the bug.
- His Dark Materials
- The Cliff-Ghasts, dangerous cliff-dwelling predators.
- In the book The Amber Spyglass there's a mention of enemy soldiers riding a giant bird, later falling to their deaths due to a laser beam from the Intention Craft.
- Blood Hawks in the Robert A. Heinlein novel Glory Road.
- Icebones is a novel that follows the journey of a herd of Mammoths on Mars (just follow along), and at one point their youngest member is menaced by a giant seabird.
- The Red Dragons in the Sword of Truth series.
- In Star Wars there are the thranta of Alderaan and the aiwha of Kamino, which both look somewhat like flying whales.
- Mercedes Lackey's Gryphons, who are fully intelligent characters on par with humans, from her Heralds of Valdemar books.
- Wayne Barlowe's Expedition, and the Speculative Documentary based on it, Alien Planet, feature the jet-propelled, lance-headed Skewer, which has a 60-foot wingspan. The book also mentions the Ebony Blisterwing, which is said to have a wingspan of up to 1000 feet.
- The Seanchan of The Wheel of Time have scouts that ride giant winged creatures called raken and even larger to'raken as mounts.To'raken even carry boxes of ten or twenty elite soldiers called Fists of Heaven, which they use for aerial assaults. If they put damane (slave mages) in the transport boxes, they can even be aerial artillery.
- Worsel the Velantian in E. E. “Doc” Smith's Galactic Patrol. The heroes are being dragged by savage other-wordly beasts to a cave in which they will meet their doom when Worsel, a thirty-foot-long sentient flying reptile, drops from the sky and scatters the beasts in a shower of body parts.
- The tarns of Gor are a well thought out example. Despite having a 30 foot (9 meter) wing span they are so light that two strong men can easily lift one above their heads.
- The dragons of the Malazan Book of the Fallen are immense. Most natural dragons have already died out by the time of the main story, but Eleint Soletaken still have the ability to transform into the massive beasts. It is noted that the Soletaken often rely on sorcery to remain airborne, especially if their wings are damaged.
- Dragons of the Inheritance Cycle literally never stop growing. They're typically born from eggs roughly a foot long and within a few weeks are large enough to ride, and nothing is ever said to indicate that that remarkable growth rate declines. As of Brisingr, less than two years after she hatched, Saphira was so large that jumping down from her back when she is standing up is a long enough drop to either sprain or break bones, and particularly old dragons (before they were wiped out) were said to be mistaken for hills at a distance.
- Many of Visser Three's giant morphs in Animorphs fall into this category.
- The short story "Safe At Any Speed" features the Roc, a gigantic alien bird large enough to swallow a car.
- Nightworld. Portals to Another Dimension have opened sending nightmare creatures swarming across the Earth. To defeat them the protagonists must go on a Fetch Quest. Repairman Jack is flying through an ash cloud over the Pacific Ocean when he suddenly thinks they're flying too close to the ground, only to see a Giant Eye of Doom staring back at him from a titanic flying leviathan several miles in diameter. Another protagonist heading over the Atlantic has a leviathan swoop down on their jet, which escapes by flying close to the water then banking hard at the last second. The creature's huge wingspan causes it to clip the water and crash as it tries to follow.
- A mother Roc and her chick appear in the short story "Selim, Shadows, and the Sea" by Pamela Love.
- In The Voyage of St. Brendan, St. Brendan and his shipmatess encounter both a "gryphon" and an enormous bird who fights and kills the gryphon.
- In Railsea, the one rule of exploratory flying is "don't", for just this reason. Some airborne monsters are simply giant birds, some cephalopoid, and some more Lovecraftian things. Some of things can even set traps for unwary trains.
- The Horror Of The Heights, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, features similar problems with pioneering flight; in an altitude band too high for humans to see (somehow) there is an ecosystem of terribly dangerous organisms, including lighter-than-air jellies and rays that fly like birds of prey.
- Geryon, a massive demon of fraud and keeper of the "Malebolge," flies the heroes of The Divine Comedy into the deepest parts of Hell. He's described as a devil with the face of a honest man, body of a multicolored serpent, hairy wings, and a scorpion's.
- Several of the pterosaurs from Walking with Dinosaurs. One episode focused entirely on an Ornithocheirus that had a forty-foot wingspan.
- Torchwood has its own pet pterosaur cum watch-flyer called Myfanwy.
- Subverted by Primeval, in S1 in which the Pteranodon is explicitly stated to be a fish-eater and achieves no casualties other than an accidental injury, and the Monster of the Week is actually a swarm of smaller, flying pterosaurs who prefer Death of a Thousand Cuts to carrying the food off.
- Played straight in S3 with the giant praying mantis from the future.
- The Reapers in the Doctor Who episode "Father's Day" (who are also Clock Roaches).
- Doctor Who had a giant (as in the size of a carthorse) wasp in the episode "The Unicorn and the Wasp".
- The Speculative Documentary Alien Worlds: Blue Moon features Sky Whales and large predatory feeders called kites.
- The Red Dragon Thunderzord and platform in Mighty Morphin' Power Rangers season two. Besides the Fire Bird Thunderzord (which, as a fairly traditional aircraft doesn't count for this trope), the rest of Thunderzords could at least hover.
- In The Outer Limits (1995) episode "Tempests", the gas giant Leviathan's atmosphere harbored two giant flyers: "pteranodons," gigantic winged predators that had only been seen on "deep radar" (the characters encounter a skeleton) and "baleens," kilometer-sized jellyfish-blobs that float through the clouds and have dog-sized Giant Spiders in their guts, either as parasites or symbiotic organisms.
- The flying werepanther that Freya turned into in Merlin
- A whole flock of man-eating pterosaurs menaces Terra Nova.
Myths & Religion
- More than a few flying dragons get cast in this role; Wyverns, in particular, swoop down on many a hero in folklore.
- Griffins in general, going back to Classical Mythology.
- The Thunderbirds and Piasa of some Native American myths. Although the Piasa wasn't always this.
- The Jewish version of the roc is known as the ziz. It's slightly less famous than the other two gigantic animals of Jewish lore, the behemoth and the leviathan.
- Luckily, Nintendo still did their research when they based the main legendary trio of Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire on these 3. Ironically, Rayquaza is probably now more well known than its inspiration.
- The Banshee in Avatar, as part of the "Ride the Banshee" mode. The Limited Edition game also has one on the playfield.
- Kingdom Hearts:
- Kingdom Hearts 1: The Wyvern Heartless.
- The Dustflier from Kingdom Hearts: 358/2 Days is basically an upgraded, really hard version. And it's even bigger. There are also some other varients of the Wyvenn in that game.
- The Storm Rider in Kingdom Hearts II is big enough for your whole party to stand on its back.
- The Twilit Dragon Argorok, boss of the City in the Sky, in The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess.
- The Suckers from Diablo II are small compared to some of the entries on this page... but are still weird mosquito-things as big as a large man.
- Skies of Arcadia has several, with most of them serving as ship bosses. Four of the six biological superweapons known as Gigas can fly, and you can also optionally fight a Roc, a flying kraken, a giant... flying... spider thing, and an enormous Looper.
- Breath of Fire IV has a flying whale-dragon-god, whom the party has to visit.
- Castlevania: Lords of Shadow has, as it's penultimate level and also the final Titan Battle a fight against an utterly enormous frickin' UNDEAD DRAGON that you fight on top of a giant pillar of stone in the LAND OF THE DEAD.
- Demon's Souls features the Storm King as the boss at the Isle of the Shadowmen. A huge leathery-winged thing the size of Texas. It also comes accompanied by a fleet of Storm Beasts, smaller versions of itself that are more than twice as big as the player-character.
- Dragon Age: Origins contains a really nasty High Dragon that a group of people have decide is the reincarnation of the Prophetess Andraste. You don't have to fight it, but the cutscene upon entering the mountaintop area suggests that it falls into this category.
- Dragon Age II has another High Dragon as a Bonus Boss near the end. This one just wandered into an inhabited area, no crazy dragon-worshiping cults this time around.
- The Archdemon. This presents a bit of a problem for the heroes, as the Blight can only be ended with the Archdemon's death, but it's ability to fly allows it to easily stay out of the Gray Warden's reach. Luckily, Riordan manages to sneak up on it and force it to land by slicing one of its wings open.
- Shadow of the Colossus: The Roc Colossus falls into this category as it does actively attack you once you shoot at it with arrows, whereas the Serpent pictured above simply flies around — thank goodness, as by Word of God in the artbook, it's the longest colossus at 200 meters (656 ft.) long.
- The overlord and guardian in Starcraft.
- The campaign mode of the sequel has the Leviathan, which is somewhere between thirty to fifty times the size of a battlecruiser. Even though the game's units aren't to scale, it's clearly meant to be enormous.
- Dwarf Fortress has Giant Eagles, which is kind of a misnomer since there aren't any normal-sized eagle in the game. And then there are rocs, which are the third largest creatures in the game behind fully-grown dragons (which take fifty times as long to reach their full size) and giant sperm whales. A newly-hatched roc is as big as a fully-grown giant eagle.
- The Mountain Roc in Golden Sun: Dark Dawn, which is a) large enough to carry off human prey when Amiti recalls indirectly encountering it as a child, b) large enough that the nation of Morgal worships it as a god, c) large enough to force the camera to zoom out during your boss fight against the damn thing (and you still don't get the whole thing on your screen), and d) large enough that its gizzard acts as a Womb Level, albeit a short one.
- The Zu in the Final Fantasy series. Lampshaded in Final Fantasy X by Tidus if he encounters on in the desert around Home.
"How can a bird grow so big?"
- The Mighty Eagle in Angry Birds, which will wipe out all the pigs in a level.
- The main antagonists of The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim are large, ANGRY dragons. Much of the time spent fighting them will be trying to get away from them when they're in the air raining fire down on all the things.
- A huge number of the monsters in the Monster Hunter series are of this nature, the two most recognizable ones being the Rathalos and Rathian. They seldom spend much time flying at a height where you can't reach them, generally only doing it when they're moving between areas or for specific attacks. Otherwise, they're usually seen moving about on foot or with a low hover.
- World 5-SHIP: Eagle Path in Super Mario Fusion Revival. Based on the 4th stage of Golden Axe, "The Fiends' Path", this level takes place on the back of a giant eagle. Dangers include homing feathers, large Mana Beasts, and unstable platforms.
- Sky Serpents is based around fighting giant flying serpents, hence the name.
- The angels of Darksiders apparently use griffins as mounts and military animals, because at one point you steal one and ride on it.
- As mentioned in the Mythology Folder. Pokémon Ruby and Sapphire introduces Raquayza, based on the Ziz. There are other examples thought the game such as Lugia and Yveltal
- Ori and the Blind Forest's Big Bad is Kuro, a giant black owl who stole Sein from the Spirit Tree and killed off the Spirit Guardians in revenge for the Accidental Murder of her offspring by the Tree's light, and is now after Ori as well.
- Xenoblade Chronicles X: Planet Mira has a lot of extremely large giant flying creatures, with the man-sized jellyfish things being the smallest examples by far. The largest fliers could probably make a nest out of a football field. Interestingly, most of them won't attack you: you're way too small to be considered a meal or a threat, so unless you attack them, they'll ignore you. Until you get your Humongous Mecha. Then they'll take notice.
- Armaura, the Big Bad featured in Eagle Island, is a giant eagle deity.
- Horizon Zero Dawn has the Stormbird, a machine that looks like a giant, mechanical eagle. It's size is at least vaguely justified in that, being a machine, it has engines mounted on its wings that give a machine the size of a small house the power needed to fly. Also, its size may have had an in-universe purpose as well due to its original role in detoxifying the Earth's atmosphere after the Faro plague — there's likely all sorts of air-purification equipment in there. For Aloy though, its size and weaponry make it a boss fight by itself.
- RWBY has a class of Grimm known as a Nevermore, which is of course, a gigantic crow. These are big birds, and are pretty dangerous, usually requiring multiple hunters to take down. Or a Gatling gun.
- A Beginner's Guide to the End of the Universe: While most of the flying void beasts are about the same size as the animals they were based on, there's Chairman Jack — a sparrow about as tall as a dog — and void pigeons with the wingspans of hang gliders, which stand around twice as tall as the Everyman.
- Ansem Retort: "Ride, my world-killing god whale! Ride into battle!"
- Lord Dragon, Glaserwyrm, and Draco, from the Global Guardians PBEM Universe, were all honest-to-God dragons. Glaserwyrm was simply a monster to be beaten down. Lord Dragon was a dragon who turned into a man to act like a superhero, while Draco was a man who turned into a full-blown dragon and fought crime as a superhero.
- A giant winged bull shows up in Void Domain to wreck havoc.
- On Jimmy Two-Shoes, these are a common site in Miseryville. At different points, they've snatched up Beezy, Lucius, and Samy.
- Parodied hilariously in Korgoth of Barbaria, where the giant fearsome flying predators are... pigeons. Granted, they are pigeons the size of a T. rex but still... A similar joke was used by a FedEx ad campaign.
- Flying plant creatures(!) called "Swoopers" in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "The Infinite Vulcan". There are also Flyers in other episodes (such as "The Eye of the Beholder") who are said to be different species but use the same character models.
Examples of Leathery Winged Avians
- The "Birds of the Master" in the Valerian album named after them.
- Pterodelph (or whatever this big white thing is called) from Arzak.
- Abyssgreymon from Transcendence: Digital Curse is a Super Ultimate digimon who is about the same size as a Sovereign. He is forced into servitude by the first villain of the series.
- The Shadow Roc in A Growing Affection, which is similar to the Tailed Beasts, allied with Orochimaru to gain control of his Jinchuriki. The Roc is described as being weaker than Shukaku, but so large all nine Beasts could ride on its back and have space between them.
Films — Animation
- The Black Cauldron: The Horned King keeps two Gwythaints, which he sends to kidnap the prophetic pig Hen Wen. They're portrayed as a sort of mix between a wyvern and a pterosaur, in a departure from the original book series where they're described as large vulture-like birds.
Films — Live-Action
- Gyaos of the Gamera series.
- The Fell Beasts used as mounts by the Ringwraiths in The Lord of the Rings. While they are more vaguely described in the books, here they are portrayed as large, leathery-winged and scaled, with two legs, long necks and blunt, snakelike heads. They are used by the Ringwaiths almost like reconnaissance planes while patrolling the lands around Mordor, but are taken directly into battle at Osgiliath, Minas Tirith and the Black Gate.
- Otachi from Pacific Rim resembles a giant reptilian bat capable of lifting a giant robot of equivalent size, and like all Kaiju exists for the purpose of destroying human civilization so that the civilization that made it can take over the Earth. Its ability to fly also more or less invalidates any use the wall system can have of keeping Kaiju confined.
- The Leviathans from The Avengers are flying, armor-plated whale monsters used by the Chitauri as a combination of siege engines and war animals in the invasion of New York.
- Flying monkeys from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. Though it should be mentioned that, in the book, the Monkeys are merely flying predators who were enslaved by the Wicked Witch of the West via a magic hat which may be used to summon the monkeys three times. Dorothy gains the rights to this hat after killing the Witch, and the Monkeys aid her and her friends three times. Dorothy then handed the hat off to the Good Witch of the South, who declared she would use her three to get Dorothy's friends back home. She then gives the hat to the King of the Monkeys so no one else could use it, effectively freeing the monkeys.
- The Pellucidar novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs just cut to the chase and make the winged Mahar the Big Bad; they further feature the savage Thipdars.
- The Rooks controlled by the Dark in The Dark Is Rising straddle the line between this and the flying predator subtrope.
- In Guards! Guards!, mention is made several times of the fact that 'noble' (ie, giant and mythical) dragons are, intrinsically, wrong; nothing that big with that wingspan should ever be able to fly — Sybil even mentions the thing about how you can't just scale something up and expect it to work. The only way they can survive in the real world is by, essentially, feeding on magic. Lots of it. And that doesn't go so well once the magic starts running out.
- The Fell Beasts of The Lord of the Rings, vaguely-described creatures with vast, leathery wings used by the Ringwraiths as flying mounts. There are also the the winged dragons such as Smaug, some of Morgoth's most terrible minions. Particular mention should be made of Ancalagon the Black, the greatest of all the dragons of Middle-earth. He was so large that he could blot out the light of the sun even from a great distance, and when he was slain and thrown down his body utterly smashed the three peaks of Thangorodrim (three very large volcanoes).
- Bored of the Rings parodies this trope, and its use inThe Lord of the Rings, by having the Black Riders fly killer pelicans.
- The original Gwythaints of The Chronicles of Prydain are almost a subversion. They used to be good; they were peaceful flying creatures akin to real-life condors. Somehow, they were corrupted by Arawn — but there is still good in them. Taran rescues a young Gwythaint who later goes on to rescue him.
- The Ak-Baba from Deltora Quest were monstrous flying servants to the Big Bad. They scattered the jewels of Deltora across the land and terrorized the heroes on more than one occasion.
- In the book Dark Lord of Derkholm by Diana Wynne Jones, the titular character (and protagonist) is supposed to have a supply of Leathery Winged Avians on hand. What he actually ends up using are a flock of rather snarky intelligent geese.
- H.P. Lovecraft:
- The byakhee from "The Festival".
- The night-gaunts from The Dream-Quest of Unknown Kadath.
- There's also meet night-gaunts in Neil Gaiman's The Graveyard Book, and they're actually pretty nice.
- Inheritance Cycle: The Lethrblaka ("leather-flapper" in the Ancient Language), monstrous, man-eating creatures resembling draconic pterosaurs with arms as well as legs and wings. The Ra'zac use them as transportation when going around doing King Galbatorix's business. (They're also the adult form of the Ra'zac).
- Many of Visser Three's giant morphs in Animorphs fall into this category.
- In Star Wars: Kenobi, Jabba's thugs keep flying reptilian Kaven whistlers in the ceiling of his townhouse, and feed delinquent debtors to them.
Myth and Religion
- Warhammer 40,000:
- The Tyranids have a large number of flying monsters in their army. The Harridan is a huge winged monstrosity with razor sharp claws, pointy teeth and acid-shooting "bio cannons". Often carries around flocks of Gargoyles, smaller flying Tyranids. Harpies act as living bombers with a screech that can rupture eardrums. Hive Crones will wrestle enemy aircraft out of the skies before strafing ground forces with their stomach acids. Sky Slashers are nothing so much as fanged maws with bat wings that attack in huge swarms. Finally, Shrikes act as synapse creatures, keeping the other dying units connected to the Hive Mind.
- The daemons of Tzeentch, the Chaos God of sorcery and manipulation, have a distinct avian theme, and many are capable of flight.
- Many Warhammer armies have access to giant flying monsters as mounts for characters, mostly classic mythological monsters such as Dragons, Griffons, Pegasi, Wyverns and Manticores, although there are also stranger creatures like the dragon-sized zombie bat known as a Terrorgheist. The closest to the classic Lord of the Rings type is probably the Wyvern, available to Orc warbosses and great shamans.
- In the Iron Kingdoms world, any of the spawn of Ever blight that happen to have wings. They all have chitinous plates where their eyes should be, but make up for it by having an prodigious number of sharp teeth, as well as a variety of other natural weapons such as claws and blight-breath. The Angelius has itself no less than six wings. And then they are further topped by Archangels.
- In Dragon Dice, all races have access to the eponymous dragons by summoning them through magic. Most races have some form of flying cavalry or monster in addition to having access to dragons.
- Ridley, although he's not really a servant of the Mother Brain, as he's the leader of the Space Pirate army who ally with her.
- Metroid Prime 2: Echoes also features the giant moth Chykka.
- The giant Pteranodon in Ecco the Dolphin.
- Pokémon: Yveltal, a massive bird-like Pokémon and also a god of death. If it dies, it can rebirth itself in a dark reflection of a phoenix, sucking the life out of everything for miles around.
- El Goonish Shive has the Bulldog Dragon, a creature summoned at one point against the heroes. It's basically what you'd get if you combined a bulldog, a bat, and a goat while making it the size of a small car and reptilian.
Examples of Deus Ex Machina Airlines
Anime & Manga
- Birdramon from Digimon Adventure was ridiculously large compared to the rest of the cast; large enough that several of the chosen could ride on her feet. Other Giant Flyers include Zhuqiaomon from Digimon Tamers, Qinglongmon from Digimon Aventure 02, and Imperialdramon. Imperialdramon, furthermore, had two different forms: one was humanoid and used mainly for combat (called "Fighter Mode"), while the other was a quadruped with a domed glass-like shield on its back which it could carry passengers in.
- Many (if not all) of the dragonets that appear in the manga and anime of Naru Taru can fly and carry their owners with (or even inside) them.
- One application of Haruna's ability in Mahou Sensei Negima! involves her sketching different kinds of giant flyers to be used for quick transport.
- Yes! Pretty Cure 5GoGo!'s Syrup, when he isn't busy being a cute little boy or cuter penguin, can also become what's been described as a "birdplane."
- Kohaku in Spirited Away.
- The giant hawks flown by the Chosen Eight in ElfQuest.
- Several comic book characters ride flying horses; Valkyrie, Black Knight, Dreadknight, Shining Knight, basically a lot of knights.
- With Strings Attached:
- George turns into a pegasus and a dragon, always acting as a Deus Ex Machina Airline for Ringo and, usually, someone else (As'taris and the Hunter). Of course, he becomes many smaller kinds of flyers as well.
- He continues this trend in The Keys Stand Alone: The Soft World, though he's too prudent to fly as a dragon where anyone might see him (and take a shot at him). Twice he becomes a giant eagle to carry one of the others when riding isn't an option; Ringo hates this, since it makes him feel like George's dinner!
- Sacredgreymon drives Abyssgreymon from Digital City near the end of Transcendence: Digital Curse.
Films — Animation
- Dragon in Shrek.
- The Land Before Time VII features a Giant Flyer (really as that's what Pterosaurs are called in this verse) who was able to transport all of the characters off the top of a volcano just before it erupts. Certainly, there were some impressive Pterosaurs in real life. Not so sure if one would give a young sauropod a ride.
- Marahute in The Rescuers Down Under.
Films — Live-Action
- Pegasus in Clash of the Titans.
- Once again, more than a few dragons:
- MirrorMask: "Bob! Bob! Malcolm!"
- Star Wars: Attack of the Clones features the giant winged cetaceans called Aiwha, used by the Kaminoans as transport.
- In After Earth, a giant eagle saves Kitai from freezing to death by covering him with its wings. Previously, Kitai defended the eagle's nest from a pack of big cats.
- In Lady in the Water, the Great Eathlon is a giant eagle-like creature who takes Story away in the end.
- Lone Wolf:
- The Itikars, giant birds used as steeds by the Vassagonians. Lone Wolf gets to ride one in book 5.
- Lone Wolf also "borrows" a Zlanbeast on a few occasions to travel through enemy territory.
- Gwaihir and the other Eagles in The Lord of the Rings.
- Gwahno in Bored of the Rings is the Sub-Trope Namer.
- The Skybax in Dinotopia are a rare example of friendly large Pterosaurs.
- Of course, the Dragonriders of Pern.
- The Gars in The Sword of Truth series. They're only about man-sized, and can only seem to carry skinny teenage girls, or wizards using magic to make themselves lighter.
- Another Garth Nix example: in Shade's Children, "Wingers" are leather-winged flying beasts. Technically, that would put them in the category directly above, but as Shade notes, the normal laws physics makes it impossible for them to fly, but the Change Reactors make it possible.
- The Dirigible Behemothaurs from Iain M. Banks's Look to Windward are giant flyers of a sort, though very large (large enough to provide living space for dozens of human-shaped creatures in their various nooks and crannies) and rather slow and inscrutable. You generally wouldn't chat to them, certainly.
- The night-gaunts in Brian Lumley's Hero of Dreams series. Yep, they've switched sides since Lovecraft's day (see above).
- The Caterbird from The Edge Chronicles always shows up at the exact right time. In fact, it promises to do so as soon as it's introduced.
- Falkor the luckdragon in The Neverending Story.
- Dragons in the Inheritance Cycle.
- Tobias has been this in Animorphs when the others are in insect morph. Other times they just morph birds themselves.
- The Roving Reptilian Rescuers in The 13 1/2 Lives of Captain Bluebear, including the aptly named Deus X (Mac) Machina.
- John Varley's Titan series features sentient blimps. A species of symbiotes lives inside their "stomachs" and helps them out by bringing in vegetable matter for the blimps to digest. Blimps are pretty laid-back and it's possible to convince one to give you a ride, as long as you're not carrying fire or any means of making fire, which they're scared to death of for good reason... they get around the square-cube law by internally producing hydrogen so they're lighter than air (but also rather explosively flammable).
- Star Wars Legends: Among the many species that went extinct when Alderaan exploded were a number of massive flying creatures called thrantas, used as beasts of burden and steeds. The largest species could carry passenger vessels the size of ships. Fortunately, before this happened, one species was exported to the gas giant Bespin, which has an entire airborne ecosystem.
- In The Darkangel Trilogy, many of the guardian beasts ridden by Irrylath's brothers in the final battle fall under this category: specifically, the starhorse Avarclon, the cockatrice Elverlon, the newt-ape-bat-creature Ranilon, the gryphon Terralon, and the four-winged leopard Zambulon.
Myths & Religion
- Pegasus, the flying horse tamed by the hero Bellerophon and that served as his steed when he vanquished the Chimera, may be the Ur-example.
- A Brontitall rescues Arthur in a self-aware example (naturally) from the second season of the original Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy radio series.
- Flammie, from the World of Mana series, a giant... dragony-thing the heroes used as transportation.
- Parodied in The Halfblood Chronicles. One of the heroic Dragons gives a ride to a character who has just joined with the heroes. They both come away from the experience saying that it had to be the most uncomfortable way to travel imaginable.
- Pokémon has an amusing application of this trope in the form of the teachable move "Fly". Any Pokémon who can learn it effectively becomes your Deus Ex Machina Airline. (In practice, this means you are able to revisit important locations within the game.) The list of characters who can carry you while flying includes everything from creatures who fit the Giant Flyer trope, like the big, badass dragon Salamence. But it also hilariously includes tiny little Zubat and (possibly the most amusing) Doduo◊, a two-headed flightless bird thing without wings. Generally the entire evolutionary lines of common bird Pokémon (Pidgey, Hoothoot, etc.) can learn Fly even in their small initial forms (for one thing, Pidgey's Pokédex entry calls it a Tiny Bird Pokémon). Natu stands out as a rare example of a common bird Pokémon that can't (like Pidgey, it is also described as a Tiny Bird Pokémon), though its evolved form, Xatu, can.
- Much more amusing than Doduo is Smeargle. They aren't bird-like or winged at all (they're dogs with paintbrush tails), but that doesn't stop them from sketching and using Fly.
- Best of all for a Deus Ex Machina Airline? A Legendary Pokémon like Rayquaza, Moltres, or Ho-Oh. You are riding a friggin' phoenix, or the Ziz itself.
- This is even funnier if you have a Golurk and teach it Fly. It's a possessed golem about twice the size of the player, and many fans depict it with a built-in jetpack. Which is how the anime ended up depicting it, too.
- Sun and Moon replace Fly, along with most of the out-of-battle moves, with the Ride Pager, which allows you to call up certain Pokémon to where you are to perform those tasks. Fly's role is done by Charizard, allowing you to fly around the Alolan islands as you please on the back of a dragon.
- Many an episode of The Flintstones has the characters flying on airplanes mounted on giant pterodactyls, as well as planes with smaller pterodactyls as engines.
- The dragon/pterodactyl at the end of Out of this World.
- Rune Factory Frontier has a whale shaped island that you can use a beanstalk to climb onto. This island is intelligent and needs your help to defeat the infestation of monsters inhabiting the very large dungeon inside of itself.
- In The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword, Link and his Red Loftwing pull the Catch a Falling Star gambit as a matter of routine. He comes from a Floating Continent, where leaping to your doom and whistling for a nearby bird to rescue you is just how people get around.
- The giant Pteranodon in Ecco the Dolphin.
- Fluzzard from Super Mario Galaxy 2, which is a giant parrot in which Mario must ride on in the "Wild Glide" and "Fleet Glide Galaxies" to obtain their Power Stars, and later on he must use him to race a team of hummingbirds.
- Solatorobo has the Master of the Clouds, who is used to travel from the Shepherd Republic to Earth.
- Ba'ul from Tales of Vesperia becomes the party's Global Airship once he evolves into a more mature form, being able to easily carry their boat around once they tie it to him.
- In Wardner, a certain enemy in Stage 3 will drop an ocarina that summons a giant phoenix that can carry the player over most of the stage.
- In the cancelled Shantae game for the Game Boy Advance, Risky Revolution, Sky's bird, Wrench, was going to be revealed as having grown really big in the period after the first game, and would have served as the Global Airship for Shantae. Played straight in Half-Genie Hero, where Wrench serves as Shantae's transport between levels.
- Avatar: The Last Airbender: Appa, the flying bison who serves as the heroes' main mode of transportation.
- Dinosaur Train: The mother and father of the Pteranodon family seem to be in competition as to who has given their adopted son Buddy (a theropod of the non-flying persuasion) the most rides.
- Sky Lynx on Transformers: Generation 1 qualifies as this (on top of being a Big Damn Hero).
Examples of Normal-Sized Flyers (that appear giant due to the scale of the other characters)
Films — Animation
- The bird from A Bug's Life.
- Epic: ALL birds from Leafman perspective, but in particular the hummingbirds and crows which are actually used as mounts.
- The hawk from Rango.
- Orville and Wilbur in The Rescuers. Then again, they are albatroses for better or worse. Orville has to fall almost the entire height of the UN Building to accelerate beyond stall speed, and when Wilbur approaches the RAS outpost in the Australian outback, he is described as a "jumbo", and the rooftop airfield isn't designed to accomodate a bird of his ginormous size.
- Jeremy in The Secret of NIMH.
- Constable Buggy Swires of the City Watch; a gnome who maintains a squad of (semi)trained pigeons -and a turkey vulture in Monstrous Regiment.
- Predating Buggy Swires is The Death of Rats riding Quoth the Raven and the (semi)trained pigeons (see Soul Music which happens two years before Jingo).
- One of the Nac Mac Feegle in The Wee Free Men has a trained Sparrowhawk whom he rides around on. This is probably a direct parody of...
- ... the titular characters in The Minnipins. They're tiny gnomes who ride upon birds. Of course, they happen to know a huge Mute Swan who can carry their new human friend.
- Long before he wrote it into Discworld, Pratchett gave geese to the Floridian Nomes in Wings, the last part of the Nomes Trilogy.
- Gnomes in the Gnomes and Secrets of the Gnomes illustrated books hopped a lift on large birds quite often. One slightly Narmy illustration shows a pair of gnome newlyweds being carried off to their honeymoon by a swan.
- The Fledgling justifies this by hinting that there's something up with the heroine that allows her to ride upon the Goose Prince and that allows her to fly on her own.
- Woe betide the person who says it's cute how the Gallivespians of His Dark Materials ride around on dragonflies... Though, no matter how small the Gallivespians are, it was mentioned (or at least implied) that the dragonflies were bigger than modern-day ones, perhaps at Meganeura size.
- The Wonderful Adventures Of Nils. A boy gets shrunken and ends up traveling with a flock of geese by riding on one's back.
- Normal-sized owls, crows, hawks — and Kehaar the gull — in Watership Down, since the heroes are rabbits.
Anime & Manga
- The Fly Card of Cardcaptor Sakura, which took the form of a giant bird before Sakura sealed it in the first episode.
- One episode/chapter of Flying Witch features a magical flying whale large enough to have trees and ruins, including a large temple, on it's back. Apparently people lived on it's back many years ago, but have long since abandoned it.
- Lyrical Nanoha
- The adult dragons from Naru Taru. They can also be as bizarre as the flying colossus in the example picture above.
Films — Animation
- The titular creature in Leviathan fits the other trope name: Air Whale.
- Tamora Pierce can go here because hers are varied and hard to categorize. She has traditional dragons and griffins; kudarung, which are traditional winged horses except that they come in widely varied sizes, making some of them Pocket-sized Flyers; hurroks, clawed, predatory "horse-hawks" with batlike wings; and Stormwings, which are half human, half giant sharp-metal-feathered bird, and aren't evil but do take natural pleasure in human suffering. They're all immortal unless killed (except possibly the kudarung, which aren't specifically identified as immortals and might not be, since they didn't enter the human world under the same circumstances as the immortals the readers know).
- In Stephen Baxter's book Evolution, he invents a species of pterosaur dubbed the "air whale" with wings a hundred metres across. Living off tiny creatures in the stratosphere, it had paper thin hollow bones. They mated on the highest mountain peaks and it is suggested there are very few of them due to the lack of food. Able to circumnavigate the globe with the aid of wind currents, it need never touch the ground.
- Various species of alien fauna from Wayne Barlowe's classic Speculative Documentary sci-fi book Expedition, including the fierce "Skewer" (essentially a Killer Air Whale) and the bizarre "Rugose Floater◊" (seen on the cover).
- In the medieval Irish romance The Voyage of Máel Dúin, Máel Dúin and his crew encounter a bird so large they initially think it is a cloud, and which carries in its beak a twig as large as an oak tree. It turns out to be completely harmless.
- Daybreak on Hyperion has sky whales. Tame ones are used as a mass transportation or shock troops in battle. Pods of wild ones are a major danger for large herds of animals, both wild and domesticated.
- In This Immortal, spiderbats can grow large enough to catch and carry off a man.
Myth and Religion
- Quetzalcoatl from Aztec Mythology was such a giant flyer that he became the namesake for a real life one, the below mentioned Quetzalcoatlus. There is some debate on whether or not he actually had wings (he's frequently depicted as a feathered snake in every sense of the word, including being limbless), but almost every version of his feathered serpent form is a huge flying creature.
- In the AD&D Dark Sun campaing setting, "Cloud Rays" akin to enormous flying manta rays appear as an extremely dangerous monster.
- And of course, in most settings you have dragons, wyverns, rocs, manticores, chimeras, sphinxes...
- A design mechanic in Magic: The Gathering gives all colors an iconic species as a large, dramatic, expensive creature, and all except Greennote have flying. White gets Angels, Blue gets Sphinxesnote , Black gets Demons (or sometimes just large Vampires), and Red gets Dragons.
- Fantasy Fliers is a free set of rules for playing fantasy air combat in miniature, allowing the use of a wide variety of technological and magical constructs, standard fantasy flying beasts such as dragons and pegasus, various sizes of bugs, bats, and sea creatures. Since they are often used as mounts, but can fly alone, acting as predators, prey, and enemy troops, this game could fit all the above categories.
- Gukko and Nivawk, both giant cyborg birds used as transport.
- Plus the Nui-Rama, giant cyborg insects.
- The flying Colossi from Shadow of the Colossus, Avion and Phalanx. Phalanx (pictured) takes the cake as the single largest Colossus in the game (it's twice as long as the final Colossus is tall). Interestingly, neither are hostile: Avion needs to be provoked into fighting you, and Phalanx mostly ignores you for the entire "fight", only trying to shake you off if stabbed.
- All of the above are very, very possible in Spore, due to the existence of Epic Creatures. Flying epic creatures in particular are somewhat more deadly than regular ones, especially ones with higher levels of flight, because they can move much more silently and quickly than normal ones.
- In the skies of the Shadow World of Age of Wonders: Shadow Magic swim whale-like Skwahl. They aren't present (at least in the official ruleset), but the description of floating Forceship unit says Syron make them from hollowed carcasses of old Skwahl.
- Dragons in World of Warcraft get to be pretty massive, though special mention goes to Deathwing, who's been described as "airliner-big." According to the artists for the Cataclysm cinematic his wingspan is 1,200 feet from wingtip to wingtip.
- The Wind Fish in The Legend of Zelda: Link's Awakening. Made sillier by its absurdly tiny wings.
- Quake II has the Hornet (aka Flying Guardian), a hovering insectoid cyborg thing.
- Half-Life has huge manta ray-like alien fliers who at some points in the game drop alien grunts. In Opposing Force, they appear right at the beginning when they start shooting down Osprey troop carriers with their lightning rays.
- Devil Survivor 2 gives us an Eldritch Abomination Alioth's warship, which is so big that it is the only Eldritch Abomination in the game which can be seen in a satellite photo. It pretty much levels Sapporo when it's shot down. The Updated Re-release's new campaign has Denebola, which while not nearly as massive as Alioth is still huge enough to dwarf the Tokyo Skytree, the tallest tower in the world.
- The Sand Bird from Super Mario Sunshine is literally a sand bird and fully capable of flight.
- Another giant bird, this time from Bravely Default: the Hresvelgr summon.
- In Minecraft, there are the Ender Dragon, which is one of largest mobs in the game, as well as the Ghast, and arguably the Wither. All three are, at least partially, Justified. The Ender Dragon inhabits a separate dimension, where the laws of physics might very well be entirely different. The Ghasts are implied to be undead, and the Wither is a magical construct, which presumably flies as part of that magic.
- Total War: Warhammer: Flying units are a fairly large part of the game, adding a new dimension to battlefield tactics from previous Total War titles, although they’re not present to the same degree in all armies.
- For the Empire, Emperor Karl Franz can unlock his massive griffin, Deathclaw, as a mount. Generals of the Empire can also ride smaller griffins, while Imperial Amber Wizards can ride green-feathered jade griffins.
- Similarly, Orc heroes can come mounted on wyverns.
- The Vampire Counts have access to a large number of flying units, most notably Vargheists, vampires that have been driven insane by centuries of imprisonment and mutated into giant batlike monsters. In addition, they can raise Terrogheists, the reanimated husks of bats the size of dragons, as well as actual zombie dragons.
- The Warriors of Chaos can unlock a two-headed chaos dragon as a mount for their lords.
- The Wood Elves are also a fairly aerial faction. They get a unit of missile cavalry mounted on giant hawks, and in addition get giant eagles and forest dragons as both mounts for their hero units and as individual monstrous units.
- The Elder Scrolls series' lore tells of werevultures native to the forests of Valenwood, a form of were-creature who transform into giant carrion birds. They've yet to make an in-game appearance, however.
- The Rukhs in Sonic and the Secret Rings are, like the legend they're based on, enormous flying creatures. In this game, they double as Turtle Island in that a civilization had been built on the backs of a flock of them in the past, each of them carrying roughly a city block's worth. Appropriately, they are found only in the stage known as Levitated Ruin.
- George the Dragon features a large green dragon who has the habit of swooping down from the sky to humiliate humans in sadistic games of tag.
- Hibachi the Dragon in the webcomic The Inexplicable Adventures of Bob!.
- Perca (Priscila S. Piccin) uses large flying creatures in multiple of her comics including a giant space whale in Killer of Monsters, a flying Whale in the OCBZ Highway with a man riding it called pedro, and a similar whale (plus pedro) in Boobtrap.
- Lampshaded in The Order of the Stick #754. When the large-bellied, small-winged dragon ruler of The Empire of Blood decides to fly to a royal parade, a dumbstruck Vaarsuvius remarkes that they should avoid casting magic for the rest of the day, "if only to give the laws of physics time to cry alone in the corner."
- Girl Genius: Add the Heterodynes' Franz to the list. He admits to cheating a bit.
- The flying whales and White Steel Eels from Tower of God.
- In Godslave, the second ba takes the form of a giant, bird-shaped tree. Which, in violation of all rules of physics and then some, can actually fly.
- The alien Cloud Grazers.
- Also, these creatures from another alien planet with microgravity.
- Argentavis is #5 on Cracked's 7 (Thankfully) Extinct Giant Versions of Modern Animals.
- In There is no GATE; we did not fight there, the titular King of the Sky from the interlude *The Myth, The Legend, The King of The Sky* is an enormous Thunderbird composed of storm channels, blotting out the entire sky. Kytheus compares its size to that of the earth dragon his grandfather had slain before his birth, and whose bones have the main city of the Rhavenfell built into them.
- The genus of pterosaur known as Quetzalcoatlus (where "quetzalcoatl" is Aztec for "feathered snake" and was the name of a major god) had a wingspan of 10-11 metres and was as tall as a giraffe.
- Some early estimates of Quetzalcoatlus, based on incomplete skeletons and extrapolations from better-known pterosaur species, was even larger as it ranged up to 16-21m. Better understanding of the azhdarchid (the family of pterosaurs to which Quetzalocoatlus belonged) anatomy brought the estimates down as Science Marches On.
- Quetzalcoatlus has a Romanian cousin named Hatzegopteryx, which may have been even bigger than its American counterpart; one of the most common estimates is that the creature had a whopping 12-metre wingspan. That said, some have theorized that Hatzegopteryx and Quetzalcoatlus were actually the same species, although later findings suggest that this isn't the case (the two animals had a lot in common, but there are enough differences between them to suggest that they're separate species). These differences include the fact the European version had a much shorter, much thicker neck and was built to kill much larger prey (namely cow-sized dwarf sauropods), being the unrivalled apex predator of the area.
- The most commonly depicted pterosaur in popular culture: Pteranodon, was pretty large as well, with an average wingspan of 4-6 metres (not quite as big as Quetzalcoatlus but still). In fact, before Hatzegopteryx came along, Pteranodon was considered the second largest flying animal to have ever lived. And before Quetzalcoatlus was discovered, Pteranodon was considered the largest flying animal, of all timenote .
- Though it was a sparrow compared to the above mentioned pterosaurs, Harpactognathus is the largest known non-pterodactyloid pterosaur, with an estimated wingspan of eight feet. It's also thought to have acted something like a large bird of prey, making it similar in both size and behavior to a modern eagle.
- Another extinct animal: the Giant Teratorn (Argentavis) had a smaller wingspan of up to 8 metres, but was the largest flying bird of all time. Later, Pelagornis sandersi broke the record.
- Similarly, there were the little-known pelagornithids (or pseudotooth birds), seabirds on steroids that had tooth-like bony projections on their beaks. They appeared soon after the K-T event (filling the ecological space vacated by the extinction of large, fish-eating pterosaurs) and persisted until around 2.5 million years ago; the largest, Osteodontornis, capped at a 20ft wingspan. Scientists speculate that it behaved like a modern-day frigatebird (basically the meanest bird on the open seas) and had a throat pouch like a pelican (basically the meanest bird on the beach). Now imagine a beach full of those things. Happy picnicking!
- For a more recently extinct animal, one that humans probably did interact with, there's always the Haast's Eagle of New Zealand, at about 3 meters. They hunted moa, which ranged up to 15 times their weight (and are also bigger than humans), and lived up until a few hundred years ago.
- It has been noted that, based on puncture marks found on moa pelvises, the Haast's Eagle was probably a fairly specialized hunter of the same. Moa were big, feathered bipeds. The earliest Maori colonists were most likely wearing feather cloaks same as they do now. This might have caused... issues.
- In the end, Humans Are the Real Monsters, because the overhunting of its food supply drove the eagle into extinction.
- Not as well known as Haast's Eagle, but equally big (longer wingspan, lighter body) is Woodward's Eagle, which has been found in the La Brea Tar Pits. Some experts think the Thunderbird legend was inspired by encounters with it by early Native Americans.
- Rounding out the extinct animals, we have Meganeura and its relatives from the Carboniferous period. A wingspan of 70 centimeters (27 inches), it sounds puny compared to most of the animals listed here until you find out that it was a dragonfly.
- The still living Wandering Albatross has to settle for a mere 3.7 metres (12 feet) at the most.
- Which is pretty big, and the Albatross has to launch itself off cliffs to get into the air because it's too heavy to take off.
- Other modern birds with very large wingspans include the Andean condor (3 meters), the marabou stork (3 meters), the great white pelican (3.5 meters), and the southern royal albatross (3.6 meters).