Some possibly useful notes on The Eighties, by tropers who remember them and others who don't.
Society was ambivalent about yuppies even at the time. It's true that the "self-made man" (read: greedy, rapacious bastard) was idolized, but yuppies were viewed in roughly the same way that the dot com millionaires of the '90s were: a class of smart, driven young men who made vast fortunes nearly instantly by trading on mumbo-jumbo that nobody else understood. They came in for plenty of ribbing as self-interested, too, much as hipsters are today.
The screws really got turned on smoking as the threat of second-hand smoke became fully accepted and gave the tobacco companies the ultimate PR nightmare: It's one thing to manipulate their addicts to rationalize what they are doing to their own bodies, but it's quite another to deal with non-smokers who are being threatened by smoking as innocent bystanders. While cigarette vending machines were still a common sight in the U.S. at the beginning of the decade, they were long gone before its end.
In a related trend, the deadly traffic menace of drinking and driving was fully publicized in North America. That in turn led to firmer public disapproval, tougher laws and stricter enforcement of them.
For the most part, the middle class still existed during The Eighties in the US.
Japan, meanwhile, was booming:
A bubble economy began to rapidly expand from reasons including the acquisition of cheap real estate and the resale of it, political deals, and many other factors, although the most publicly known reason was the overwhelming production of quality electronic goods and quality, safer, and gas-sipping for the time vehicles (to the extent that the US domestic auto industry was absolutely destroyed as was much of the US domestic consumer electronics manufacturing industry, by the mid 90s, though it wasn't as much the fault of the Japanese as the fault of the Detroit auto industry and much of the US consumer electronics industry being absolutely insistent on refusing to change and refusing to compete and instead demanding protections and invoking outright racism - which did nothing to improve their products or save their employees' jobs - and it wasn't until over 20 to 25 years after The Eighties that US consumer electronics and US auto manufacturing began to rebound, with both the US-based companies finally taking notice to change and improve, the Japanese companies beginning to stagnate just as the US ones had, and in some cases themselves becoming the US autoworking industry).
It was a period where almost everyone who wasn't dirt poor was either rich, becoming rich, or knew someone who was well off (even the middle class, though insanely overworked and living in tiny homes, had a lot of disposable income for the first time, which led to the massive growth of the entertainment and hospitality industries), and being Japanese was often equated with being rich. As a result, the Japan Takes Over the World and the Japanese Tourist tropes developed, with rich Japanese moving to the US and Europe as well either for business or personal reasons.
It was the first and only time until much later on that Japanese music acts toured widely outside the country with the Hair Metal/proto-visual act Loudness touring with Motley Crue and filming in the US, the Hair Metal/proto-visual act EZO getting signed to Geffen Records and performing in the US, and even X Japan trying for what would be (for various reasons) an abortive attempt at performing in the US and still filming within it anyway.
Anime and manga were first introduced to the world on a wide scale as something other than adapted "kid stuff," including what was widely recognized as the first mature dramatic animated film, AKIRA, and of course, hentai. Japanese companies widely owned entertainment as well, from TV and music including Sony having bought out CBS, opening its own movie studio and record labels globally as well.
At home, however, things were not as well as they seemed - many people were tired of living in a strict, postwar society, many people were not part of the economic boom or were only so much as working 20 hour days, and while, at the time, Japanese technology was at the top of the world, it would become obsolete. Yakuza and other criminals infested nearly every part of business and politics and all of the other expanding industries, and the amount of people who were the Obstructive Bureaucrat or outright corrupt involved in every part of the bubble businesses were too numerous to even be counted, as was the financial fraud at nearly every point of it, which often got a pass due to Culture Justifies Anything and cultural ignorance overseas (meaning someone could run an outright Ponzi, for example, and say it was Japanese business practice, and a lot of more gullible overseas financial industry people would happily shovel in money, not realizing that native Japanese would spot the scam instantly.) Many disaffected young men became bosozoku (biker gang members) or yankii (Japanese Delinquents), and occasionally bosozoku, yankii, and Visual bandmen (all of whom readily mixed as subcultures drawing from each other) would get into truly violent and dangerous fights involving knives, baseball bats, fists, improvised weapons, and occasionally fire via Zippo lighters and occasionally pyrotechnics. Mental illness was often unrecognized and untreated (or poorly treated), working conditions could best be described as "hell on earth," and the use of alcohol and tobacco was irresponsible and off the charts by almost anyone who was an adult, and some who weren't - and the country and several subcultures in it, including the bosozoku, experienced the first "speed boom," with first diverted pharmaceutical pill methamphetamine and soon crystal methamphetamine becoming somewhat available for the first time via the yakuza since postwar times. AIDS denialism existed as national policy and as many people's personal belief, that no Japanese could or would contract HIV/AIDS.
Notice the thing about guns NOT being mentioned in those fights above? Japan has and had very strict gun control policy. As a result, yes, only cops and serious yakuza had guns at the time - which spared a massive death toll from violent young men fighting and criminal activity in general, because the use of firearms was limited to police vs. yakuza battles and/or yakuza hits. Japan as a society, therefore, never had a gun violence/gun crime epidemic, nor were guns and drugs connected as they became in many other places, with people at the "drug dealer" level generally not being permitted to carry guns (if they were real yakuza) or not being able to easily obtain and use them, and choosing knives or lighters instead (bikers or other small time crooks who contracted with them to buy supply). As a result, the Japanese also became outraged in the incidents where Japanese tourists or students were shot while in the US, and in such cases would lodge diplomatic protests over US gun policy. That said, it may seem a bit hypocritical that Japan is a country that manufactures and exports firearms and ammunition.
That said, for the time being, in the bubble, with Japanese corporations ("zaibatsu") owning major interests in everything from construction and finance and real estate to the cars most people were buying to entertainment and media to almost everything else that could be imagined (including even the corner convenience store for most people at the time via Seven and I Holdings), and with, at the time, many of these things being cutting edge inventions, it was enough to make Japan Takes Over the World not even seem believable, but to many analysts and Speculative Fiction authors of the time, probable.
The PG-13 rating was introduced in 1984 as a response to the controversy over violent content in Gremlins and Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, which had gone out with PG ratings.
Television was going through a rough patch. While many shows were holdovers from The Seventies, the networks had a very hard time keeping new shows on. What shows did survive were massive hits: The Cosby Show, Cheers, Miami Vice, etc.
In the US, NBC started the decade in the Dork Age to end all Dork Ages, but ended it as the top dog in the ratings (a trend that would continue through the following decade), chiefly on the strength of its sitcom lineup. CBS and ABC, meanwhile, notably lost ground during the '80s; while they were still on seemingly solid footing by 1990, they were both facing severe problems that would prove devastating in the decade to come. The Fox network premiered in 1986, and while it did make something of a splash at the time, its Golden Age was still ahead of it.
In the UK, meanwhile, The BBC went through a Dork Age due to funding problems and allegations of political bias from both the Thatcher government and the unions. ITV took advantage, its edgier programming allowing it to sap viewers from what was seen as a stale, safe, and dry Auntie Beeb. Lastly, Channel 4 was established in 1982 in order to break the BBC/ITV duopoly, and at the time was known as the most high-brow and intellectual of Britain's TV networks — a far cry from its current reputation.
Series also started experimenting with settings — no longer were the standard dramas and comedies confined to the three biggest cities. Eight Is Enough was set in Sacramento, for example, while Dueling ShowFamily was set in Pasadena. Later on, Washington, DC and San Francisco became very popular in this respect.
This is the decade where Telenovelas began to be known beyond their secluded local markets, with several countries actually knowing for the fisrt time what soaps where being done in other countries of the region (Mexico, the biggest producer of the region, being the exception). Also, productions from Mexico and Venezuela were imported heavily to Spain and other European countries. Spain got such a fever with Crystal, a Venezuelan soap, that their protagonist actors eventually moved and had a quite long career across the pond. Brazilians soaps algo got an small boom, and began to experiment with newer themes and more socially relevant plots, albeit most of these productions began to be more known on other countries on the next decade.
In Japan, Tokusatsu continued to flourish, although not nearly as much as in The Seventies. A lot of the franchises underwent changes in writing and choreography, with the Super Sentai series having timeslot changes and the choreography changing with 1983's Kagaku Sentai Dynaman focusing more on pyrotechnical effects than many previous shows.
In live theater, the 1980s was the decade of the "megamusical" — lavish productions with premises ranging from whimsical (Cats, Starlight Express) to highly dramatic (Les Misérables), but all marked by scores that mixed pop sounds with "traditional" and operatic styles and a tendency towards BIG emotions and BIG showstoppers. The theatrical equivalents of the Summer Blockbuster, and often regarded with just as much disdain by professional critics, Scenery Porn and Costume Porn were the order of the day in these shows. Many were the musical work of British composer Andrew Lloyd Webber, and most premiered in London's West End before launching sister productions in New York City and elsewhere. Lloyd Webber's career and the megamusical as a whole reached a peak with 1986's The Phantom of the Opera, with the media hype surrounding the show's Broadway debut in 1988 comparable to that of any Hollywood blockbuster of the era.
'80s Hair tended towards the big and foofy. This was true for men, too — though never as big as women's hair, men's hair was longish by today's standards, and buzz cuts were extremely rare. Especially in the early '80s, 'fros (afros) hung on from the '70s. Side ponytails and big neon scrunchies were popular among little girls and teenagers. Crimping irons with swappable plates were a must-have, including some◊ that did not work at all as intended, unless you turned your hair into a sheet of hairspray and then didn't move.
Jeans weren't baggy — they were worn as tight as possible.
"Preppie style" was big in the early '80s. Mostly this manifested itself as polo shirts, often striped, ideally of the "Izod" brand, whose logo was a little embroidered crocodile (They are NOT "gator shirts"; Izod Lacoste shirts got their name from French tennis player René Lacoste, whose nose gave him the nickname "Le Crocodile". He put a crocodile on his shirts, and it took off from there).
Women often wore multiple pairs of socks, one over the other, of contrasting colors. You'd buy your shoes a size or so large for this purpose.
Tights could be worn as casual wear instead of trousers. You pulled up your (multiple pairs of) socks right over the bottom of the tights. Legwarmers were optional but popular. They would often be paired with an oversized T-shirt or sweatshirt. T-shirt clips◊ were big in the latter half of the decade through the early 1990's, particularly in neon.
Flashdance in 1983 popularized off-the-shoulder sweatshirts◊, usually with the collar ripped off.
For a brief period of time, women, mostly teenage girls, could be seen wearing cut-off denim shorts over sheer tights with sneakers. Unsurprisingly, this look didn't last long, being considered completely terrible even by '80s standards.
Given that skintight jeans could be very hard to get on or off over one's feet, some styles had zippers at the back of the ankle. While not terribly widespread, this hung on into the early nineties, until such tight jeans fell out of style.
Shoulder pads among women's business suits were also an Acceptable Target with their ridiculously masculine style.
Neckties got skinny again around 1979 thanks to Punk Rock. Not everybody wore them, but by '83 or so most people did. They went back out of style later in the decade, but people on the west coast were still wearing them in 1989.
Lingerie became fashionable (again), though bras remained optional. Many women wore soft lingerie such as camisoles and teddies instead of bras.
"Jheri Curls", a type of permed hairstyle, became popular among people of African descent. The Jheri Curl gave the hair a glossy, loosely-curled look. Jheri Curls fell out of style in the late 1980s when the hi-top fade hairstyle became popular.
Personal computers (particularly the Apple ][ and, across The Pond, the BBC Micro) made their grand entrance into education during this decade, especially around the midpoint and after. Schools built dedicated computer labs to teach students typing, a skill that they (correctly) guessed would become very important in the coming years for more than just secretaries. These school computers also had games like The Oregon Trail, loved by teachers for its ability to teach students history, and loved by students for granting them the opportunity to shoot everything between the Mississippi River and the Willamette Valley.
Food and Drink:
Coca-Cola and Pepsi were at each other's throats during the "Cola Wars", pulling out all the stops with their advertising. In 1985, Coke garnered quite a bit of controversy by reformulating their classic recipe, causing sales to plummet. They had quickly switched back to the old, marketing it as "Coca-Cola Classic", thus saving sales.
Similarly, McDonald's and Burger King were undergoing a "Fast Food War" similar to this.
A dog by the name of Spuds Mckenzie was the mascot for Budweiser Beer.
There was, frankly, a lot to fear in the '80s. The US was still at war, and getting nuked was a frighteningly plausible possibility. A string of post-apocalyptic movies, like The Day After, Testament and Threads, helped keep the fear bubbling. The Chernobyl meltdown made people queasy about even peaceful applications of nuclear technology.
The corollary to all the Cold War fear was that, when the Soviet Union collapsed like a pricked soap bubble at the end of the decade, there was a huge sense of relief and hope for the future.
A man by the name of John Hinckley Jr., in an attempt to impress his loveJodie Foster, tried to assassinate President Ronald Reagan in 1981 after addressing an AFL-CIO conference. All of the shooting victims survived, though White House Press Secretary James Brady was permanently disabled, with speech and movement difficulties.
New Wave and Synth Pop became two of the signature sounds of the '80s, starting in the Britain in the '70s but really garnering popularity in the United States around this decade. Artists such as A Flock of Seagulls, Duran Duran, Talking Heads, The Buggles, New Order and Depeche Mode garnered big hits.
MTV was born August 1, 1981, playing music videos all day, everyday.
Michael Jackson immortalized himself as the King of Pop during this time, scoring hits such as "Billie Jean", "Thriller", and "Beat It".
Those bored with pop radio tuned their radios to the left side of the dial and listened to College Radio. The artists who played on these stations were Post Punk guitar bands who performed what would later be called "Alternative Rock", were often signed to small labels and usually toured the United States in a beat-up van. The "modern rock" radio format sprung up near the end of the decade just as college favorites like REM and Midnight Oil began receiving mainstream attention and these early pop successes paved the way for alternative rock becoming a major music genre in the 1990's.
Metal was in, especially towards the end of the decade. As well as the mainstream scene which was focused on Hair Metal, there was a massive underground, especially in the United States and Germany. There were no MySpace, YouTube, or Metal-Archives at the time. Underground music circulated through fanzines (Kerrang! started in 1981 as an underground fanzine), compilation albums issued by record labels, and tape trading (how Metallica first got big). Tape trading was surrounded by a lot of rules and rituals that would seem completely alien to someone used to peer-to-peer downloading. Part of this was due to the limits of tapes—every copy ("generation") of a bootleg was inferior to the source it was copied from. Although subgenres started to coalesce towards the late 1980s, the sort of obsessive subgenre hair-splitting common among today's metal fans did not exist. Most of the underground bands made fun of glam (Dave Mustaine called it "Gay L.A. Metal" and James Hetfield had a sticker on his guitar that said "Kill Bon Jovi") but that was about it.
Two genres which would change the face of Electronic Music started in this decade. In the city of Chicago, a genre retained some of the characteristics of Disco, learned lessons from artists and groups like Afrika Bambaataa, Kraftwerk and Gary Numan (to mention a few) and upped the game, creating a genre which would spread its wings at the tail end of the decade outside the US (more specifically, through the Oop North part of Britain) and explode during most of the 90's. Its name: House Music.
From the city of Detroit, a genre which wasn't concerned with dancing for easy escapism and which was influenced by Electronic aesthetes such as Kraftwerk, Yellow Magic Orchestra and Manuel Göttsching and was focused on exploring themes of alienation, science fiction and the progress of technology would see part of its birth here (the other part being Germany). Its name: Techno.
These genres exploded outside the US, probably due to the fact that they were, at first, mostly black-oriented genres, and so, they didn't got much exposure in the US (whose music and radio industries were still very much white-oriented). In Europe, it was a different thing.
In Japan, meanwhile, the main music industry was dominated by pop, the Idol Singer, and similar. Hard Rock and Heavy Metal were pretty much limited to two bands, Loudness and the then upstart band Anthem, at the beginning of the 80s, with other Hard Rock and Heavy Metal acts being pretty much strictly underground or at the local club scene level. This changed around 1986 in pretty much the biggest way possible - Visual Kei roared from the the underground into the public consciousness, starting with bands such as X, Sex Machineguns, Buck Tick, Seikima II, and COLOR, with a loud, aggressive, in-your-face combination of Punk Rock, Hard Rock, and Heavy Metal fused with purposeful attention whoring and troublemaking to force themselves not to be ignored. Meanwhile, the metal bands Loudness and EZO got signed and performed in the US, and Show Ya would be the first and only metal band to perform in North Korea with a concert in Pyongyang. The first Visual Kei labels, Extasy Records and Free Will Records, were founded, and X would become the first Visual band and first metal band to ever top the Japanese charts, repeatedly starting in 1989. At the time, Visual Kei had become something new and interesting, yet was still "underground and dangerous" enough it didn't generally have mass appeal until the very end of the decade - it took until 1989 for X to top the charts and go major with Blue Blood.
Latin-American countries were another thing completely. Most countries were in a "One song by local artist for one from foreign ones" model of protectionism, which created small musical ecosystems whose artists rarely crossed over frontiers. No artist really believed they could make it on the American market, so the idea of "crossover" didn't really exist, or just was limited to playing in either a neighboring country or making it on Mexico, the biggest market at the time. Most of the music done at the time were done in the style of American pop music, just blander. There were also the beginning of a trend of covers from American or European songs done by local artists in other styles, like Ballads by Celine Dion or Dolly Parton covered by Dominican band Las Chicas del Can as dominican merengue. Salsa musicians softened their sound, and an style named "Salsa Erotica", with quite risque lyrics soon emerged.
In the early '80s, this mentality was common in Canada too, by no means a Latin-American country. Though there were a few Canadian acts who made it in the US, like Bryan Adams and later the aforementioned Celine Dion, much of the material you'd hear on Canadian radio circa 1984 never made its way to the US. Artists like Corey Hart and Men Without Hats are seen as one-hit wonders now, but had many hits in Canada at the time (and in Hart's case "Sunglasses at Night" was almost the least of them); the now-forgotten Platinum Blonde were as big in their native country as Duran Duran at the time.
The Eighties were the decade of the Charity Motivation Song and All-Star Cast charity concert as topflight acts banded together to raise money for the worthy causes of the moment: Ethiopian famine relief, AIDS research and treatment, struggling American farmers, etc. This reached a peak in 1985 with "We Are The World" for songs and Live Aid for concerts.
The Compact Disc was introduced in 1982, the first digital audio consumer product. Although the sound quality was much higher than vinyl or cassette, the players were expensive so the format was considered a toy for audiophiles. As prices of players began to drop, the discs began to rapidly replace the older analog formats toward the end of the decade.
Role-playing games, invented in the mid 1970s, became mainstream (more or less) in the 80s. At the same time, the hobby came under fire with fundamentalists and others accusing RPGs for promoting anything from satanism to bullying to players turning into their characters.
Local Issues:Social Concerns:
With new drugs such as heroin and crack cocaine coming into play, The War on Drugs was at its most prevalent and Anvilicious; with school programs such as D.A.R.E. and former first lady Nancy Reagan telling kids to "Just Say No", these had, well, varying degrees of success.
There was also a new and terrifying plague: AIDS, whose etiology and pathology was unknown at the time. People were basically dropping dead, and no one knew why. No one even knew how it spread. At first the public lashed back at the groups hardest hit — gay men and intravenous drug users — as causing or deserving the disease. That eventually began to fade as the disease forced many people out of the closet (actor Rock Hudson was one of the most famous examples) and suddenly the public finally had to face the fact that gay people were everywhere, hiding because of the social bullying they were suffering from the public.
"Stranger danger" first began to appear in this decade, with parents concerned that their children could be abducted off the street by predatory pedophiles and/or killers. This was the era of the Face on a Milk Carton. However, the fact that most sexual abusers are people known and trusted by their victims — i.e. family members, coaches, etc. — was exposed to the public's horror as well. And in a related issue...
The "Satanic Panic" took off and reached its peak in this decade. Spurred on by alleged "true stories" like Michelle Remembers and The Satan Seller (both of which are now widely believed to be fraudulent accounts), there was widespread fear among communities, churches, and even law enforcement and social services that there existed an underground network of devil-worshippers who kidnapped, abused, and sacrificed children and other "innocents" in order to gain power from the Dark Lord. Your next-door neighbors could be conducting virgin sacrifices in their basement and you wouldn't know about it — until they came for you and your loved ones! Some of the wackier theories even alleged that the Satanists had infiltrated the government, business and the military, and were using their resources to not only cover up their evil, but facilitate it. Hundreds of people saw their lives destroyed by allegations that they were Satanists, with one of the most notable (and sensationalized) incidents being the McMartin preschool case. It got to the point where even Procter & Gamble was accused of being Satanic due to their logo, which they had to change — they later wound up suing the people who spread the rumors (which caused their stock to plummet) for $19 million.
A woman in the U.K. claimed that 1 in 4 British adults was a member of the satanist underground.
In 1985 a committee called the Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) managed to get Senate hearings after accusing record companies of making albums with obscene lyrics available to children. Musicians such as Frank Zappa, John Denver, and Dee Snider (of Twisted Sister fame) testified before the committee in opposition to what they viewed as attempts to censor music. In the end the record industry agreed to voluntarily label albums with lyrics that may be offensive, and that's how the "Parental Advisory: Explicit Content" label that appears on some album covers was born.
Home computing was taking its first baby steps towards becoming a fixture of daily life. Computers like the Apple ][, the IBM PC and the Commodore 64 emerged, creating the first generation to know computers as something other than room-sized boxes used only for scientific purposes. Businesses started switching over from typewriters, schools started to build dedicated computer labs (see above), Apple made its famous 1984 ad, and the area around San Jose, California began to become known as "Silicon Valley". The first computer games were also developed during this era, and enjoyed great success in Europe, a market that was never as receptive to home consoles as North America was (during both the Atari and Nintendo eras). Stateside, they were heavily marketed to Education Mamas who wanted their kids to be "computer-literate" and stay away from those mind-rotting consoles.
Computers like the Altair and the TRS-80 were available in kit form. However they were the province of hobbyists. They pioneered DIY computers, and with the TRS-80, portable computers. Laptops and DIY computers we know today would only takeoff in the next decade.
The VCR hits the big time, albeit initially impeded by the uncertainties of the VHS/Beta format war; this would redefine the business model of the film industry and the nature of going to the movies itself.
They were also, at first, incredibly expensive: in the early part of the decade, they could cost upwards of $500.00. VHS tapes were also initially very expensive, especially early in the decade, when they sold for $70 a pop — they were expected to be rented rather than purchased, and video rental stores sprang up like weeds across the U.S. Only at the end of the decade did the industry switch to selling rather than renting, and even then $40 was the standard price for a single title. The rise of home video also killed the second-run theater, as people who wanted to watch older movies could simply rent or buy them on VHS instead of going to a theater.