In 1971, engineers Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney organized the first company to commercially produce coin-operated video games. They applied for the name Syzygy, but it was already taken. The pair then compiled a list of terms with positive connotations from a favorite board game, Go
, and submitted these as alternatives. From their list, the government selected "Atari", a Japanese word that loosely means "Score!"note
Atari's first game, Pong
, debuted in 1972. It was a simple but hugely popular alternative to pinball machines, and other companies began to flood the market with imitations; Atari produced a home consumer version of Pong
in 1975. In 1976, Atari was sold to Warner Communications; Bushnell used the proceeds and terms of sale to start up a family restaurant concept called Chuck E. Cheese
's Pizza Time Theatre (which was Atari's Restaurant Operating Division before being spun off as an independent company).
In 1977, Atari introduced the Video Computer System or VCS, later known as the Atari 2600
. While not the first cartridge-based console (that honor goes to the Fairchild Channel F released in the previous year), it was much more successful and had several hits (most notably Pitfall
and Chopper Command
Two years later in 1979, after a nasty boardroom fight shoved Bushnell out of the company, Atari introduced its first home computer line
, the 800 and 400 (designed by famous engineer Jay Miner, who went on to design the Amiga
). These computers received minor upgrades throughout the 1980s, and had their fair share of games, too (such as Rescue on Fractalus!
), but never reached the popularity of the Apple ][
or the later Commodore 64
In 1982, Atari created the 5200
, a game console largely based on its home computer line (in fact, it was little more than an 800 with no tape or disk support and joysticks instead of a keyboard). It was a flop, largely due to its infamously bad analog controllers (they weren't self-centering and were so cheaply made that they frequently broke...after a few hours of use). Atari soon discontinued the machine. An oddity of this console was that a single cable ran from the back of the machine to a small box, to which an RF cable and power adapter connected. The console was also incredibly large (even larger than the Xbox
), due to a built-in controller storage compartment.
Due to The Great Video Game Crash of 1983
, Warner Communications, Atari's parent company, broke the company up in 1984. The video game and computer divisions were sold to a small company called Tramel (sic)
Technologies. The arcade division was retained as a new company called Atari Games Corp. Many divisions (such as a telecom division called Ataritel) were scuttled entirely.
In 1985, Jack Tramiel (born Idek Tramielski), the founder and former CEO of Commodore Business Machines, who had acquired the consumer division of Atari the previous year (and renamed his company to Atari Corp.), introduced his 16-bit computer design, the Atari ST
. While technically far inferior to the Commodore Amiga, the ST was marketed much more adeptly, and quickly cornered the 16-bit market. Later, though, it would fail when customers realized how much superior the Amiga was.
Shortly after that, in 1986, Atari produced the 7800
. While its 256-color graphics were a huge step up from anything that the company had previously produced (and its potentially infinite number of sprites even gave it an edge over the NES
and Sega Master System
), its 2600-sourced sound chip and minuscule library, combined with very little marketing by Atari, made it a flop. Interestingly, the 7800 was originally designed and produced in 1984, but the project was shelved under Tramiel's leadership. A new sound chip, dubbed GUMBY (a nod to the POKEY chip in the 800 and 5200 - which had nothing to do with the Gumby
shorts), was planned, but Tramiel cancelled development, preferring to focus on the computer line. One wonders What Might Have Been
had the 7800 been released on time and with all of its planned hardware.
The following year, in 1987, Atari released the XEGS game console. This was a strange decision, as it was virtually identical in concept and capability to the 5200 of 1982, the only difference being that it included a keyboard and support for cartridge-based 800 games. The XEGS also used the then-standard 2600-style joystick. It was incredibly dated, though, as it ran on 9-year-old technology
, and was a commercial failure.
Then, in 1989, Atari released the Lynx
, its first handheld console and the first color handheld ever. Despite its ambidextrous button layout and impressive graphics (4000 colors, smooth pseudo-3D, and an advanced sprite processor), its large size and short battery life (due to the processing power required by those graphics) meant that the Lynx never got the market share it deserved. Also of note was that its games took a long time to load
, even though they were stored on cartridges. This was because, rather than directly access data from the cartridges themselves, the Lynx actually copied it into system memory
(taking unnecessary time and draining the batteries in the process).
Hoping to recapture the home computer market, which was now dominated by PCs and the Amiga, Atari released the 32-bit TT. Atari hoped that its 32-bit computer would give it much-needed market share, but it was too little too late. It was replaced in 1993 by the Falcon, which sold for a grand total of one year before being discontinued when Atari decided to focus on the console
market (remember, Atari had abandoned development on the 7800 in order to focus on computers).
This resulted in the infamous Jaguar
in 1993. Designed by an outside team, it was billed as the first 64-bit console. However, it only had a 16-bit CPU, with a 64-bit sprite processor
. Customers hoping for incredible 3D graphics to surpass the 32-bit 3DO
released in the same year were disappointed by the Jaguar's untextured, blocky models. However, it was in the Jaguar era that modernized remakes of classic Atari games started to find success with Tempest 2000
Atari merged in 1996 with a hard drive company, JT Storage Inc., which became JTS Corp. and sold off the Atari rights to Hasbro in 1998. (JTS Corp. went bankrupt a year later.) In 2000, Hasbro Interactive, which included Atari and MicroProse
, was sold to Infogrames Entertainment, SA. Infogrames used the Atari name to sell anime-based fighting games
, other licensed games
, and most successfully, anthologies of classic Atari console and home games (Hasbro started doing this, but the former Infogrames heavily stepped up in promoting the Atari back catalog on modern consoles and computers).
Infogrames' acquisition of Atari was part of a buying spree which absorbed more than a dozen video game companies around the world between 1996 and 2001. In May 2003, most of Infogrames' subsidiaries were renamed after Atari:
- Atari Inc. (formerly Infogrames Inc.; acquired from GT Interactive in 1999; included development studios Eden Studios, Humongous Entertainment, Oddworld Inhabitants, Paradigm Entertainment, Reflections Interactive and Shiny Entertainment)
- Atari Europe S.A.S.U. (formerly Infogrames Europe; sold to Namco Bandai in 2009)
- Atari Interactive Inc. (formerly Infogrames Interactive; acquired from Hasbro)
- Atari Australia Pty Ltd. (formerly Infogrames Australia; acquired from OziSoft in 1998; sold to Namco Bandai in 2009)
- Atari Melbourne House Pty Ltd. (formerly Infogrames Melbourne House; acquired from Beam Software in 1999; sold to Krome Studios in 2006)
- Atari UK Ltd. (formerly Infogrames UK; acquired from Ocean Software in 1996)
In 2009, after a long period of decline in which many previously acquired companies were closed down or sold off, Infogrames Entertainment went bankrupt and restructured itself as Atari SA, the first time since the company sold itself to Warner in the 1970s that a company called Atari wasn't owned by a holding company. In 2010, Bushnell returned to Atari as a member of its board of directors. In 2013, the American division of Atari declared Chapter 11 bankruptcy in one of the few instances where such a thing is actually positive for a company: They want independence from the failing European side of the business, which has been draining the quite hefty income the American side has been making from sales of its classic catalog on smartphones and other platforms.
Meanwhile, Atari Games had gone through a variety of owners, first becoming a subsidiary of Namco from 1985 to 1987. (The relationship between Atari and Namco dated to 1975, when Atari sold its Japanese subsidiary to Nakamura Manufacturing Ltd.) Atari Games started producing games for the Nintendo Entertainment System
and other consoles through a new subsidiary named Tengen (a term referring to the central dot on the Go board); around this time, British publisher Domark began to distribute computer versions of Atari Games titles, in a partnership that would last into the 1990s. Though Tengen was initially a Nintendo licensee, Atari Games acquired the source code to the NES's lock-out system and Tengen, having found a way to circumvent it, started releasing its games for the NES on unlicensed black cartridges. Lawsuits began immediately, Atari Games suing Nintendo for monopolizing the market for NES cartridges, Nintendo claiming patent violation. Another legal battle between Atari Games and Nintendo, concerning the rights to Tetris
, was more quickly decided in Nintendo's favor.
The bad relations between Tengen and Nintendo helped draw the former into alliance with the latter's main competitor. Some of Tengen's unlicensed NES releases were authorized conversions of Sega
games, and the Sega Genesis
became Tengen's most favored platform in the early 1990s.
In 1990, Namco started releasing its games on its own account in America and sold its stake in Atari Games to Warner again, which had by now become Time Warner. Shortly after settling the Nintendo lawsuit in 1994, Atari Games abandoned the Tengen brand and began putting out most of its releases under the name of Time Warner Interactive. Atari Games finally became part of Midway Games
in 1996. It was renamed to Midway Games West in 2000, shortly before Midway abandoned the Arcade Game
business, and disbanded three years later. The Atari Games catalog is in turn considered a part of the Midway Games catalog, and is currently owned by Warner once more.
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Atari Game Systems:
Atari releases (pre-crash):
Atari Games/Tengen/Time Warner Interactive releases (post-crash, pre-Midway):
Infogrames releases (pre-merger):
Atari releases (post-Infogrames):