A person dislikes another person and repeatedly, intentionally calls them a name to rile them up, specifically a mutation of their own name.
It can range from a clever insult, like if Alice calls Bob "Becky" to imply he's a girl, to some embarrassingly juvenile, like if Bob calls Alice "Malice", "Callous", or something that's not even a word like "Smalice" ("Smelly Alice").
May be a form of Irritation Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery and Embarrassing Nickname. See also Hey You. Compare Accidental Misnaming, where the character simply can't remember the other character's name.
In Basquash!, Dan twists Sela's nickname "Platinum Hurricane" into, among other things, "Platitude Hotpad" and "Plastic Candycane".
In the Digimon Adventure 02 dub, Davis calls TK "TE", "TJ", and pretty much every other combination. TK suspects he does it intentionally. In the original version, this was a none-too-translatable pronoun — and honorific-related matter that basically amounts to Daisuke calling Takeru "Hey You" with a bit of extra pointedness. In one instance where a flustered Davis calls him "TA", TK questions it, and Kari giggles, "He can't even spell TK!" Though it was definitely intentional when he called him "TP". And it's been confirmed that the script writers were brave enough to go through the whole alphabet.
Gintama: Gintoki often calls Katsura 'Zura', which means wig, even though they've known each other since childhood. This prompts Katsura to say "It's not Zura, it's Katsura!" Parodied so many times by Katsura himself. It's also known as his Catchphrase, but Gin still hasn't caught on.
The main character of Jinrui wa Suitai Shimashita doesn't like people calling her the granddaughter (her grandfather is rather important). What she does like being called isn't clear.
In his first appearance in Hatenkou Yuugi, Rayborn refuses to tell Rahzel his name, so she decides to call him Spicy Diamond, shortened to Spicy or Spi. Even after they become friends, she sometimes calls him Spi if she's in a bad mood.
InuYasha: The title character and his rival Kōga rarely call one another by name; Inu-Yasha calls Kōga "yasee ookami" (variously translated as "wimpy wolf", "wolf boy", and the like), and Kōga calls Inu-Yasha "inukkoro" (translated as "dogface", "pup", or "dog crap"). This starts out as a sign of their active dislike for one another but gets less malicious as their rivalry does.
In Jinki EXTEND, Aoba Tsuzaki is contemptuously given the nickname "Ahobaka" by Ryouhei (aho and baka both mean stupid). Later on, it becomes an affectionate nickname. In the English dub it is translated as "Aobimbo".
In JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, Joseph challenges D'Arby to a water tension match — a glass is filled to the rim with water, and they have to take turns dropping in a number of coins of their choice, with the loser being the one who causes the water to spill. Joseph intentionally gets D'Arby's name wrong ("Barby" and "Obby") in order to agitate him, which means he'd be less focused on keeping the water tension from breaking. It doesn't work — D'Arby had already set a cheat while setting up the glass.
Keroro Gunsou: Sgt. Keroro is forever known as "bokegaeru" (Stupid Frog) to Natsumi.
In Letter Bee, one older Letter Bee, Moc Sullivan, derides Lag for going beyond the call of duty, and calls him "Lang" and "Lob" before departing and ignoring Lag as he calls out his actual name.
In Mai-Otome, Sergey calls our lovely heroine Arika "arinko" ("ant girl") based on her name and how her hairstyle makes her braids look like antennae. It's fairly obvious the term is meant to be affectionately insulting, given his immaturity and his attraction to Arika because of his infatuation with her mother, Lena. Mahya also uses this nickname on Arika in Mai-Otome Zwei.
In Sailor Moon Mamoru calls Usagi Odango-atama (literally, Dumpling Head — or, if you go by the dub, Meatball Head) based on her hairstyle. She hates it at first and throughout the first season insists that "They're not odangos!" Once she and Mamoru start dating, it becomes a pet name (though Usa-ko is used far more often) and other masculine (though not male) characters, namely Haruka and Seiya, start using it as well.
In Slayers, main character Lina does it frequently, to mock enemies she doesn't respect. She called Zolf only "third-rate wizard" and "mummy-man". And played it even further with Naga: she pretended to forget her name, then asked again right after Naga gave her name anew, then suddenly turned another way — "remembered" their last meeting and said she was joking and is not about to forget the name of a girl who managed to fry her own butt. Just to exploit every possible avenue of humiliation.
Barnaby from Tiger & Bunny is not happy about the Embarrassing Nickname his partner Kotetsu insists on calling him by. While he gives up on complaining around episode 5 or so, he still continues to dislike it enough to snap out of a brainwashed state of sorts just to inform Kotetsu that "[his] name is not Bunny! It's Barnaby!"
In The Twelve Kingdoms the maid Suzu is called "Mokurin" (which means "Fool" in the local language) by her Jerkass mistress Riyo. At some point, the poor girl has a breakdown and starts screaming, "I'm not Mokurin! My name is Suzu! SUZU!"
Tozuwa from Witchblade jokingly refers to Masane as Masamune (big chest) because of her large breasts. In the English dub he calls her "Melanie", because of her "melons". She really doesn't mind it though.
In Panty & Stocking with Garterbelt, Panty and Stocking Anarchy always call Brief "Geek Boy", because he's a geek and they think it's beneath them to remember his name. At one point, Brief is held hostage at gunpoint and begs them to address him by his name before he dies. They refuse, but save him. When Panty falls in love with him, she finally starts calling him by his name.
In Girls und Panzer, Sono Midoriko is often known as "Sodoko", particularly by Maho, whom she frequently lectures for being late, as well as the student council, and she often responds by telling people not to call her that. However, she and her friends on the disciplinary committee- Gomoyo and Pazomi- tend to call each other by their nicknames.
In Cardfight!! Vanguard, the resident Butt Monkey, Katsumi Morikawa, is often called "Make-mi (Lose-umi)" by various characters. This is actually meaningful, seeing as he lost all his fights on screen (Katsu means victory while Make means defeat), except in Episodes 51 and 52.
In Great Teacher Onizuka, Tomoko was often called Toroko (or "Slomoko" in the English translation) due to her lack of intelligence. By her "friends".
Dilbert has a newsletter written by Dogbert, that people can send questions to. Dogbert will invariably give an insulting answer, starting by punnily misstating their name.
In Retail, the original district manager, Jerry, would often refer to Marla as Darla. After Jerry got promoted to another part of the country the new D.M. revealed that Jerry knew Marla's real name, but pretended that he didn't. A year later Jerry returned to the strip and is now calling Marla by her correct name (probably because she knew the ruse now). He's still an asshole, though.
Mr. D (a.k.a. Dionysus) intentionally refuses to call Percy by name, usually calling him Peter Johnson, or some other similar name.
Annabeth also calls Percy "Seaweed Brain" for most of the first book, and continues to as an friendly/affectionate nickname for the remainder of the series.
In Kim Newman's Alternate History novella Teddy Bear's Picnic, film director Michael Powell makes a deliberate decision to refer to the government censor Putnam as "Putt-man", and instructs all of his staff to do the same.
In A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, Aunt Sissy has an affinity for the name "John" and addresses all her husbands and lovers to the point that her family doesn't always learn their real names. Her third husband asserts himself toward the end, insisting that Sissy and her family call him "Steve". Sissy's affectation was changed to "Bill" in the film version, for obvious reasons. Sissy is sexually liberated for her time, but she is not a prostitute.
Live Action Television
The Doctor used to call Mickey "Rickey," clearly to irritate him. It took over a season for him to warm up enough to use the poor bloke's real name.
Dr. Cox does this to people. He has a tendency to call J.D. either girls names or "Newbie" even when he's been at the hospital for several years, he calls Elliot "Barbie", and Turk "Gandhi", "Turtlehead" and "Scalpel Jockey". Dr. Kelso also seems to think Chris Turk's name is "Turk Turkleton". When Turk calls Dr. Kelso on this, pointing out his name is "Chris Turk", Kelso looks at him for a moment, then rallies by claiming he's fully aware of the fact, he just likes "Turkelton" better. He also calls Turk "Turkleberry" and "Turkledawg" at least once. It should be noted that he never calls Carla anything other than her name (Nurse Espinosa), which proves his respect for her and Dr. Cox always calls her Carla. When he does call J.D., Turk, or Elliot by their real names, he's probably trying to be less of a jerk and more serious. This is very rare, incidentally.
Doctor Beardfacé is another constant victim of this trope, referred to as "Doctor Beardface" by pretty much everyone at Sacred Heart.
Snoop Dogg Intern/Resident/Attending presumably has a real name that no one ever uses. Unlike all the other nicknames people on the show have, he doesn't seem to mind being called Snoop Dogg, as long as you get his title right. Although in "Their Story", it's revealed via inner monologue he'd like to be called by his name, Ronald.
The Janitor has been called names such as Lurch and Sasquatch for two reasons: One is his imposing height and the other is that his name is guarded (by the character and the writers) like the gold at Fort Knox.
JD calls Elliot "Smelliot" in one episode; when she reveals she wasn't that bothered by it, The Todd complains that she got mad at him for calling her "Vagina Face".
In Bewitched, Endora would constantly diss Darrin by calling him things like "Durwood", "What's-his-name," "Darwin," "Dum-Dum," etc.
Rumpole of the Bailey frequently addresses his obnoxious Head of Chambers, 'Soapy' Sam Ballard QC, as "Bollard".
On Arrested Development, this is Gob's plan for dealing with his soon-to-be-ex-wife. ("For example, if her name's Amy, I'll call her Blamey.") This would probably work a lot better if he could actually remember her name.
Throughout the first season of Remington Steele, Steele invariably calls Bernice Fox (Laura Holt's secretary) "Miss Wolfe".
The season 3 premiere of How I Met Your Mother introduces Robin's new love interest, Gael (pronounced Guy-El). Ted, who is recently broken up with Robin, keeps pretending to mishear the name, and Ted's friends Marshall and Barney join in out of solidarity, calling him "Kyle", "Gail", and "Girl."
Doc Martin: Martin's mother insists on calling Louisa "Louise" despite being corrected multiple times.
Myth & Legends
In The Bible, the goddess Astarte is referred to as "Ashtoreth". The latter notably more resembles the word "bosheth" meaning abomination. It's also theorized that Baal is such a name as well.
In Absolute Power, Charles Prentiss always called the French waiter, Maurice, "Morris". When Maurice corrected this ("Maur-ees"), Charles would launch a more devastating putdown.
On Hello Cheeky, John Junkin casually addressed Barry Cryer as "Fatty". On one occassion, Barry calls him out on it with the reasoning that he's no longer fat. John complies — and refers to him as "Skinny" for the rest of the episode.
There was an instance on True Capitalist Radio during Twitter shout outs where someone tweeted with the name "Adolf Ghostler". Ghost reacted as you'd expect, and since then it became a common and effective trolling tactic to intentionally refer to him as "Ghostler" (though the effectiveness started to wane over time, but never completely disappeared).
Sports reporter Jim Rome called football player Jim Everett "Chris" for years (a reference to the female tennis player, Chris Evert, so it was a stab at his manhood). They finally met on the TV show, Talk2, and Everett warned him not to do it again. Rome did, and Everett flipped over the table and knocked Rome out of his chair, as seen in this video. Many Rome detractors regard this as a Crowning Moment of Awesome. Since that incident, Rome regularly disconnects callers on his radio show who do the same thing to other male athletes.
For years after Muhammad Ali changed his name from Cassius Clay, many people still refused to call him by his new name.
Ernie Terrell was one of them, and in 1967 in the fight known as the "What's My Name?" fight Ali made him pay for it. Ali pummeled Terrell mercilessly while repeatedly screaming "WHAT'S MY NAME?" at Terrell. It is regarded as one of the few times Ali actually cut loose and showed unbridled ferocity in the ring.
Oscar Bonavena got the same treatment for the same reason.
When Karin recruits Eyrios in Fire Emblem: Thracia 776, she decides that he would not be so stuck-up if his name was more ordinary-sounding, and thus calls him Olson (much to his displeasure).
In Mystical Ninja: Starring Goemon, the Big Bad is a theatrical man who repeatedly calls Goemon Fernandez despite Goemon's objections. According to one of his flunkies, he tends to give people the name he thinks they deserve. He even calls Ebisumaru Antonio once.
In The Nameless Mod, Scara B. King pronounces the protagonist's name in a new way every time he says it. A conversation with NV Shacker reveals he does this with everyone (and notes that because he pronounced it right 1 in 3 times, he thought he was on a fast track to a promotion). Scara seems to do it out of mockery. It is definitely deliberate. Trestkon calls him out on it when he uses the correct name when stressed or uses a wrong name he has used before, to which Scara responds with a new one.
Coach Oleander uses this to mock Razputin in Psychonauts.
Oleander: Is your name Joey? Raz: No. Oleander: Cause I'm gonna call you Slowy Joey. Raz: That's not my name. Oleander: What's that, Slowy? I can't hear you, you're talking too slow.
A running gag in the Sam & Max: Freelance Police games is how Girl Stinky always get the eponymous duo's names wrong. She remembers their names just fine, but chooses to call them completely random names just to piss them off.
In "The Devil's Playhouse" the two always mispronounce main bad guy Skunkape's (Pronounced Skoon-KAH-Peh) as just "Skunkape". At first it might seem unintentional, but the fact that they're the only characters who don't pronounce it correctly, it soon becomes clear that they're doing it just to be obnoxious.
In Alan Wake, Agent Nightingale calls Alan by a different author's name pretty much every time he opens his mouth. Not all of them are male authors, either.
In Interstate '82, Rank Dick takes great pleasure in addressing Taurus as "Mr. Tortoise", emphasizing the "toise" part. He later finds out it's not a good idea to do this to someone holding you at gunpoint.
In The Secret of Monkey Island, Sheriff Shinetop (who is the series' main villain LeChuck in disguise), constantly mispronounces Guybrush Threepwood's name. In one instance, his mispronunciations are completely randomized, and many of them bear no resemblance to his actual name ("Droopface," "Nosehair," "Spicecake"). When LeChuck is talking with his first mate shortly later, he pronounces Guybrush's name perfectly, strongly implying that he was employing this trope the entire time.
Okabe in Steins;Gateloves to call Kurisu "Christina" (probably due to the fact that "Kurisu" is exactly how one would render the name "Chris" in Japanese, albeit in katakana instead of kanji) much to her annoyance. So much so that she's pleasantly surprised when he doesn't. He also does this occasionally with Daru, calling him a "suupaa hakaa" (usually rendered in subtitles as "Super Haker") instead of a "suupaa hakkaa" ("Super Hacker"), which Daru is always quick to correct. It's a very subtle difference, with only a glottal stop separating the (intentionally) incorrect pronunciation from the correct one.
Umineko: When They Cry has the rather unusual case of Yasu in Episode 7, a servant scorned and mocked by his/her older fellow servants due to his/her young age and inexperience and thus given this nickname. The last name is "Yasuda", but we never learn the given name, so the fandom only knows this character as "Yasu", even though s/he hates being called that. Well, the fandom also knows him/her as "Shannon", "Kanon" or "Beatrice".
Benon: We're leaving. Take care of yourself, alright? Ya. Su.
In Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney: Trials and Tribulations, rival prosecutor Godot frequently mispronounces Phoenix's last name, addressing him only as "Trite" instead of "Wright". He does this out of contempt, believing Phoenix responsible for Mia Fey's death earlier in the series.
Cinna calls Muneca "Doll" and every thinkable variable of this - idiot doll, berserk doll, Doll-Rex, and so on. Munecais Spanish fordoll, and Cinna knows this. It's intentional.
Cinna calls Kathy, who has a really bad case of acne and big teeth, "Miss Pimples," "Miss Bucktooth," and "Pimpleface." Yes, Cinna is a mature woman.
In the Batman Beyond episode "Out of the Past", Terry persistently mispronounces Ra's Al Ghul as RAUZ (the same pronunciation used in Batman Begins) instead of the "proper" DCAU pronunciation, RAYSH. Talia constantly corrects him, getting more and more annoyed when Terry never tries to get it right. It may look accidental, but Word of God says this was Terry's subtle way of dissing the criminal mastermind by not even getting his name right.
On Hey Arnold! Helga does this to insult Harold in the episode "Beaned" where she fools Arnold (and the rest) into thinking she's got amnesia.
Harold: "HELLO HELGA. MY NAME IS HAR-OOOLD! DO YOU REMEMBER ME?"
Helga: "Why, of course I remember you, Cheryl."
Arnold: "Come on, I'll help you find your locker."
Helga: "What is 'locker'?"
Stinky: "I reckon' that's the most pathetic thing I've ever seen..."
On ReBoot, Enzo often calls the viruses insulting nicknames, such as Megabreath and Hexadismal. Also, only Dot seems to pronounce Cecil's name correctly (Ceh-cil, not Cee-cil).
In the South Park episode spoofing competition movies, Stan Marsh's self-proclaimed rival takes to calling him "Stan Darsh," which he seems to think is a clever put-down. A Woolseyism in the German Dub has him use the name "Stan Arsch," meaning "Stan Ass," which actually is an insult.
In a flashback episode of The Simpsons, Homer and Marge are trying to think of names for Bart (who Marge was pregnant with at the time). Homer shot down several names Marge suggested in order to avoid this trope.
Marge: If the baby is a boy what do think about Larry for a name?
Homer: Marge, we can't do that. The kids will call him "Larry Fairy!"