The first section of the anonymously written 17th-century grimoire The Lesser Key of Solomon. It describes a group of 69-72 demons (depending on which edition you're working with) who were variously bound by Ham and Solomon to perform works on God's behalf, and now you, the lucky conjuror, can do the same. The Ars Goetia (or rather, the demons described) is/are frequently used in fiction. The grimoire itself is sometimes known as the Lemegeton and is a Stock Shout-Out for a Tome of Eldritch Lore. For some reason, the later portions of the Lesser Key, like the Ars Theurgia Goetia (conjuring neutral spirits of the winds) and Ars Paulina (conjuring lesser angels of the zodiac and the hours of the day), get much less screen time in general.The book can be found translated here. For quick reference, here's the seventy-two demons as listed in the Lesser Key:
On a side note, the earlier Pseudomonarchia Daemonum by Johann Wier in 1583, which basically started all this, lists only 69 demons. Vassago, Seere, Dantalion, and Andromalius are not listed, and another demon, Pruflas, is listed. Pruflas doesn't seem to appear anywhere else; given his description, he may have been conflated with the extremely similar Andras.NOTE: Given how often they pop up outside of the lists, especially in sources that predate the lists, it probably isn't a good idea to list anything involving Belial, Asmodeus (also known as Asmoday), Bael, Astaroth, or Berith (as in Baal-Berith), unless there's a definite link in the example to the Ars Goetia, or at least to the other demons from the lists.
They told Solomon that they hoped to return to the Seventh Throne (Heaven or God or both) in 1,000 or 1,200 years or so. It's been 3,000 years since Solomon was alive. So they hoped for returning to the Seventh Throne 2,000 or 1,800 years ago. A bit of Fridge Brilliance there for our Christian viewers
Baleful Polymorph: Pray that a conjuror doesn't decide he's mad enough with you to send Ose after you. Not only do you get shapeshifted, you start thinking that you've always been the thing or being Ose just turned you into. Andrealphus, Oriax, and Marbas can do this, too, but they won't throw in the Fake Memories as well (and Andrealphus is limited to turning people into birds).
The Beastmaster: Volac will bring whatever serpents you desire to you. Although the text doesn't say anything about whether you can actually control them...
Dark Is Not Evil: A few of the demons seem to be harmless, or even good-hearted. For example, Orobas is said to be an honest demon who never tells a lie. He also protects his conjuror from evil spirits; more specifically, he makes sure they can't tempt him. Sallos is said to have a generally peaceful nature, and specializes in setting up lovers (although, see Hypnotize the Princess below...). Andromalius specializes in preventing and punishing theft. Of course, you still have singularly nasty demons in there (Andras not only specializes in fomenting strife and discord, he's one of the few specifically stated to, if there's even a small flaw in his summoning confinement, kill the conjuror and all his associates...)
It's also worth noting that although we're...well...talking DEMONS here, the conjuror is actually instructed to call upon God and appeal to his authority (which is still binding on the demons, whether they like it or not) in order to get the particular demon to obey the call and evocation. In other words, the idea is that you're using unholy implements (demons) for (allegedly) acceptable-to-God means (although how anyone would call what some of these characters, like Sitri, Andras, and Beleth, do "holy" is kind of difficult).
Its also worth noting that nothing in this world happens without Gods consent...so...yeah...
Deal with the Devil: Well, if the above point about using God to get these guys to obey one is anything to go by, one doesn't have the usual soul-price to put up with here, at least as long as the power isn't abused to malevolent and perdition-worthy ends (although as also mentioned, a few, like Leraje and Andras, will only perform malign deeds). One needs to be careful in any case, though; Andras will be trying to kill the conjuror and every one of his associates, Valefor will try to get his conjuror to commit and be caught for a capital crime, and Malphas has a bad habit of reneging on promises secured by a sacrifice on the part of the conjuror.
Driven to Madness: Some grimoires suggest that Ose doesn't actuallytransfigure his victims, but merely warps their minds to the point that they genuinely think they're something else entirely. The others claim both. Meanwhile, the original Latin version of the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum doesn't say that Beleth incites "doting love", but rather "dementia"—he causes insanity epidemics.
Enfant Terrible: Volac. Volac himself looks like an angel-winged child. Fair enough. His steed? A two-headed dragon.
Evil Counterpart: Some occult traditions consider the Goetic demons, at least when they number 72 and not 69, to be this to the angels who bear the Shem ha-Mephorasch (the hidden name of God). There's even the claim that the Goetics' seals are actually some sort of reverse spelling of each associated angel's name.
Evil Is Not a Toy: While no demon at all should be taken lightly, Phenex, Malphas and Andras are especially nasty to would-be conjurors who screw up trying to bind them — and in the case of Andras, fatal. Valefor, meanwhile, is troublesome post-binding (see Treacherous Advisor).
Evil Sounds Deep: This may be the idea behind a fair number of the Goetics being described as having a hoarse voice.
Fake Memories: Besides Ose's gimmick, as described in Baleful Polymorph above, Dantalion can reveal a person's thoughts to a conjuror, then change those memories. It does not help that he's one of the bevy of Goetics skilled in impelling love...
Familiar: Many, many Goetics have the explicit ability to grant familiars to conjurors. This is also Valefor's sole recorded ability...perhaps because rather than giving you a familiar, he is the familiar.
Go Mad from the Revelation: Part of the basic instructions given is to make sure the demons don't appear in forms likely to induce this. If you have read the Book of Ezekiel (and keep in mind that the angels aren't hostile to him), you'll know why.
Have a Gay Old Time: To modern eyes, it can look rather strange that the conjuror is typically referred to as an "exorcist"—a term usually associated with banishing demons. This works because "exorcise" is derived from the Latin for "compel to adhere to an oath"; "conjure" comes from a similar term. That's how exorcising fiends out of someone was supposed to work—force the possessors to adhere to God's laws (like the one forbidding torment of humans) for once, Or Else. No real difference in mechanism when you were instead adjuring/conjuring/exorcising them to be your day laborer.
Hijacked by Jesus: A few of the demons owe their demonhood to the medieval Christian conceit that gods other than the Hebrew one were merely demons masquerading as divine beings and trying to steal glory and honor that only God should have received. Bifrons (literally "two faces") is another name for Janus, the Roman god of gates. Berith comes from Baal-Berith, patron of a city at odds with early Jersualem. Amon is iffy—while he seems to be named for the Egyptian deity, that his name is occasionally spelled Ammon may connect him to the Ammonites, one of the Hebrews' perennial enemies. You can also find a few claims on the Internet that Oriax is the same as Osiris, and Purson the same as Horus, from Egyptian Mythology.
Hypnotize the Princess: A lot of the Goetic crew have the ability to incite love between men and women. One has to wonder if anybody trusted the conjurors to not try to use this trick to get themselves a desired bedmate with no strings attached...Sitri is especially explicit about this. Not only can he pull this stunt, he can make them disrobe and degrade themselves. Instant Wild Teen Party, of that sort...or porn...or blackmail material. Beleth's entry, meanwhile, is very explicit about the not-so-romantic side of this; "This Great King Beleth causeth all the love that may be, both of Men and of Women, until the Master Exorcist hath had his desire fulfilled." Although it's a different story if one pays attention to the original Latin of the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum.
If you really want to take this trope to the extreme, just turn to Zepar; some sources claim he can turn men into gay pedophiles. No, really. Naturally, he also can do the whole "make men and women fall in love" trick.
Some sources have him not only impelling love between men and women, but also rendering women barren. Not necessarily the same women. Patron demon of eugenics?
Gremory, meanwhile, will even procure the love of old women. And while Furfur can do this, he sticks to restoring love in marriage.
Invisibility: Bael, Glasya-Labolas, Balam, Forneus and Foras have the ability to grant this. For some reason, this typically comes bundled with eloquence and sharp-mindedness.
Making a Splash: Focalor's specialty is to rip up warships with his control over the seas and winds, although he'll take care not to kill any specific creature the conjuror forbids him to. Vepar and Crocell also have abilities related to water—Vepar guides the warships (fear the conjuror who's commanding both her and Focalor), and Crocell can sniff out water sources.
Mix-and-Match Critters: Several Goetics appeared as animals with traits belonging to some other beast. Zagan and Haagenti were bulls with eagle wi...fine, gryphon wings...Valefor a lion with a donkey's head, Marchosias a gryphon-winged, snake-tailed she-wolf, etc. Ipos may get the prize for oddest-looking Goetic in this respect: angel with lion's head, goose's feet, and hare's tail. The Dictionnaire Infernal supplies an even odder possible form: lion with goose's head and feet and hare's tail.
Multiple Head Case: Some of the demons (e.g. Bune, Aim, Asmoday, in some lists Bael) have three heads, one human and two animal, presumably an implication of their perversion of angelhood by containing an equally chimeric trinity.
Or maybe just an implication that they were of Cherub rank when they were Angels, since Cherubs also have multiple heads/faces - 3 animal heads, and one human head.
No Indoor Voice: Paimon is said to "speak in a booming voice" when first summoned, until the conjuror compels him. Alloces isn't an improvement; his voice is "hoarse and very big" (well, he does have a lion's head...), and unlike Paimon, the conjuror can't undo this.
No Pronunciation Guide: Keep in mind that, since the original sources partook variously of Latin and German texts, instances of "V" represent the "W" sound (hence some of the alternate spellings for Volac and Uvall). Not something obvious to modern-day viewers who don't have a European linguistics background.
Odd Rank Out: Furcas is the only demon with the rank of "Knight".
Plaguemaster: Leraje: Guarantees that any of your archers' arrows that don't kill the targets outright will turn the wounds putrescent. Vepar and Sabnock: Arrange for enemies' wounds to become maggot-ridden. Marbas: General bringer of disease. This is pretty scary in conjunction with his Baleful Polymorph ability; what happens if the conjuror instructs him to transfigure the pathogen?
On the other hand, this could be quite a con. Step 1: Have Marbas cause disease. Step 2: Sell snake oil for curing the disease. Step 3: Have Marbas turn the disease into a different one with a delayed incubation (thus "removing" the first one). Step 4: Return to Step 2.
Playing with Fire: Haures can use fire to kill his conjuror's foes, while Furcas will teach the conjuror how to use fire to discern the future, and Aim favors just setting whole cities and castles on fire. Amy doesn't grant anything particularly related to fire, but manifests as a great mass of flame.
Rank Inflation: Several of the demons are given multiple ranks. Not across several grimoires, but in the same grimoire. To wit: President & Count/Earl Botis (17), President & Count/Earl Marax (21), Prince/Prelate & Count/Earl Ipos (22), President & Count/Earl Glasya-Labolas (25), Marquis and Count/Earl Ronove (27), President & Prince/Prelate Gaap (33), King & Count/Earl Vine (45), Duke & Count/Earl Murmur (54), and King & President Zagan (61). And while he's "just" a marquis in the Lesser Key, the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum describes Decarabia as instead being both King & Earl. Basically, rannks are: King (Gold), Marquis (Silver), President (Mercury), Duke (Copper), Count/Earl (Iron), Prince/Prelate (Tin), and Knight (Lead). Or could be listed as: King (Sunday), Marquis (Monday), Count/Earl (Tuesday), President (Wednesday), Prince/Prelate (Thursday), Duke (Friday), and Knight (Saturday). Real Life rankings of nobility would go King, Duke, Prince/Prelate, Marquis, Count/Earl, and Knight (not sure where President goes).
"President", in this case, would refer to one who presides over a college or convocation. Also, at the time, "prince" just meant someone who ruled over something, like the princes of Italian petty city-states. In addition, marquises had a pretty unique duty from dukes; the term comes from "march", used for a province bordering another country, which didn't always describe duchies, and never described counties. In other words, marquises were specially tasked to be the first line of defense against invaders. In this context, Goetic marquises might "protect" deceived/corrupted souls from "invading" divine redemption.
Reptiles Are Abhorrent: A pretty fair number of these guys are associated with snakes (no surprise, given one of the usual alleged guises of Satan) in some fashion, whether holding snakes, riding snakes, having a snake tail, or in Botis's case, being a snake. In addition, Agares, Vassago, Furcas, and Sallos all ride crocodiles, and Volac and Astaroth ride dragons. And finally, except for his heads, Bune is a dragon.
Sealed Evil in a Can: Part of the binding procedure that Solomon used was trapping the demons inside an elaborate vessel of brass, which he could pull them out of at will to perform this or that deed. Once he'd gotten all the work he needed out of them, he cast the full vessel into a great lake in the Babylonian Empire, expecting them to stay stuck until the end of time. Too bad the Babylonians who later found it mistook it for an ordinary treasure cache and opened it, getting nothing for their troubles except Belial impersonating one of their gods...
The Smurfette Principle: Marchosias (a she-wolf, at least according to the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum and Dictionnaire Infernal), Vepar (a mermaid) and Gremory (a woman riding a camel) are the only female demons. Though given that they are fallen angels and a good chunk are shapeshifters, male/female may be a formality rather than an indication of (normally) possessing any genitalia. It doesn't help that, even with Gremory, the most obviously female of the lot, the texts always use male pronouns.
Spell My Name with an "S": Because of the way copying was done for the earliest manuscripts describing the demons, spellings can vary quite a bit from list to list. Ose, for example, can also be called Oso or Voso. Leraje can also be Leraie or Loray. Gremory can be Gomory. Glasya-Labolas gets the prize for dissimilar names, though; he's also called Caacrinolaas and Caassimolar.
Devilman uses the Goetic designs for all its demons and explains why they look that way. The Goetia also provides the names of two demons, Caim and Amon (the later of which is the demon Akira fuses with to become Devilman).
Vassago appeared as "Virsago" in Gundam X, where it is the name of an appropriately demonic-looking Gundam piloted by one of the main villains. Its partner Gundam (piloted by his brother) is named "Ashtaron", after Astaroth, while the prototype that spawned the two was named "Belphagor".
Shanu Andras, Orga Sabnak and Clotho Buer of Gundam SEED are all likely references to Andras, Sabnock and Buer.
SD Gundam G Generation World features Halphas (based on the spelling of Malthous) Gundam, and later "his" boss Barbatos.
Victory Gundam started the trend with a mobile suit known as the Abigor.
In High School D×D the main protagonist's master is a part of the Gremory household and is also a woman. Later on, the head master of Phenex and Baal also show up.
Several characters in Shakugan no Shana are named after Goetic demons — Marchosias, Dantalion, Valac, etc., while the third season adds many more: Decarabia, Stolas, Purson, Uvall, Haborym, Orobas, and others.
Duke Eligos (15) is Dynast Grausherra, Prince/Prelate & Count/Earl Ipos (22) is Greater Beastmaster Zellas Metallium, Duke Bune (26) is Chaos Dragon Garv, Duke Astaroth (29) is Hellmaster Filbrizo, and Duke Vepar (42) is Deep Sea Dolphin.
Yu-Gi-Oh! has a couple. "Versago the Destroyer" is a mangling of "Vassago"; more recent is "Gaap the Divine Soldier". Gaap made an appearance in the Big Bad's deck in Yu-Gi-Oh! R, which included Leraje, Caassimolar, and Botis as Cannon Fodder.
Adelicia from Rental Magica specializes in conjuring demons of Solomon. She even is the head of an organization called Ars Goetia.
In Mirai Nikki, the right hand servant of Deus Ex Machina is named Murmur. She doesn't actually serve Deus, and even takes his crown towards the end of the series.
The six fists of the Hellas Kataphrakt in Aldnoah.Zero are named Botis, Marax, Ronové, Halphas, Räum, & Viné.
Andras and Marchosias—two of the demons most associated with battle and manslaughter—start off the action in Promethea by being set up as hitmen by a conjuror who doesn't want the latest version of the title character to go on living. Later on, he somehow gets the entire retinue to possess someone. How he got some of the ones who definitely don't have possession/mind control/temptation in their repertoire, like Orobas and Haures, to do it is unknown.
Pre-Flashpoint, the demon Nebiros was responsible for the existence of two heroes. Blue Devil fought him while he was wearing a suit of devil-themed Powered Armor and got magically fused with it thanks to Nebiros' flames. Sebastian Faust lost his soul to Nebiros when his own father Felix sold it for arcane power. Nebiros messed with Felix by giving Sebastian the power instead.
In Naamah's Kiss, the main character gets involved with a group of academics attempting to summon members of the Goetia, though they aren't explicitly called that, and ask them for various magical powers.
In "Ars Magica 5th Edition", the Goetic Arts (Summoning, Ablating, Binding, and Commanding) are infernal powers that allow their possessor to conjure and coerce demons and other spirits. Actually, Summoning can be associated with any realm (Magic, Faerie, even Divine!), the other three powers, however, are always Infernally aligned (although not everyone who has these powers necessarily knows that...)
Early editions of Dragonquest had lists of these demons and their game stats.
The Dungeons & Dragons 3.5Source BookTome of Magic has the "Binder" class that gains powers by binding vestiges with seals. In addition to being the base of the concept of the class, most of the vestiges (Ammon, Leraje, Naberius, Ronove, Malphas, Sabnock, Andromalius, Focalor, Paimon, Agares, Andras, Buer, Astaroth, Balam, Dantalion, Haures, Ipos, Shax, Zagan, Haagenti, Halphax, Eligor, Otiax, and Marchosias are used), along with their seals, are taken directly from Ars Goetia (another good portion are Continuity Nods like Acererak). The descriptions of the vestiges' manifestations don't always match perfectly with their descriptions in the Lesser Key of Solomon, though. For example, Zagan is described in the Lesser Key as an eagle-winged bull (well, gryphon-winged, but howdoesone tell the difference?), just like Haagenti, here an eagle-winged minotaur. In the Tome, he's a great yuan-ti priest who tried (and utterly failed) to achieve godhood, and manifests as a gigantic yuan-ti (i.e. a snake-man). Oddly in this instance, there is an unused Goetic demon, Botis, who manifests as a hideous viper...
In earlier editions of Dungeons & Dragons, many of the devils of the Nine Hells had these names: Agares, Barbatos, Buer, Glasya and so on. It looks like this is continuing in 4e, if Alloces is anything to go by.
The Steve Jackson Games version of In Nomine used some of these names in their products. For example, Furfur is the Demon Prince of Hardcore in both the English and the original French version too.
Mage: The Awakening features goetic demons, embodiments of a character's own Vice that can be given form in order to divest them of unsavory impulses... but that means there's a primal incarnation of Vice walking about. One Legacy, the Clavicularius, draws heavily upon the Ars Goetia and works to draw power from their Goetic demons while keeping them tightly bound. Another Legacy, the Bene Ashmedai, let their base instincts have a measure of free reign and gain power through excess. The latter legacy is a splinter faction of the former, and they tend not to get on well.
Warhammer 40,000 has at least two daemons named after Ars Goetia: Mamon, a daemon prince of Nurgle, and the Nurgle daemon lord Scaibeithrax (aka Papa Ga'ap).
In the original Japanese version of Advance Wars: Days of Ruin, Caulder is called Stolos—a variation of Stolas, an owl-demon (all right, or possibly a raven-demon, but other than Andras, the other birds aren't usually alternately owls).
Aquanox's ultimate enemies, the Old Ones, were variously named for Goetics, the two strongest being Crocell and Forneus (the latter being the first game's final boss).
The portable chapters of Castlevania such as Portrait of Ruin name many enemies after the Goetic demons, such as Vapula (a winged lion), Glasya-Labolas (a winged bulldog), Stolas (an owl monster), Buer (a fiery rotating wheel-thingy) and so on.
The only other Goetian (aside from noted Greek Cerberus) to receive full-fledged boss status is Eligor from Castlevania: Order of Ecclesia, though he somehow changed from a mounted knight to a colossal plated centaur in the process.
Two of the chest emblems available for your City of Heroes character's costume, specifically Mystic1 and Mystic2, are in fact the seals of, respectively, Gusion and Astaroth.
The Random Name Generator in the Disgaea games seems to have at least some of the 72 demons listed in it.
Drakengard has Seere (described as being neither good nor evil, but indifferent in the Ars Goetia, and also manifesting as a beautiful man...although riding a pegasus rather than a golem) and, arguably, Caim (another name for Camio, who somehow communicates with burning embers and allows one to converse with animals. Remember who Caim's synchronized with?).
Most of the Demon enemies in Final Fantasy XI who are given proper titles are named after demons in the Goetia.
As a direct example, in Final Fantasy X, the first summon that Yuna receives is named Valefor, though it only borrows the name and has little else to do with the original demon. Also, Buer is the name of a species of winged eyeballs.
A later Big Bad in the Ghosts N Goblins series is named Nebiros, an alternate name of Naberius; the name Nebiros is also used for the final boss in Psikyo's Dragon Blaze. It's worth considering that the Pseudomonarchia Daemonum identified Naberius with none other than Kerberos.
Astaroth (with various alternate spellings) shows up as the penultimate boss of Super Ghouls n' Ghosts.
In Golden Sun, two of the Summon Spirits accessible in Lost Age are Zagan (early on) and Haures (much later on). They show up again in Dark Dawn, and rather appropriately, the Ancient Devil can summon Haures himself.
Andras, Marchosias, and Amon (and maybe Phenex; the question is whether the original bird Phoenix or the demon knock-off is meant) appear as Mooks in La-Mulana, with Buer appearing as a Mini-Boss.
The Ogre Battle series of video games uses this trope frequently, especially in Episode VII, where a large portion of the characters are named after Goetic demons (Barbatos, Andras, Haborym, etc.).
R-Type Final has a couple of ships named for Goetic demons, Andromalius and Dantalion. Dantalion is particularly appropriately named, since the thing was the beginning of ships that included Bydo tissue for more than the Force itself...
The Shadow Hearts series uses slips of paper marked with the demons' crests to bestow magic on people. Asmodeus, Astaroth and Amon are all major figures in the second game, and a logic mini-game allows players to earn extra rewards by placing the demons of the Lesser Key into their proper places based on clues.
Lemegeton, once all four episodes are published, will feature appearances by all 72 demons.
Various members of the 72 Demons of Goetia appear as demons most of the Shin Megami Tensei games, almost always as part of the "Fallen" demon family. Some of the demons also appear as Personas.
Some of the mythos are tempered with, though. In Shin Megami Tensei III: Nocturne, Forneus and Decarabia is depicted as friends, while the original Goetia has no mention whatsoever. Perhaps because in SMT Forneus◊ is a demonic ray and Decarabia◊ is a starfish with an eye... In Persona 3 you even get a Fusion spell named Best Friends when the protagonist has both of them.
Barbatos Goetia from Tales of Destiny 2 is named not only after one of the demons, but the Ars Goetia itself. The game also features bosses named Buer, Vassago, Forneus, Sabnock, Ose, Vepar, Glasya-Labolas, Dantalion, Halphas, and Gaap.
A pretty fair number of Zafina's moves in Tekken are named for Goetic demons (and quite a few other mythical characters and weapons).
Ronove and Gaap show up in Umineko no Naku Koro ni, where their status as part of the 72 is regularly mentioned. As well as Zepar and Furfur., and a few of the Seven Stakes of Purgatory.