"And the students shooting flaming arrows, because, well ... you gotta' have flaming arrows..."Creators of fiction generally agree that setting things on fire is awesome, so in military conflict they love to depict archers shooting volleys of flaming arrows at the enemy regardless of whether the situation is a field battle, a siege, or naval combat. A Rain of Arrows looks cooler if the arrows trail fire as they streak through the sky, and it's especially cool when they're used at night so that they light up the air like laser beams. There is also a general assumption that any projectile that is on fire will inflict more damage than one that isn't. Whatever the arrows hit will catch on fire, be it tents, thatched roofs, wooden structures, or some hapless Red Shirt, who—in addition to being pierced by an arrow—will immediately burst into flame, writhing in panic before falling off the battlements with a Stock Scream. On a larger scale, military forces might also fire giant flaming projectiles from siege artillery such as catapults and ballistae. Lastly, sometimes an archer will shoot a single flaming arrow into the sky like a flare, signaling a message to distant units. Much of this is unrealistic, and is depicted that way for Rule of Cool. It's true that in real life, flaming arrows were used in certain situations where you needed to set flammable structures on fire. However, fiction tends to ignore the drawbacks that made them unsuitiable for anti-personnel use, least of all in a pitched land battle. To get them to burn reliably one had to wrap them in flammable material and light them first, making them heavier, reducing their range, and slowing the rate of fire because of the preparation necessary. Also, wrapping a cloth around the arrowhead or having an arrowhead with a cage behind the point to contain the burning cloth would blunt its ability to penetrate armor and kill people like a regular arrow is supposed to; wrapping the cloth some distance behind the arrowhead might improve its ability to penetrate a target, but then it might slip off or be less likely to set a fire. Also, the mere speed of the arrow's flight is often enough to douse the flame, so flaming arrows had to be fired at a slower velocity, making them less powerful and easier for enemies to dodge. As a result, flaming arrows were practically never used in field battles like they are in fiction because they were less deadly to men and horses, as well as cumbersome and inefficient. Lighted arrows in real life were actually used to:
- Frighten enemies, since seeing many hundreds of flames coming at you was/is terrifying. Tracer bullets accomplish the same today.
- Adjust the aim, since flaming arrows can possibly tell the shooters where most of the arrows are going so that they can adjust their shots accordingly, which is another function tracers occupy today.
- And most of all, set flammable material such as wooden buildings, siege engines, and ships on fire. Usually it would take a lot of fire arrows to accomplish this, since most of them would be duds, but the enemy would have to divert their manpower making sure that none of them caught, since it would only take one or two good ones out of a hundred to set the target on fire. When it worked, it was devastatingly effective.
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Anime and Manga
- In the Drum arc of One Piece, Chess fires flaming arrows at Sanji and Chopper after Kuromarimo throws balls of highly flammable hair at them.
- In Sailor Moon, Sailor Mars shoots arrows that are made of fire...from a bow that is also made of fire.
- In Sword of the Stranger, Shogen Itadori's army begins their assault on Shishine with a barrage of fire arrows. This has little effect due to the snow.
- Slayers has a spell called FLAAAAARE...ARROW!!! This spell generates an arrow of pure fire, though if the caster isn't strong in black magic, it comes out more like a carrot.
- Batman. Detective Comics #828 has the recently reformed Riddler taking a bow and arrow from a museum exhibit, wrapping his trademark question-mark tie around it, lighting it with a cigarette lighter, and shooting it into a murderer that wears coconut-fiber armor (don't ask). Riddler then proceeds to ring the museum's alarm, and proceeds to taunt the burning man by holding a fire extinguisher in front of him, but refusing to douse the flames. Batman extinguishes the man anyway, though.
Films — Animated
- Mulan: The Huns shot flaming arrows at the highly volatile Chinese cannons in order to prevent those weapons from being used against them, and create explosions amongst the Chinese formation.
Films — Live-Action
- Timeline - Used straight, then subverted: "Fire the Night Arrows." In the book, the time travelers use their knowledge of advanced chemistry to create pseudo-Greek Fire arrows: when they hit their targets, they explode into flames that can only be doused with sand, not water. They never actually get used, though, as the time travelers blow up the entire storehouse before leaving.
- Subverted in Troy, where the Trojans use flaming arrows to set wooden boats on fire, then return to using conventional arrows to kill people. Also subverted in the actual Iliad, for the same reason — they also used firebrands.
- One of the most famous shots of the movie Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves was Kevin Costner's Robin letting fly with one of these in slow-mo.
- Robin Hood: Men in Tights parodies the trope's overuse in Robin Hood films. It featured an opening credits sequence back by random shots of people shooting Arrows on Fire... and then they show the thatch-roofed village that they destroyed with these arrows "every time they make a new Robin Hood movie."
- Villagers: "Leave us alone, Mel Brooks!"
- Done in Braveheart. The night before the battle of Falkirk, Wallace's soldiers had coated the ground under the English army with pitch. He then used archers with lit arrows to light it and set many of the English troops on fire. It's justified earlier during the siege of York, the English dump hot tar on the Scots and then launch fiery arrows to ignite the tar.
- Used in the opening battle of Gladiator. The Romans initially held the barbarians back with conventional arrows then, once the battle started, they shot flaming arrows and flaming catapult projectiles which seemed to have a longer range. We see a lot of barbarians break and run: smoke and fire clogging up your side of the field, watching allies being burned alive — not good.
- In the DVD extras, Ridley Scott said his use of flaming arrows was designed to invoke the images of tracer bullets from the footage of the Gulf War.
- King Arthur's troops made use of these in First Knight. Interestingly, the arrows appeared to use something like magnesium as the flammable agent, which, at least, looked cool.
- The Allied soldiers in Red Cliff use flaming arrows to complement their more creative ways of using fire in the ultimate battle. Both sides mostly use a regular Rain of Arrows, though.
- Army of Darkness - Ash equips his soldiers with gunpowder arrows for the climactic fight against the army of the undead.
- The Last Samurai, during the final battle.
- The Vikings in The Secret of Kells are fond of these.
- The Hunger Games: Mockingjay: Like in the book, Beetee gives Katniss Everdeen special explosive-tipped arrows. And they are very explosive.
- In Robert Asprin's Myth Conceptions, the hero manages this by performing his most basic magic trick (lighting a candle by concentrating on a single point) and having his ally fire his arrows through that point. A little later when he gets ticked off, the archer asks him to calm down since his anger is almost burning up the arrows before they can hit their targets.
- Mariel of Redwall features burning projectiles; the searats make "fire-swingers" to kill the defenders on the Abbey walls. A fire-swinger is a clump of cloth and dry grass wrapped around a rock on the end of a rope, which is set on fire and swung around as fast as the thrower can (very carefully, because swinging a burning object around is dangerous at best, particularly when you have fur), then released. Apparently the range of fire-swingers is greater than that of slings or shortbows, though the Long Patrol hares get good results when they retaliate with longbows.
- In C. J. Cherryh's The Paladin, Shoka uses fire arrows to sow fear, confusion and panic in an enemy encampment.
- These are alluded to (but not shown) in the second book of Tamora Pierce's Protector of the Small series, exciting the trainees enough to make them improve with regular arrows. The trainer also points out that fire arrows fly differently from regular ones, which is why they have to get better before he will let them try them.
- Played with in the Inheritance Cycle. Eragon's first use of magic is to make an arrow he shoots explode with blue fire once it already hits. Played painfully straight in Eldest when a ballista bolt is lit on fire and used improperly.
- The Zombie Survival Guide lists this as one of the more effective ways of dealing with zombies, as the mindless walking cadavers will not think to simply pull the arrows out.
- A Song of Ice and Fire. The Brotherhood Without Banners use them to set a building on fire to smoke out the mercenaries within, and one is used to light a Viking Funeral for Lord Hoster Tully — Edmure Tully keeps missing the shot so his uncle has to take over.
- In the final battle of the first Firekeeper novel, flame arrows are used by a scout troop that had snuck through the lines to the enemy camp to destroy their supply wagons.
- In Mockingjay Katniss and Gale are supplied with three kinds of "trick arrows" invented by Beetee, one type of which are incendiary.
Live Action TV
- The Dukes of Hazzard had bomb arrows, that is, arrows with dynamite tied to them. But then they also had cars with Feather Fall permanently cast on them, able to land safely after flying hundreds of feet in the air.
- Likewise in the movie of the same name & the video games.
- In the Season 3 finale of Buffy, the students have a flaming arrow unit in their offensive against the Mayor. Buffy-verse vampires tend to be about as flammable as the average person after a dip in the ol' gasoline swimming pool.
- Which makes a flashback scene in the spin-off Angel rather puzzling, as Angelus is rescued from Holtz by some vampires firing flaming arrows for no reason whatsoever.
- In the Lost episode "The Lie," the left-behinders get attacked by flaming arrows just as they're bemoaning their lack of fire.
- Used several times in the BBC's version of Robin Hood, typically to detonate explosives (most notably, Robin's final arrow is used to spark off the explosion that destroys Nottingham Castle).
- Game of Thrones. Tyrion gives the specific order, "Rain fire on them" when Stannis is landing his forces before the castle walls in the Battle of Blackwater. There seems no reason to use flaming arrows except for psychological purposes (earlier a flaming arrow was used to set off a wildfire explosion) and all it does it cause their toughest soldier to have a Heroic B.S.O.D. when he sees a Man on Fire. Tends to stick out as in the novels on which its based, George R.R. Martin avoids Hollywood Tactics — flaming arrows are only used when someone wants to set a building on fire. And in the wildlings' attack on Castle Black, both sides use flaming arrows for no discernible reason whatsoever.
- Pretty much a staple of any of Japan's annual NHK taiga dramas (historical dramas) set in the Sengoku Jidai (Warring States period).
- A notable subversion was in 2006's Fūrinkazan. The main character, Yamamoto Kansuke, before working for Takeda Shingen, was an enemy of the Takeda clan (the latter famed not only for cavalry but for having flaming arrows in their repertoire). In order to prevent the burning of the wooden castle Kansuke was assigned to assist, he ordered the castle walls to be smeared thickly with mud and dirt, for the purpose of neutralizing/putting out the flaming arrows even when they land their marks.
- Three Kingdoms: Cao's army launches flaming crossbow bolts into the battle when it looks like her commander is losing. These weren't intended to fly far or to kill single targets, but to ignite explosive powder in the light cavalry's saddlebags and take out remaining enemy commanders.
- Young Dracula: The Count delivers an Arrowgram to the Branaghs via flaming arrow. However, the burn marks make the message hard to decipher.
- The 100: In one episode, Lincoln shoots a flaming arrow at a bomb in order to ignite it.
- A strip from The Far Side had a defender of a Medieval castle say about the opposing soldiers "They're lighting their arrows! Can they do that?"
- In Dungeons & Dragons, magically enchanted Flaming Arrows are inexpensive enough to be available for purchase in bulk in the average large town or small city, assuming you don't just buy a Flaming Bow, which bestows the Flaming quality on any arrows it fires. Then there's the Arcane Archer prestige class that can imbue arrows with spells as their entire shtick, and the Wizard and Sorcerer base classes that don't even need the arrow when they want to burn things.
- Depending on the edition your wizards — and sorcerers, if available — may also have potential access to the Flame Arrow spell, whose main purpose is to turn a bunch of regular projectiles (that somebody hopefully remembered to have on hand) into exactly this for a while or until used, whichever comes first. (The spell gets somewhat overshadowed by the more iconic Fireball, but has its applications.)
- Seeing as Exalted has Charms that replicate nearly every variation on weapons or physical actions that can be thought of, of course there'd been a Charm that allows you to light your arrows on fire without a match.
- Fire arrows also serve a unique tactical purpose in some parts of the setting, in which they're concentrated on enemy firedust reserves, causing catastrophic explosions.
- The setting also contains arrows with fragile glass bulbs as heads that are filled with a magically produced adhesive resin that ignites instantly on contact with air, making it much more effective at starting fires.
- GURPS correctly mentions that the burning rag is behind the arrow head and penalizes accuracy. The burning damage is fairly unimpressive without magical assistance. Low-Tech has a variety of them including one that uses a small explosive charge.
- Shadowrun has a plethora of these for mages and shamans under the appropriate study. This being the future, there's even more fun stuff to light on fire. Ice-based spellcasters can make this work with elements and minerals that ignite around water.
- In Warhammer, the Bretonnian archers may be equipped with braziers to provide them Flaming Arrows.
- In The Legend of Zelda series you can occasionally obtain fire arrows for your bow... as well as ice arrows that freeze enemies, light arrows that beat enemies in one hit, and bomb arrows. Most arrows are implied to be magical, but you can still set regular arrows on fire by shooting them trough burning torches. The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess gives fire arrows to Bulblins (and their twilight counterparts), which typically do minimal damage and can be swatted out of the air with your sword. If you're wearing the Zora armor, however, they do a massive six times normal damage. Out of combat, Fire Arrows are used on two separate occasions to trap you on a bridge coated with oil.
- Romancing SaGa 3 had Plasma shot, Arrows with electricity imbued into them, the Remake of the original game had a similar technique, and a technique in which you can summon a lightning bolt from an arrow shot.
- In the MMORPG City of Heroes, one of the powers in the Archery powerset is a Blazing Arrow. This is not the strangest.
- You can get these in the Fable series, if you use a Flame Augmentation on any bow.
- In Deus Ex, one can obtain flare darts for the minicrossbow. Sometimes these only have the effect of creating a light where they hit, and don't burn; other times they burn burnable things and set people on fire.
- Age of Mythology features a Fire Arrow upgrade that makes arrows much more effective against buildings. Which makes sense since they are mostly made out of wood. Castles on the other hand...
- Age of Empires
- Age of Empires - Archers have an upgrade which adds fire to projectile attacks, increasing their damage.
- In Age of Empires II, this upgrade is required to produce gunpowder units.
- Age of Empires III - Portrayed in most realistic manner in comparision to the others - archers only fire flaming arrows at buildings, using regular arrows against other troops, and the range at which they can attack buildings is smaller than against troops.
- The Battle for Middle-Earth plays this in a similar manner to the above. Fire Arrows, an upgrade for most archer units, adds a decent damage boost vs most normal units, and makes them much more effective vs buildings. It also allows them to cause damage to the wooden walls and gate of Rohan castle defenses. In BFME2 Men of the West keep fire arrows, but Elves get silverthorn blue-glowy arrows. Dwarves get axe throwers (upgraded by forged axes) and human archers of dale — upgraded with fire arrows. All the bad guys get Orcfire arrows, because fire set by Orcs is just better.
- In Rome: Total War and Medieval II: Total War archers can be told to light their arrows on fire. However, due to the Total War series being more of a realistic tactical simulator and less of your usual real-time strategy fare, flaming arrows in this game are less accurate and, on the whole, less damaging and take a lot longer to reload. The entire point of firing them is the psychological punch, as they deplete enemy morale like mad, often sending fearless spearmen running within a few volleys. Flaming catapult ammunition, on the other hand, is much more destructive (and utterly ruinous to morale), but again less accurate and slower to reload. Setting any projectile on fire also eats through the ammunition supply more quickly, so a unit of archers firing flaming arrows will probably only get off half the shots of their non-flaming counterparts over the course of a battle. The siege engines can fire rather ahistorical flaming/exploding projectiles. Flaming Arrows can also be used to set enemy siege equipment (such as siege towers or battering rams) on fire, which is a very important thing when you are defending a castle/town. And because of the importance of breaking enemy units' morale in the Total War series, units of archers with bows can actually become more useful than crossbowmen, who tend to deal more damage. Bow-wielding archers can set their arrows on fire, whereas crossbowmen can't, so the archers can do hefty damage to the enemy's morale even if they aren't killing very many of the enemy, which in turn can break the enemy unit much faster.
- Gun - In addition to the "whiskey bomb" molotov cocktails, flaming arrows are also a weapon option. It is not clear exactly how you are setting them on fire.
- In Heavenly Sword during the levels where you control Kai(well, starting with the second one where you control Kai) you can shoot an otherwise normal arrow through an open flame, resulting in a flaming arrow, useful for detonating explosives which are downrange from the flame source.
- Warcraft 3 has Searing Arrows, a spell which sets arrows on fire for added damage in exchange for a bit of mana. It also has Frost Arrows, which slow the enemy down too. Orc catapults could be upgraded to have their ammo covered in burning oil, lighting the ground on fire to deal extra damage to anything in its area of effect.
- Thief allowed you to purchase fire arrows. The arrows didn't actually burn (but rather had magical glowing crystals on them instead), and they exploded violently when they hit something. In a stealth game like Thief, though, a weapon that makes a loud explosion isn't very practical (unless you're planning on using it as a distraction.) They are, however, the only weapons (save holy water and, in Deadly Shadows, flash bombs and land mines) that can kill zombies. They can also relight torches. The games also include three other elemental arrows as well.
- In Guild Wars, being a skill-heavy game, rangers have different bow attacks that do can light a foe on fire, do a massive amount of fire damage in one hit, give all bow attacks a fire-damage bonus for a period of time, and do explosive damage that affects all nearby foes when a target is hit.
- The Warhammer Fantasy video game Mark of Chaos allowed elven archers to use fire arrows (slower firing rate as a drawback). These wreaked havoc among the enemy's morale, which is probably the most tactical goal to achieve - probably more than killing every single enemy soldier.
- In Ōkami, gaining entrance to Sei-an City requires that you light a torch to lower a bridge. Said torch is on the other side of the gorge which you need to cross. The solution is to get the archer who normally uses a flaming arrow to light said torch to fire an unlit arrow, just to prove he can, then light it on fire midflight using a brush skill.
- In the Half-Life 2 mod Fistful Of Frags, you can get flaming arrows for the bow weapon. They either light people on fire, or light an area on fire. For a few frags more, you can get dynamite arrows. The regular arrows do a lot of damage, and are pretty good; the fire arrows, being a little hard to use, are kinda bad; the dynamite arrows—well, the result of using those is just ugly.
- In Mabinogi, standing next to a campfire and drawing your arrow will cause the arrowhead to catch fire. This gives the arrow a damage bonus and fire element status. Also, landing 3 critical hits with this grants you the Fire Arrow title, which is needed in order to get the Arrow Revolver skill.
- In Stronghold, braziers can be placed on castle walls. Archers firing from nearby will shoot flaming arrows which are more deadly to enemies and can also light pitch for further pyromania.
- Final Fantasy XII plays this straight with the Fiery Arrows ammunition.
- Team Fortress 2 allows a sniper with a bow to light his arrows on fire with the assistance of a friendly pyro, or via flames located around maps. This is pretty expected of the game, so no one minds.
- In Patapon, Yumipons (the archer units) can gain an upgrade for this, but you need wind and dry weather conditions for them to be the most effective.
- In Jeanne d'Arc, the Meteor Shot skillstone provides this ability.
- In The Lost Vikings, some levels have a fire arrow item for Baleog. If he uses it, all arrows he shoots from then on will be on fire, and can take out otherwise invincible enemies.
- In Battle for Wesnoth, all orcish archer units have an alternate ranged attack utilizing these, making them very effective against undead.
- In Dragon Age: Origins, the first move the battle of Ostagar opens up with the Fereldens launching a volley of flaming arrows at the charging darkspawn horde. It does little to slow them down. In the game proper one can equip quivers of fire arrows, ice arrows, filth arrows, etc. There's also a sidequest where you have to fire a flaming signal arrow, but that signal also serves to draw people to the shooter as well as warn others. Darkspawn are weak against magical fire.
- The Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha A's Portable games' version of Signum's Sturmfalke, which coats the arrow in flames before Signum fires it.
- Recettear has Archer Archetype Tielle, whose very first skill is, you guessed it, Fire Arrow. Given her ability to charge up her normal attack to fire eight arrows at once, Fire Arrow isn't all that helpful. She also has some sort of laser arrow...no, really, she fires a magical arrow upwards that causes the screen to get covered in Beam Spam. As awesome as it looks, it's useless against most moving targets.
- Human archers in King's Bounty can do this once per battle. Flaming Arrows deal slightly more damage than their normal attack and more importantly set the target on fire.
- Bow using classes in Ragnarok Online could equip Fire Arrows as ammunition, dealing fire damage.
- The Hunter class, from Ghouls Vs Humans, can use these; they do radius damage around themselves as they fly through the air, and explode on impact.
- In Minecraft, firing an arrow through lava will set it ablaze in, and any mobs struck will burst into flames. A similar effect can be achieved by giving a bow the Flame enchantment.
- In Sonic Adventure, flaming arrows are one of the hazards in Lost World.
- The Algerians in Cossacks European Wars have a special Archer unit that fires flaming arrows that are used to set buildings and ships on fire. They're also available as mercenaries to other factions.
- The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim allows you to enchant bows with fire, which while you don't see the arrow being on fire does set the enemy on fire for a little while.
- Some mods also add arrows that do this naturally.
- Flameslinger from Skylanders is an elf archer who specializes in flaming arrows. And fire-based powers in general, but the arrows are his specialty.
- The crossbow-wielding enemies in Resident Evil 4 shoot flaming arrows, though this doesn't seem to do anything to enhance their lethality.note Most likely the reason for the fire effect is to help the player spot the crossbowman at a distance rather than any in-universe justification.
- Terraria allows you both to craft flaming arrows by combining a torch with a few normal arrows, as well as craft a Molten Bow that makes normal arrows fired by it flaming arrows instead. Either way the weapon deals a bit of extra damage and has a fairly high chance to set enemies on fire, something that's quite practical as it makes monsters light up in the dark and be very visible targets no matter ambient lighting (hint: at any point of the game where flaming arrows are relevant this usually means no lighting at all).
- Most of the arrows in the Onimusha series tend to be on fire so that you can anticipate and block them more easily.
- In Civilization V, everything shoots flaming projectiles when attacking cities! Even swordsmen.
- General Yohm in Breath of Fire IV deploys a squad of soldiers armed with burning arrows early in in the game, in a bid to destroy Fou-Lu.
- The Black Spider Ninjas in the modern Ninja Gaiden trilogy wield explosive kunai.
- In Dragon's Crown, the Elf's Salamander Oil skill lets her turn her arrows into flaming arrows. Throw in some Clone Strikes for some Rain of Arrows goodness and she could set a large part of the battle field ablaze.
- One of skill items players can use in Lufia II: Rise of the Sinistrals is this. Puzzle-wise, it's used to burn unreachable grasses.
- Haley of The Order of the Stick usually keeps a few Flaming Arrows on hand, and has made use of them more than once.
- Lindybeige: Addressed in this video, where he discusses why they didn't use fire arrows in open battles despite how it's always shown in movies because it's a silly idea for anything except sieges and naval warfare. All the modifications to the arrow necessary for it to stay burning when it's shot reduce its range and penetrating power, and you can't really set a man on fire through his clothes or armor before he puts it out. They also can't be fired at anywhere near the same rate as regular arrows. In short, they're useless as anti-personnel weapons, and only good for setting buildings and ships on fire.
- The nephews used charcoal-tipped fire arrows against Donald Duck during the snowball fight in "Snow Fight".
- The Simpsons: The Itchy and Scratchy cartoon "Burning Love" has Itchy shoot a flaming arrow into Scratchy, turning him into chat flambé.
- Aqua Teen Hunger Force: A gun store billboard that people claim shows the visage of "Gee Whiz" shoots flaming arrows at those who offend it. Turns out it's Ted Nugent
- Numb Chucks: In "Kung Fear", the Chucks attempt to contact the lint monster by showering the town with flaming arrows with notes tied to them.
- Truth in Television and what makes this Older Than Feudalism, Sun Tzu in his Art of War has a chapter dedicated to attacking with fire. Among other things, he recommends attacking with "dropped fire into the enemy camp" which may reference flaming arrows and/or burning catapult projectiles.
- The Romans had purposely made ballista bolts heads that held flammable material, as did medieval archers.
- In an utter kickass Real Life example, the Olympic Flame at the 1992 Barcelona games was lit with an arrow on fire going over the bowl and through the gas it burned.
- Modern day Incendiary Rounds are the Bullet version of a Flaming Arrow. Tracers are less so: the primary purpose of a tracer is to tell the shooter where he hits (or used at designated parts of a magazine to keep count of bullets remaining), and are a less then ideal choice for setting things aflame.Hollywood uses both tracers and flaming arrows at times when it would be ineffective, typically because both put on a better light show then their regular, oftentimes more practical, counterparts.
- Although tracer rounds were modified for night-fighter use not only to tell the pilot where his bullets were going, but also to set the target on fire. The first Zepellin to be shot down over England in 1917 was downed by tracers designed to ignite the hydrogen inside the airship's balloon; normal bullets just made entry and exit holes and left the structure largely intact. A bullet hot enough to ignite the contents in passing turned out to be an airship-killer, and a contributory reason why they were discontinued from military use.
- Flaming arrows used by Medieval archers have a number of modifications from the normal arrow, in order to avoid some of the engineering challenges of such arrows (the difficulty in getting it to stick in the target, the added weight of the flammable material, etc.); some had longer and thicker shafts (so that they wouldn't snap off when fired, and won't set the bow or the archer's bow hand on fire), cage-like heads◊ (to allow them to stick into the target while burning), and such.