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Long Day's Journey Into Night is the story of a day in the life of a loving but dysfunctional Irish-American family as it is torn apart by addiction, resentment, and regret. It is also Eugene O'Neill's most autobiographical play, hence his insistence that it not be published until after his death. Winner of the 1957 Pulitzer Prize. Fredric March won a Tony Award for his performance in the original Broadway production.
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A well-regarded film adaptation, directed by Sidney Lumet and starring Katharine Hepburn as Mary, was made in 1962.


This play provides examples of:

  • The Alcoholic: James, Jamie, and Edmund all get progressively more drunk as the play goes on, especially as they try to open up to one another. It's implied that this is a common occurrence among the family.
  • Author Avatar: O'Neill spent a great deal of his early adulthood at sea, battled with alcoholism and depression, and suffered from tuberculosis, just like Edmund.
  • The Disease That Shall Not Be Named: Literally. Edmund tries not to speak about his illness, as he believes it could be his mother's final breaking point.
  • Downer Ending: It is implied that the end scene has been and will be repeated many, many more times.
  • Dr. Feelgood: The doctor who first prescribed Mary Tyrone morphine, as well as the doctors who continue to do so while she's Off the Wagon.
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  • Drugs Are Bad: Mary is a recovering morphine addict who is slowly relapsing due to her use of opioids to numb the rheumatic pain in her hands. By the end of the play, she’s fallen completely off the wagon.
  • Extremely Short Timespan: The play takes place between morning and midnight on a single August day in 1912.
  • Generation Xerox: Perhaps one of the morals of the play, sad as it may be.
  • Hair-Trigger Temper: James is very short-fused and will frequently start arguments with his family members at the slightest provocation.
  • Ill Boy: Edmund, arguably the most well-adjusted member of the family, is suffering from an apparent case of tuberculosis that steadily worsens as the play progresses.
  • Incurable Cough of Death: Actually Tuberculosis.
  • It's All About Me: James is rather selfish, as evidenced when he tries to save money by sending his ill son Edmund to a questionably-qualified doctor. Indeed, he seems aware that his sons think he’s a “dirty miser”, but he rarely provides evidence to the contrary.
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  • Lampshade Hanging: "What a bastard to have for a father! Christ, if you put him in a book, no one would believe it!"
  • Lazy Bum: Jamie is excessively lazy, and often inconveniences his family in pursuit of a hedonistic lifestyle. He seems to have few ambitions other than booze, women, or instant gratification, and he seems unwilling to find a job. As his father put it:
    “You made no effort to find anything else to do. You left it to me to get you a job and I have no influence except in theater. (…) You never wanted to do anything except loaf in barrooms! You'd have been content to sit back like a lazy lunk and sponge on me for the rest of your life!”
  • Nostalgia Ain't Like It Used to Be: Mary is so overcome by nostalgic thoughts of the greener past she let slip away that she is unwilling to confront reality as it is. She muses about her failed former dreams (to be a nun or a concert pianist) that came to a halt when she married James, seems to show nothing but regret for how her life turned out, and is obsessed with what could have been - even if, as James points out, her dreams wouldn’t have worked out anyway, and she’s seeing her past exclusively through a rose-colored tint.
  • The Ophelia: Mary, especially in the last scene. Mostly due to the morphine.
    James: The mad scene. Enter Ophelia!
  • Parents as People: Mary and James are depressingly human.
  • Shout-Out: Edmund compares himself to a seagull.
  • Shout-Out to Shakespeare: Too many to count; the Tyrones are a family of actors, after all.
  • Woman in White: Mary and her wedding dress.

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