"How can I live without my heart? How can I live without my soul?"
Wuthering Heights (1847) was the only novel written by Emily Brontė (of 'the Brontė sisters'), and an archetypal example of a Gothic Romance. Has been filmed several times, most notably the 1939 version starring Laurence Olivier as Heathcliff, while a younger, pre-James BondTimothy Dalton played Heathcliff in the 1970 film version. Also inspired the 1979 Kate Bush song of the same name ("Heathcliff, it's me, I'm Cathy, I've come home...") as well as an adaptation in Monty Python's Flying Circus. And perhaps we shouldn't forget Genesis' album Wind and Wuthering, which used a quotation from the book's ending for two of its song titles. And let's not also forget that MTV also did an adaptation of their own with Heathcliff as a guitar-strumming song-writer pitted against classic cello-playing Edgar. And finally, let's not forget Death Cab for Cutie's "Cath...", which is fairly transparently based on Wuthering Heights, but in their own style.It is 1801. The foppish gentleman Mr. Lockwood has moved to Thrushcross Grange, a manor house in the windswept and desolate Yorkshire Moors, where he introduces himself to Heathcliff, his surly, ill-mannered and unwelcoming landlord and master of the nearby Wuthering Heights. Forced to stay at Wuthering Heights overnight, Lockwood suffers a nightmare about the ghost of a young woman desperately pleading to be let back into the house; intrigued, Lockwood asks his housekeeper Nelly Dean to tell him the story of Heathcliff and Wuthering Heights.Dean's story is one of a terrible, unchecked, all-consuming passion — that between Heathcliff, an orphaned foundling brought to Wuthering Heights as a child by the then-owner, and Catherine Earnshaw, his spoilt, flighty and wild foster sister, who became inseparable friends as children and later fell in love. Their love, though passionate, was cruelly thwarted, however, both by Hindley, Catherine's brother and Heathcliff's sworn enemy, who resented Heathcliff as an interloper in his father's affections and, upon inheriting the estate, spitefully turned Heathcliff into a downtrodden slave, and by Catherine's own desires for social mobility and class, which saw her marry the decent but seemingly weak Edgar Linton even as she insists that her one true love is and always will be Heathcliff.Missing Catherine's declaration of eternal love, however, Heathcliff leaves Wuthering Heights in bitterness, only to return several years later having made his fortune elsewhere and determined to crush entirely those who thwarted his one chance at happiness. This includes swindling control of Wuthering Heights away from the now-drunken and embittered Hindley, seducing Edgar's sister Isabella and then treating her in a cruel, abusive fashion once married, and generally scheming to take control of everything that belongs to Edgar and Hindley. Unfortunately, a tragedy occurs not long after that only spurs Heathcliff on to further depths of bitterness, as he determines to extend his vendetta and not only destroy his rivals, but their children...
Provides examples of:
All Girls Want Bad Boys: Deconstructed - the love between Catherine and Heathcliff is passionate, but it is also clearly unhealthy and intensely destructive, leading to nothing but the ruin of the lovers and almost everyone around them. Ditto for Isabella's crush on Heathcliff. Also, see Draco in Leather Pants on the YMMV page.
The Alcoholic: Hindley, to the point that it kills him before he's thirty.
Amoral Attorney: A dying Edgar Linton sends for Attorney Green to ensure Heathcliff won't be able to touch his daughter's property. He was five minutes too late; to Edgar's and Nelly's horror, Heathcliff already had him in his pocket.
Ambiguously Brown: Heathcliff's exact race is never explained; he is referred to as "dark" and a "gipsy." All we know is that he's not black-African or white-European - at one point Nelly fancifully speculates that he might be the son of the Emperor of China and an Indian queen.
Asshole Victim: It's very easy to argue that Heathcliff's successful degradation of his former tormentor Hindley is well-deserved.
Badass Bookworm: Edgar Linton, despite coming across as a nerd and a weakling, thrashes Heathcliff the one time they actually fight. Forever after, Heathcliff won't risk confronting him unarmed, even during the many long, solitary walks Edgar takes out on moors.
Big Fancy House: Thrushcross Grange. Wuthering Heights is more of a large farmhouse than an estate.
Bittersweet Ending: After have destroyed pretty much the lives of anyone around him, he is tired and tormented to madness by the Catherine's ghost and anything that reminds him of her so he let himself die. So Heathcliff and Catherine are finally Together in Death as ghosts. Hareton and Catherine (II) are going to get married and they are now rich.
Create Your Own Villain: Edgar and Hindley have no one to blame but themselves for molding Heathcliff into a monster... not in a Freudian Excuse way, but in a morbidly ironic way. Though Hindley probably wouldn't have been so cruel to Heathcliff if his own father hadn't made it repeatedly obvious he preferred him to his son.
And Edgar is never shown to do anything unpardonably awful to Heathcliff until after his marriage to Cathy, which was justified as Heathcliff was carrying on with both his wife and his sister, Isabella.
Heathcliff tries to do this to Hareton but fails.
Creepy Child: The little girl (Cathy as a child) in Lockwood's nightmare.
Death by Childbirth: Hindley's wife. The other servants realized Nelly would end up raising the baby because "the doctor says the missus must go" as soon as he was born. Sure enough, she soon dies of a coughing fit. Hindley's wife was in denial about having a "consumption;" Nelly noticed that even as a new bride, Frances was easily winded and "coughed troublesomely sometimes."
Catherine dies immediately after giving birth to her daughter, but her death is really a suicide by starvation. She has been starving herself out of distress over the acrimonious feud between Heathcliff and Edgar.
Evil Orphan: Heathcliff. His Freudian Excuse is relatively strong, but at any rate, he ends up a usurping beast of pure spite, and his intentions are just that.
Exact Eavesdropping: Subverted. Heathcliff does overhear a very important exchange between Catherine and Nelly Dean, but leaves in a rage after only part of the conversation, and misses the more crucial piece of information. This leads to his mysterious disappearance and pretty much drives the entire plot from there out.
External Retcon: There's a sequel to this called simply H, which relates a letter that Heathcliff sent to Catherine; it arrived on her wedding day, but that cruel, meddling Nelly Dean keeps it from its intended recipient. In the end, it relates Heathcliff's true heritage (brace yourself!): He's the son of Edward Rochester and his first wife Bertha! Never mind that no estimation of when Jane Eyre occurs would allow for Rochester and Bertha to have been married in or before 1764, Heathcliff's estimated birth year. Very likely they weren't even born yet themselves.
Face-Heel Turn: Played with. Heathcliff's nature is largely blamed on Hindley's bullying, Edgar's class prejudice, and Catherine's seeming rejection of him. However looking back to Nelly's earliest accounts of him, there isn't anything the reader can point to and say he Used to Be a Sweet Kid. It was "hardness, not gentleness" that made him keep silent. And in one of the first recorded conversations between Heathcliff and Hindley, it is Heathcliff bullying Hindley by reminding him which of them is Mr. Earnshaw's favorite. Certainly while Heathcliff might not have turned evil with better treatment, he came into the family less than ideal.
Face Palm: Heathcliff "struck his forehead with rage" after hearing Lockwood's raving account of his nightmares.
Gender Flipped: The BBC created a modern day adaptation of the book called Sparkhouse in 2002, where the roles of Cathy and Heathcliff are gender flipped to Andrew and Carol, respectively.
Generation Xerox: Heathcliff lampshades this about Catherine's daughter Cathy, his and Isabella's son Linton, and Hindley's son Hareton.
Genre Deconstruction: of the "poor guy runs away, becomes rich and comes back for revenge" romance genre.
Genre Savvy: Heathcliff, which gives him an advantage over the otherwise completely Genre Blind cast, save Nelly Dean.
He Who Fights Monsters: Heathcliff fought all his life to get even with the cruel, rich Hindley, By the end of it, Heathcliff is now the cruel rich guy oppressing Hindley's son Hareton.
Heroic BSOD: Heathcliff has a very energetic form of this when he learns that Catherine has died in childbirth. Specifically, he takes his anger out on a nearby tree. By smashing his forehead into it repeatedly.
Incest Subtext: While the world may never know if Catherine and Heathcliff actually are both Mr. Earnshaw's children, the fact that they were raised together as brother and sister adds an element of this to their love.
The Ingenue: Isabella Linton, who has no idea what she's getting into when she falls in love with the resident bad boy, Heathcliff.
Innocent Blue Eyes: Isabella, who is very innocent of Heathcliff's true nature until she marries him and truly believes he is Troubled, but Cute. Cathy Linton notably doesn't have these eyes while she otherwise takes after her father's side of the family.
Let Them Die Happy: Catherine (II) lies to her father Edgar upon his deathbed to assure him that she is happy with marrying Heathcliff's son Linton and he will protect her.
The Lost Lenore: Cathy Earnshaw dies. Heathcliff... fails to get over this.
Love Dodecahedron: Hindley Earnshaw's sister Catherine is in love with Heathcliff but marries Edgar Linton, whose sister Isabella marries Heathcliff, whose son Linton marries Catherne's daughter Cathy, who later falls in love with Hindley's son Hareton...
Though Heathcliff being bullied and abused in childhood may have slowly eroded his empathy and sanity. Thinking Catherine (the only one throughout his entire life who ever really loved him) hates him may have been the final straw. Or maybe when Catherine dies.
Love Redeems: Averted with Heathcliff, but played straight with Hareton.
Magical Realism: Implied. Heathcliff is sometimes compared to a demon, and there are some... odd coincidences involving ghosts and the weather. Nelly even finds herself thinking Heathcliff may be a demon, but quickly reminds herself he is human with feelings like everyone.
Moses in the Bullrushes: Heathcliff is discovered by the Earnshaws as a homeless youth and comforted as a child by Nelly telling him he is a lost prince. In hindsight, this might not have been such a good idea.
Mysterious Past: For all of Heathcliff's life that we do know, he's still made of this trope. We don't know anything about his early years, to age seven or so, or why he couldn't speak English when he first came to the Heights or what his name might have been before that time. The mystery only deepens in the three years he spends away from the Heights and somehow has made himself so rich in that time that he's bought the house from under Hindley's nose.
Narrative Profanity Filter: Averts this trope, which was so unusual at the time that an introduction written by Charlotte Brontė specifically praises Emily Brontė for not giving in to the common convention.
Obnoxious In-Laws: Heathcliff and Edgar are brothers in law and despise each other. Catherine(II) is Heathcliff's daughter in law and they despise each other. Wow.
Offscreen Villain Dark Matter: Heathcliff disappears from Wuthering Heights for three years, and comes back wealthy enough to be considered a gentleman and be able to subvert Hindley's wealth out from under him. Nobody knows how.
One Steve Limit: Averted, much to the confusion of many a school English student.
Only One Name: Heathcliff, Mr. and Mrs. Earnshaw, Mr. Lockwood, and Joseph.
Only Sane Man: Nelly Dean; and Mr. Lockwood, to an extent, as he chooses to leave Thrushcross Grange for London because he doesn't want to be involved with such strange people after he hears the story.
Nelly: "I went about my household duties, convinced that the Grange had but one sensible soul in its walls, and that it lodged in my body."
Oop North: The setting. Most strongly represented by Joseph, a gloomy and sour stereotype with an impenetrable Yorkshire accent that no one else shares. This is mainly due to the accent only being used by the lower classes, since the Lintons are gentry and the Earnshaws of sufficient means to be employing servants. Mr Lockwood notes how Nelly, the other major servant, barely sounds lower class, and she notes that she's "read more than you would fancy, Mr. Lockwood," including every book in the Linton library that isn't in Greek, Latin, or French. Given the mutual hatred between Nelly and Joseph, it wouldn't be surprising if she intentionally tried not to sound like him.
Operation Jealousy: Heathcliff uses Hareton to this effect to try to get his son interested in Cathy (II).
Shipper on Deck: Heathcliff for Cathy (II) and his son Lintonnote Hey, we always knew shipping was evil!. He succeeds through Blackmail. Nelly also eventually reveals she gave Mr. Lockwood such a meticulously thorough account of Cathy's history partially in hopes that he would affect a Rescue Romance ending for them. He declines, but it turns out Cathy didn't need him anyway.
Shout-Out: Emily Brontė was well read and alludes to a number of different works in her novel. Most notable might be "Beauty and the Beast," where a father returns home after a long trip bearing a gift for his children, only that gift brings sorrow to the family.
Stockholm Syndrome: Heathcliff brags to Nelly about how successfully he's done this to Hareton.
Sugar And Ice Guy: Mr. Lockwood. Not to any of the other characters, but he describes himself as a misanthropist, and notes that he has never been able to express his love verbally, and even drove away a woman he loved because of this.
Surprise Incest: Implied with Catherine (I) and Heathcliff, at least for some readers. There are hints that Heathcliff might be Mr. Earnshaw's illegitimate son: Mr. Earnshaw just happens to find this orphan on the streets. The streets of the town he just happens to visit on a regular basis, leaving the rest of his family squarely at home. And Mrs. Earnshaw just happens to take an instant loathing to Heathcliff the minute he enters their house. The 1970 version with Timothy Dalton certainly believed it was no coincidence.
Surrounded by Idiots: Poor Nelly was fully aware she was eventually the only sane person (possibly literally) left in Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange.
Weapon of Choice: Hindley carries "a curiously constructed pistol, having a double-edged spring knife attached to the barrel."
Awesome, but Impractical: During a struggle with Heathcliff, the gun goes off and digs the blade into Hindley's wrist, cutting the artery. If it weren't for Heathcliff's quick thinking, he would've bled out.
Wild Child: Heathcliff and Catherine (at least before she meets the Lintons and cleans up). Hareton becomes one after being left without a reasonable Parental Substitute.
Who's Your Daddy?: Some readers have debated whether or not Catherine Linton is in fact the biological child of Heathcliff and Catherine, due to the close timing of his return to the Heights and her conception. However the book mentions the strong resemblance between Cathy II and Edgar, making this unlikely.
The bigger question: Is Heathcliff the first Mr. Earnshaw's son?