Accentuate the Negative: One early episode, "Recovering Pessimist", revolved around Ray's frequent lapses into pessimism, even after he wins a national writing award. Ray declares that the reason he's like this is because he learned from the masters...cough*Frank and Marie*cough.
Robert: He is and always has been the center. The center of attention, the center of affection. He always gets the center chair in the kitchen, and this anger of which you speak, from the rest of these poor souls, stems from his unwillingness to share even the tiniest portion of the spotlight that shines without end... on him.
(He proceeds to sit down, and Ray pokes him in the buttocks)
Robert: D'OHHH! What are you doin'? What are you DOING?!
Ray: What are you doing? (sarcastically) Center chair. It's my kitchen. Get your own kitchen.
Robert: There you go, there you go, you see, because I only have a kitchenette and he loves it! Right, "Rub-it-in" Raymond? No house for me! No wife, no kids, no lawn, no NOTHIN'!
Former Teen Rebel: One early episode revolved around Marie's dismay in learning that the teenaged Ray held parties at their house while she and Frank were away, in which he drank and smoked. Another episode mentions Ray sneaking out of the house when he was a teenager to hang out at Bernie's house.
Henpecked Husband: Ray personified this trope. Unlike most, however, he wouldn't always roll over — he'd sometimes snark back at Debra...but his occasional attempts at rebellion were usually quashed pretty quickly by an icy glare (or worse) from Debra.
Obfuscating Stupidity: Hinted at often. Finally, basically outright stated in the episode where Ray and Frank talk to Robert about his wedding invitations. Also, during the "Angry Sex" episode, Ray can briefly be seen reading a book about Zen Buddhism in one scene. It was so subtle that the studio audience didn't seem to have noticed it (or perhaps were unable to see the title of the book).
Only Sane Man: Ray Barone was this, especially during the early seasons. He still performed this role later on, as despite being a whiny Man Child, he was still more together than most of his immediate family.
In Real Life: Half of the show's genesis was Ray Romano wryly observing the absurdities and wackiness of his family members (the other half was series creator and executive producer Phil Rosenthal doing the same with his own family).
Parental Favoritism: Marie made no secret of the fact that Ray was her favorite child, much to Robert's chagrin. Frank on the other hand, appeared to treat the two equally.
Ugly Guy, Hot Wife: Ugly Guy to Debra's Hot Wife, with his big nose and flabby body. Some women find him average at-worst, in reality and on the show, and he even got an attractive woman hitting on him when she didn't realize he was married, but everyone in-universe usually paints this as another example of Ray's status as "Born Lucky".
Debra: I can't believe I just did thirty-six sit-ups for a man whose stomach looks like a deflated clown balloon!
Anti-Hero: In the later seasons, she becomes psychotic, demeaning and vicious.
All Women Are Prudes: A shining example. Debra very rarely gets horny — she frequently bans sex or rejects sexual advances from the desperate, horny Ray. Ray does admit to being bad in bed, and Debra used to be more open — a few episodes show her rare "open" moments.
Jerkass: Sometimes in the early seasons. More often in the later seasons.
Karma Houdini: Played with. Ray was rarely able to one-up her outside of being lazy and snarky. Outside of Ray though, she's frequently humiliated or her plans blow up in her face, and she's never free of Marie's berating or her in-laws in general.
Laser-Guided Karma: In "Sweet Charity". Debra signs Ray up to do some charity work at a hospital, and the latter proves to be a hit with the patients. When Ray starts spending more time there than at home, Debra has Robert perform his ventriloquist act to the patients in an effort to end Ray's popularity. When the truth comes out, Debra ends up having to sing at the hospital.
No Periods, Period: The episode Bad Mood Rising didn't just avert this trope, it smashed it to pieces.
Menstrual Menace: An entire episode concerning this has been cemented into the memory of the collective fan base.
Only Sane Man: Views herself as this, and even got ignored by a visiting psychiatrist in the early seasons because Ray's family was so weird. Though, as Ray points out — the Barones are family by genetics. Debra chose to be with them. "You're messed up!"
Grouchy Frank of all people viewed himself and Debra as this, and was offended that Debra didn't enjoy his company.
Took a Level in Jerkass: In the first few seasons, Debra was pretty reasonable, generally didn't yell as much, and was quite playful with Ray. In later seasons...less so. Marie and Frank call this the natural progression of marriage.
Slap-Slap-Kiss: The Frank-Marie relationship was this to a tee. They argued with each other a lot...but it is heavily hinted in most episodes that they enjoy the witty banter, and really are deeply in love with each other.
War Is Hell: Often, when the characters would complain about something in their lives, Frank would retort "You think that's bad? Try being in Korea during the war! We didn't have [Insert Modern Convenience Here], we had to tough it out!"
All Women Are Prudes: Two of the show's funniest moments were in episodes where Marie, of all people, subverts this trope. In "Good Girls" we learn that teenaged Marie wasn't such a "good girl" and in the another episode where we learn that Frank and Marie have more sex than Ray and Debra).
Apron Matron: The one most young tropers will be most familiar with.
Slap-Slap-Kiss: The Marie-Frank relationship was this to a tee. They argued with each other a lot...but it is heavily hinted in most episodes that they enjoy the witty banter, and really are deeply in love with each other.
Big Guy: Being the tallest character in a main cast
Blonde, Brunette, Redhead: His three loves: Redheaded Joanne (his bitchy ex-wife), Amy, (his blonde on again, off again girlfriend), and Stefania, (his Italian love interest with the curly brown hair).
Butt Monkey: One of the show's most prominent running gags was Robert's continual status as the family's resident Butt Monkey. Marie only treated Debra more poorly.
Character Development: During the first season, it seemed like the writers were writing the character as being borderline autistic and so quirky and neurotic that it was genuinely amazing that he was able to function at all (especially as a policeman). By the later seasons, though, Robbie became much more confident and outgoing and finally married Amy. The eighth season even had an episode where Robbie is made to confront his "crazy chin" habit.
The Chew Toy: At some points, his misery becomes the central point to his character.
New York City Cops: He is one, as is his best friend (and partner on the force), Judy. They both avert the "grim and gritty" stereotypes that some shows use.
Not So Different: Robert and Amy's brother, Peter. Robert comes to realize the similarities when the family talks about Peter's problems including him being a Basement-Dweller. In the end, he helps Peter find his own place.
Robert: Oooh, you have an arch-enemy. What are you, a super-hero now?
Only Known by Their Nickname: Not technically true, but she was usually called "Peggy Hitler", "The Cookie Nazi" or "Cookie Hitler Lady", especially by Ray.
Ray:*continuing the Nazi comparison* Similar uniform too!
Smug Snake: When Ray objects to Peggy forcing all the kids' parents to buy $200+ dollar dresses to Molly's birthday party, Peggy sneers at him that Ally will stick out like her father's nose. There are other examples of Peggy being this trope.
Henry "Hank" McDougall
Meaningful Name: He's the polar opposite of Frank...and note the names: Hank vs. Frank.
Preacher Man: Not officially a preacher, but as a devout evangelical Protestant, he certainly acted and spoke like one.
Cool Old Lady: Somewhat surprisingly, but very entertaining in every instance when it occurs.
Ray even calls her cool at Rob and Amy's wedding, after she says to Marie what the rest of the family has been wanting to say for years.
The Cutie: Not only is she this trope, but she apparently raised Amy to also personify the trope.
Deadpan Snarker: Actually NOT one most of the time, but there was one awesome instance where she suddenly became this trope. After she and Hank get rid of a bunch of Peter's stuff and throw his cat, Miss Puss, out of the house, Peter shrieks "No! NO! Miss Puss is an indoors cat!!!!", to which Pat simply replies "Not anymore!"
The Pollyanna: Though not quite as much as we're initially led to believe...
The Other Darrin: Originally played by Paul Reubens when the character briefly appeared once in the early seasons, then recast with Chris Elliot when the character reappeared several seasons later and stuck around as a recurring character this time. Also, oddly enough, the character's name changed from "Russell" to "Peter", with no explanation, although it was clearly intended to be the same comic shop-owning character.
Real Life Writes the Plot: According to IMDb, the reason for the recast was that after his cameo appearance, Reubens was arrested on child pornography charges. This caused Ray Romano to object to him being part of the show's cast.