Mysterious Past: He says he's a farmer. Raoden is less than convinced. He was actually the son of an Elantrian, who went off to become a farmer due to the issue of being a non-Elantrian living in Elantris. He only went back to Elantris because he got the Shaod anyway.
Heel-Face Turn: She allies with Raoden, knowing who he really is, once he helps her get to the palace to see her daughter again.
Heroic Sacrifice: Aids Galladon in distracting the soldiers who could potentially stop Raoden from saving Elantris (though only Raoden actually knew what he was doing at the time). Unlike Galladon, who is impaled, she is decapitated, meaning she does not come back.
Defeat Means Friendship: Subverted. She always tells her men to kill Raoden and anyone with him, but, after Raoden undermines her authority, her men kill her.
Hair of Gold, Heart of Gold: Subverted in-universe. Her gang treats her like a goddess because of her apparent head of blonde hair, but it's a wig she's had for her life due to being unable to grow hair.
Politically-Active Princess: By age twenty-five, she's been serving for a long while as an (apparently highly-ranked) member of her father's diplomatic corps, and both she and others note her appreciation for (and skill at) political games.
Sarene's uncle and the brother of the king of Teod.
An Axe to Grind: There's a big, badass axe hanging over his mantle. And he knows how to use it pretty damned well.
Badass Normal: When confronted with Dakhor monks, he kills one by himself with an axe, then it takes three of them to restrain him. Even after that, he still kicks at them, necessitating that they knock him unconscious to stop his resistance. This man has nothing but his physical strength going for him.
Destructive Savior: Sees himself as a saviour. Ended up causing a bloody revolution in another country, and despite his efforts to make his next attempt more peaceful, is involved in the near-destruction of two others.
Even Evil Has Standards: He's trying to demonize the Elantrians for political purposes, but he still finds Dilaf's attempt to publicly burn one to death sick, and has his Heel-Face Turn in response to finding out about the Final Solution plan for Teod and Arelon.
Green-Eyed Monster: Mildly toward Raoden near the finale for having Sarene's love, though he didn't realize it at the time.
Dragon with an Agenda: Subverted. He spends most of the novel acting as though he rode Hrathen's coattails to power so he could then use said power to incite people against Elantris but actually, he's acting on orders to do exactly that from his and Hrathen's mutual boss. Not that he didn't enjoy every minute, mind.
Knight Templar: To better contrast Hrathens Well-Intentioned Extremist. Hrathen genuinely wants to save lives and souls, even if he resorts to ruthless and underhanded methods to do it; Dilaf just subscribes to the "murder the unbelievers and let Jaddeth sort them out" school of Shu-Dereth.
Start of Darkness: He was a Fjordell priest sent to spy on Arelon, but he became the mask and fell in love with an Arelish woman, who he married. She later fell very sick, and he took her to Elantris for healing—but the healer botched the job and turned her into a proto-Elantrian of the post-Reod instead, ultimately turning her into a Hoed when she was Driven to Suicide and tried to jump off a cliff. Dilaf put her out of her misery, but the act of doing so caused his mind to snap. Returning to the Derethi faith with a passion, he vowed to destroy Elantris utterly in revenge.