This entry is trivia, which is cool and all, but not a trope. On a work, it goes on the Trivia tab.

Sleeper Hit

"At that time, no one knew that this small work called Gundam was to become a legendary anime, shaking the very foundation of Japan."

Any work that becomes an unexpected success upon its release, usually through word of mouth. Either the work slipped under the fandom and critics' radar during production, it was dismissed as outright crap based just on previews, or the company/publisher didn't have much faith in it and neglected its promotion, yet it managed to get sizable box offices or sales. It might make an impact on the fandom collective and become a Cult Classic, or be a matter of Quality by Popular Vote and be forgotten quickly: the point being, it exceeded expectations.

It may start a Cash Cow Franchise, and spawn cases of Follow the Leader. It might even start a whole new genre.

Supertrope of And You Thought It Would Fail, where the work is actively derided before release and still ends up being a hit. Compare to Ensemble Darkhorse, when a character in a show/film/etc. becomes unexpectedly popular. If it takes longer than just its initial release to become popular, then it has been Vindicated by History instead.

Compare Colbert Bump. Contrast Acclaimed Flop, where a work flops in terms of box office or ratings but does well with critics and audiences, and Critic-Proof, in which a popular blockbuster/franchise gets a lot of bad publicity, despite being a box office hit.


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    Anime & Manga 
  • Osomatsu-san: The series was based off of an older, more famous one, but it was expected to have moderate success thanks to nostalgia. However, the show was one of the breakout hits of the Fall 2015 Anime lineup and outsold everyone on the Lineup for its first BD release. Even the staff has no idea how it became so radically successful.
  • K-On! went from being an unknown Yonkoma to a marketing juggernaut when it was adapted into a Twelve-Episode Anime by Kyoto Animation. The first series was popular enough to spawn a second series and the second series was given a 26 episode run and a movie side story was released which became the highest grossing film to be based from a late night series, until Puella Magi Madoka Magica the Movie: Rebellion topped its record.
  • This happened Kyoto Animation adapted the Haruhi Suzumiya Light Novels, which had limited underground success up to that point.
  • Mobile Suit Gundam, as noted in Gundam Sousei and in the page quote. Other entries in the franchise have also experienced a similar trend, gaining popularity after they're first aired.
  • Hear now the tale of Elfen Lied, a show that was so drenched in blood and nudity that even in Japan it could only air on satellite TV as an advertisement. It was cancelled after one season...and purely by word of mouth, nearly every anime club in America heard about it and it became one of the top-selling anime of 2005, much to everyone's surprise (but too late to get it Un-Cancelled in Japan).
  • Tiger & Bunny. According to several articles, T&B was an unexpected success in both ratings and DVD/Blu-ray sales — and this has put a lot of pressure on Sunrise's next projects.
  • Attack on Titan. The mangaka originally sent the manuscript to Shonen Jump, but was rejected, and the manga ended up in Bessatsu Shonen Magazine, a monthly offshoot of Weekly Shonen Magazine. At the time, it was a new magazine that was in need of a real hit. It soon became one of the best selling manga in Japan, triggering a high-budget anime adaptation that boosted its sales even further, to the point of having all 10 previously released volumes making to list of best sellers for some weeks.
  • Deadman Wonderland certainly qualifies, albeit in the United States. After a lukewarm reception in Japan, the show got cancelled and the rights were practically given away to FUNimation. When it became part of [adult swim]'s revival of Toonami, however, the show became an unexpected hit for the new block, with later episodes topping one million viewers.
  • Many people didn't give much thought to Kotoura-san when it was first released, since they believed it was just another standard Romantic Comedy. However, when word about the Break the Cutie Downer Beginning that was the first ten minutes of the first episode and Kotoura's Woobie status began to spread, the popularity of the show immediately spiked and there was sudden interest in the original 4koma material.
  • For an anime initially expected to cater to a small niche, Girls und Panzer was a breakout hit in Japan. Its Blu-rays have been selling about 28,000 copies each, where a typical successful series does well to sell 6,000. And thanks to its popularity, it managed to help out another sleeper hit in the process: World of Tanks (as explained below).
  • Robotech began as a very obscure show that many TV stations bought only because to them they assumed due to the name it would be just like other "robot shows" of the time such as The Transformers and Challenge Of The Go Bots. Despite probably knowing that it was a Japanese import, they also probably assumed it would probably follow the same route as Voltron by removing graphic violence, death, and mature themes. When it was realized (too late after buying the show) that Robotech was a serious show that emphasized the human elements, mature themes, realistic violence and death of the original anime series, many stations immediately relegated the show to unusual early morning timeslots, sometimes as early as 6:00 am. Some stations truncated the show's run. Word of mouth spread about how this show was different from other cartoons at the time. The show became the crest of the first wave of anime fandom outside of Japan as well as being a science fiction franchise in its own right, inspiring a series of besteslling novelizations and numerous comic book series. To many purists, the show is the original example of the trope Macekre (not due to being the trope namer, which would actually be the late Carl Macek, the producer of the show, being his first foray into such), but to this day, Robotech retains a historical significance due to the fact that it was Fair for Its Day.
  • Demon King Daimao had a very average reception in Japan, where it was written off as an action and fanservice show. In the U.S., however, it got good ratings on the Anime Network, only rivaling Highschool of the Dead. As a result, it was able to get an English dub, and its DVDs were able to sell just as good as HOTD, CLANNAD and Angel Beats!. Was it the fanservice or the action that got its attention? Regardless, it's a rather odd example of this, seeing as there doesn't seem to be much of a fanbase compared with the other shows.
  • Pretty Cure:
    • Despite being one of the biggest modern day cash cow franchises in Japan today (rivaling even its much older contemporaries in Super Sentai, Kamen Rider, and even One Piece), the original Pretty Cure series started off as one. Many anime fans initially wrote it off as just another Magical Girl series, but when word spread that it had high octane action you would normally find in the likes of a shounen action series than a show aimed at girls, the popularity kicked off, increasing the episode length from its original 26 episodes to 49, and then a second season, while having higher ratings as it went on, and the rest is history. It also allowed series like Mai Hime and especially Lyrical Nanoha to be accepted as good shows in their own right and not just normal magical girl shows, probably because of how Pretty Cure defied the idea, and them following in its footsteps allowed them to become popular as well, reviving a genre then almost dead in Japan.
    • Maho Girls Precure itself was this. Before it's release, the Pretty Cure franchise had declining ratings and merchandise sales due to the surprise successes of Frozen and PriPara amongst the target audience. Then Maho Girls Pretty Cure came, with a storyline many young kids could relate to, the main characters being able to use magic to do anything they wanted, from changing their clothes to making food for their friends, a mascot who is treated as a main character, and beautiful, collectible stone charms as the key item for the series, going on to become the most successful Pretty Cure series since Heart Catch Pretty Cure.
  • Axis Powers Hetalia began as an online webcomic back in 2003. Since then, it's gotten expanded manga volumes, an anime series (with currently five seasons) and even a movie. That it also garnered an international fanbase of sorts, if not a vibrant online presence definitely helps.
  • CLANNAD first appeared in the U.S. only in a subbed version.note  The series became known as a modern classic, and Sentai Filmworks released dubs for both the first series and ~After Story~. This ended up leading to a very successful Kickstarter campaign to license the original visual novel for an official English release.
  • Puella Magi Madoka Magica was initially pitched as a 13 episode series before it became a 12 episode series. It became a breakout hit thanks to the mind screw, the dark brooding storyline, and the playing of common magical girl tropes. It's now among the most profitable franchises, raking in over 40 billion yen in merchandising.
  • Rage of Bahamut: Genesis was on almost nobody's radars before it aired. An Animated Adaptation of a moderately successful fantasy card game is not what most people think of when they hear the words 'compelling story pitch', and even the impressive staff and shiny trailers weren't enough to stoke serious interest for what was assumed to be a cheap, plot-devoid cash-grab. Then the show actually aired, and phrases like "anime Pirates of the Caribbean" started getting thrown around as reviewers were drawn in by its swashbuckling charm and stellar production values.
  • Yo Kai Watch went from an unknown video game to a marketing juggernaut when the anime came out. At one point, like Frozen below, the merchandise sold out and was scarce to find, mostly the medals and the watch, until nearly a year after the show premiered.
  • Omamori Himari is a fairly obscure manga in Japan, but became incredibly popular in North America, with multiple books on best-seller lists for manga and even topping long runners like One Piece, Fairy Tail and (almost) even Sailor Moon.
  • My Hero Academia became an unexpected hit. The mangaka had two previous short-lived attempts, and the one-shot the series was based on wasn't that well received. In America, Naruto fans looked to it as a series that could fill the void after it ended, and in Japan, it managed to out-rank One Piece, Weekly Shonen Jump's current flagship series, at one point.
  • The animated adaptation of School-Live! became the hit anime of Summer 2015 during its airing despite it not being hyped as one of the most anticipated anime before that thanks to its misleading premise. Its success led to a very high rise in manga sales as a result, becoming one of the best-selling manga at the time.
  • Arpeggio of Blue Steel: Ars Nova was not expected to become one of the more acclaimed manga adaptations during the Fall 2013 Anime season, as its source manga filled a rather niche readership. However, it gathered so much critical acclaim that, in the following year, famed magazine Newtype handed out fan-selected prizes to various shows, and among them Ars Nova won several top prizes (as well as many runner ups), lining it up along hit shows like Kill la Kill.note 
  • Pokémon, Dragon Ball Z, and Sailor Moon were this in the west. Anime was still proving it's viability to an international audience in the late 90s, and both Dragon Ball Z and Sailor Moon had done poorly in US syndication before finally finding their audience on Toonami in 1998. The mainstream success of all three shows in North America took almost everyone involved with them by surprise. In addition, shows like Tenchi Muyo!, Ranma ˝, Slayers, and Neon Genesis Evangelion were among the first anime to find wide audiences and fanbases in North America, far exceeding any expectations.

    Card Games 
  • Magic: The Gathering was shopped around for a while until a little company called Wizards of the Coast, whose only call to fame was being the holder of the Ars Magica RPG franchise, decided to give it a go. Amusingly, Magic itself is known to have Sleeper Hit cards.

    Comic Books 
  • The Superior Foes of Spider-Man was originally only planned for a 12-issue miniseries, but the book proved so unexpectedly popular and well-received that Marvel extended it into an ongoing. Several solicitations for the series lampshaded this, one of which even used the term Sleeper Hit.
  • X-Men '92 was a 5-issue mini-series designed for Secret Wars (2015). However, unlike Old Man Logan, which was already popular and planning to become a full-fledged series in the All-New, All-Different Marvel lineup, this one took everyone by surprise, leading to them approving of an ongoing in 2016.

    Comic Strips 
  • Pearls Before Swine was this, according to Stephan Pastis. The sales staff at United Features Syndicate didn't think the strip was going to sell, so it was placed online-only on the syndicate's website for about a year (while common today, this was unheard of back when "Pearls" began). What got it launched in newspapers was that Scott Adams, of Dilbert, was a fan of the strip and endorsed it on his newsletter. The readership increased as a result, and with Adams' support, the sales staff now had enough clout to get it sold to newspapers. It's now appearing in over 750 newspapers, has over a dozen book collections, and was even turned into an animated web series.

    Films — Animation 
  • An American Tail debuted at a time when no-one had been able to top Disney in the animated film department. But a combination of a lack of real competition in the box office (Disney thought re-releasing Lady and the Tramp and Song of the South in theaters would stop it dead, which it didn't), having Steven Spielberg's name attached, and a popular Award Bait Song made it the highest grossing animated film ever at the time. This scared Disney enough to start trying to step up their game.
  • Coraline was generally low-priority in terms of marketing because it didn't fit the mold of a typical children's film. But it was met with critical acclaim and became moderately popular, and even a little notorious for its pushing the PG rating.
  • Despicable Me managed to net a terrific gross and critical reception, especially impressive given it was the debut for Universal's Illumination Studios and came out in the same year as How to Train Your Dragon, Toy Story 3, and Tangled, and even outdid dueling film Megamind, despite that film being from an established studio. The blockbuster success of its sequel and the Minions spin-off have most certainly turned it into a bankable Cash Cow Franchise.
  • After the financial failures of Pinocchio and Fantasia on their initial releases (they've since been Vindicated by History), Disney planned for his next feature Dumbo to be a faster, low-budget "filler" movie that clocked in at only 64 minutes, something that even their distributor RKO had doubts about. It went on to become Disney's biggest hit since Snow White.
  • Frozen is one of the biggest pop culture phenomenon sleeper hit ever in terms of animated films, and can be considered among the top unexpected sleeper hits period for the following reasons:
    • The movie was expected to be a middling-to-modest success for Disney and earn somewhere around $170 million in North America (less than Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph). Its trailers also caused many people, Disney fans included, to have low expectations of the film's quality and appeal to non-kid audiences. Then, the web-exclusive trailer focusing on Elsa (in other words, the main story and premise) and unexpectedly rave reviews and word of mouth started spreading, and it not only held up exceptionally well against The Hunger Games: Catching Fire and The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug but out-grossed higher-profile films that had bigger opening weekends like Man of Steel, Despicable Me 2 and the aforementioned Hobbit, and dethroned The Lion King as Disney's highest-grossing animated film of all time, then Toy Story 3 for the highest-grossing animated film of all time, over $1 billion worldwide, in the Top 10 of all time, then Iron Man 3 as the highest-grossing movie of 2013 and Top 5 of all time; it was so massive it indirectly caused Walking with Dinosaurs to flop. It was even number 9 at the box office the weekend before the DVD came out.
    • And this is not even mentioning how well the soundtrack has done, with 13 weeks and counting atop the charts and more than 4 million copies sold in the U.S. alone, all fueled by the unexpected and unbelievable popularity of "Let It Go" (which alone has countless covers/parodies, Idina Menzel's first song to get into the Top 10 on Billboard charts, Top 5 on the charts despite zero airplay, a New Years-party-style nationwide sing-along on Good Morning America, a CD set with 50 different language versions of the song, and an Academy Award win for Best Original Song). When all was said and done, it was named the best-selling album of 2014 by Billboard magazine.
    • What makes it even more amazing? Every single one of the above mentioned milestones happened less than a year after the movie came out.
    • Disney later began taking full advantage of the movie's sleeper popularity, with the two years since Frozen's release announcing a sequel, making an ice show, planning for a Broadway show, a crossover in Once Upon a Time, creating the Frozen Fever short, a ride in Epcot due for 2016, several additional attractions in Hollywood Studios, and the parks' popular Christmas Day parade being ReTooled into the one-off Frozen Christmas Celebration, among others.
    • Additionally, the movie became a smash success in Japan, taking first place for 16 consecutive weekends at the box office and earning nearly $250 million. This is despite the fact that Tangled and Wreck-It Ralph each earned about $30 million in the country. It eventually became the highest-grossing Western Animation film in Japan and third highest grossing film ever in Japan, below only Spirited Away and Titanic.
    • It was also a sleeper in terms of The Merch. Disney produced an amount based on the sales of their last two fairy tale films (and to a lesser extent, their previous Disney Animated Canon film Wreck-It Ralph). It wasn't until the 2014 Christmas season that supply was finally able to meet demand.
    • Forbes argues that Disney intentionally undersold Frozen to set up a sleeper hit. Marketing initially played up the comic-relief Kid-Appeal Character Olaf as a major factor, and generally acted like the movie was going to be a formulaic Disney kid-flick that adults should only go to because their kids dragged them there. Once there, of course, they got a princess adventure with Multiple Demographic Appeal and an awe-inspiring ballad in the middle, and word of mouth did the rest. Disney was so confident that they had a winner that they were willing to let it sell itself, and it worked.
  • How to Train Your Dragon started out in first place, but was quickly knocked down after its disappointing premiere weekend. Word of mouth of its sheer brilliance took it back to the top in a month.
  • Inside Out, having a mainly-female cast of main characters, was expected to not fare as well as previous movies. Then people actually watched it and had very positive reactions to it, scoring a 98% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, becoming Pixar's biggest original success since Toy Story, and fully helping them Win Back the Crowd after a string of lackluster films. Although Jurassic World caused it to become the first Pixar film not to open at #1, Inside Out holds the honor of having the highest grossing opening not at #1 of all time (the previous champion being The Day After Tomorrow), as well as the highest-grossing Thursday opening of any animated film. And even within that, the character of Bing Bong could be considered this. He was kept a secret by the filmmakers until merchandise came out, but he later became such an Ensemble Darkhorse that plushies of him became one of the hard-to-find Christmas toys of 2015, selling for double the retail price; essentially, Bing Bong became the new Olaf.
    • The movie is also starting to become a cash cow for Disney due to it's surprise success, but not as big as Frozen was. The film was one of the best-selling DVDs and Blu-rays of 2015, merchandise is still being produced long after the movie's release, a Disney On Ice show where the movie is the show's main narrative has been produced and a successful meet and greet has taken place at Walt Disney World.
  • Kung Fu Panda is definitely a major example. Based on humorous clips in the trailers and the choice of having Jack Black voice the main character, many expected it to be a comedic satire of Martial Arts Movies. Much to everyone's surprise, the film was actually faithful to Chinese culture and had a powerful, dramatic storyline. Even China commended it as the way to do a Kung Fu movie. The film has since replaced Shrek as DreamWorks's Cash Cow Franchise.
  • Similar to Frozen above, The LEGO Movie was released in early February, considered for the most part to be a dump month for movies, and was expected to be a modest success at best. But then the awesome reviews and word of mouth started pouring in, and the film dominated the box office with the second highest February opening of all time and stayed on top for three weeks, beating out films such as RoboCop (2014) and The Monuments Men with ease, and ultimately grossing more than $400 million worldwide.note  The film's surprise success has guaranteed it a sequel, set for release in Summer 2017.
  • Most Disney executives thought that The Lion King was not going to make much money while Pocahontas was going to be the next big hit. The former was and still is the highest grossing hand-drawn animated film of all time.
  • Though it was only a limited release during June 2013 (it was originally intended to be a simple Made-for-TV Movie), and its initial announcement was met with ire from fans, My Little Pony: Equestria Girls actually was a huge success due to its parent show's massive fandom and the fact that it wasn't the clichéd Monster High ripoff said fandom expected it to be. Many screenings played to sold-out houses, causing more showtimes to be added to the movie's original showtimes. Later on, Hasbro/DHX got the hint to create two follow-up movies (Rainbow Rocks was released in September 2014, while Friendship Games was released September 2015), with a third headed for Netflix in 2016. It also helps that the toys and other merch sells very well.
  • The Prince of Egypt is buried under many of DreamWorks Animation's later CGI successes, but it opened in second on its opening weekend and was the highest grossing non-Disney animated film until Chicken Run and the highest grossing non-Disney 2D animated film until The Simpsons Movie.
  • Disney had little faith in Robin Hood to the point that they had to resort to re-using animation from previous animated films. It still became a commercial success.
  • Similar to the HTTYD example, The Sponge Bob Square Pants Movie was not expected to do well, given the recent track run of Nicktoon-based movies, all of which were beaten out by Disney films.note  Positive word of mouth shot the movie to #2 on its first weekend, only beaten by another Disney effort, and then to #1 on its second weekend. Before Sponge out of Water was released, it was the second highest-grossing 2D theatrical adaptation of a Nicktoon (the first being The Rugrats Movie).
    • The Sponge Bob Movie Sponge Out Of Water repeated the trick. It was originally expected to have a $30-40 million opening weekend but ended up grossing more than $50 million. It became the #1 movie in America (knocking American Sniper from the top spot) and not only scored the second-highest opening for an animated film based on a TV show (after The Simpsons Movie), but dethroned Scooby-Doo for the highest-grossing opening weekend for a Live-Action Adaptation of a TV show aimed at children.note  This surprise success made SpongeBob the only Nicktoon to date to have all of its movies top the box office for at least one weekend. It also made more than the previous film and became the highest-grossing animated Nicktoon-based film (beating Rugrats' record) in just two weeks! The success of this film has many fans of traditionally-animated films hoping that this will cause 2D animated films to come back in style. Due to this, like Frozen above, The Merch of the film sold out and took months to meet demand.
  • Tangled wasn't expected to do particularly well, given that Disney's previous princess movie was a relative disappointment in terms of ticket and merchandise sales. It went on to make $591 million (more than any other Disney animated movie at the time excluding The Lion King) and the main character Rapunzel went on to become one of Disney's most popular princesses.
  • Many viewers were initially worried that Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit would not do well outside of its native England, given that the series is not well-known in America. When it was released though, it was well-received by American audiences and ended up topping the box office there. Though given the North American success of Chicken Run, which was made by the same studio, was it really a surprise?
  • Many people thought Zootopia would mainly be just a breather movie before Disney's next princess film and that its domestic box office grosses would be in line with Big Hero 6's at best (i.e. a little over $200 million). Then reviews and word-of-mouth spread about how Zootopia wasn't just a really good film but also a highly topical story about prejudice and it broke Frozen's record for the highest-grossing opening for a Disney Animation Studios film, as well as having the fourth highest March opening for any film.
  • The Secret Life of Pets was not expected to do well, and was expected to only make as much as Illumination's films that weren't Despicable Me. But good word of mouth, along with a Minions short at the beginning of the film, helped the movie become successful. It topped the box office for two weeks and beat out Ice Age: Collision Course on its opening weekend.
  • Sausage Party was practically an Audience-Alienating Premise when trailers for the film were finally released. It's an R-rated lowbrow comedy starring Seth Rogen and features anthropomorphic food engaging in a lot of raunchy humor. So naturally, many people expected it to fail. However, upon release, it was critically acclaimed and managed to make back its budget, with most people saying that the film is Better Than It Sounds.

    Films — Live-Action 
  • The Blair Witch Project was a small, independent horror flick, made with just three no-name actors and a few handheld cameras for $25,000. It turned out to be a monstrous success; not only did it help jumpstart the found-footage horror movie, it grossed nearly $250 million dollars, or ten-thousand times its budget, and still holds the world record for highest cost-to-profit margin of a film, ever.
  • Star Wars is a really notorious case. It's hard to believe now, but the movie was expected to tank. 20th Century Fox had such little faith in it that they gave a mild surplus to Damnation Alley instead. It only opened in 37 theaters. Word of mouth convinced 20th Century Fox to give it a proper release.
    Mark Hamill: We didn't even have a poster. [beat] There was no poster!
  • Jaws ended up the first film to gross $100 million domestically (unadjusted for inflation), but the film was plagued by a Troubled Production, with Universal refusing to fund some parts (which were paid for elsewhere) to avoid losing money on the film. After all, this was only the second theatrical film by Steven Spielberg, and his first film didn't make money (Duel didn't really count since it was made for TV and just released theatrically in Europe). So this movie was also a sleeper for Spielberg's film career.
  • The Sixth Sense is another famous case. It was created by a then-unknown first-time director, released in the doldrums of August, and stunned everyone by riding a tidal wave of "You HAVE to see this movie's twist!" word of mouth to come in second to only The Phantom Menace in 1999 box office grosses.
  • It Happened One Night is arguably the original example. The film was made on a low budget by a small studio and a director that had yet to make a name for himself. Columbia had little faith in the film, and spent almost nothing on advertising, while both of it's stars wanted to distance themselves from the project. The film was originally released to average box office, but positive word-of-mouth eventually spread, and the film amassed a huge cult following, especially in rural areas. It later went on to sweep the Oscars in 1935, unheard of at the time for a smaller movie.
  • Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl became this when everyone got a good look at Captain Jack Sparrow. Before the film's release, everyone expected it to do horribly because it was based (however, loosely) on a theme park ride, not to mention the fact that pirate movies almost always end up being huge box-office bombs.
  • My Big Fat Greek Wedding started off slow, but eventually grossed nearly $250 million on a $5 million budget. It also holds the world record for highest-grossing movie to never have a #1 spot at the box office.
  • The Ring's success by word-of-mouth caused the Japanese horror remake craze back in the 2000s.
  • Forrest Gump. Before release, it was only expected to be a modest hit at best and had a smaller than usual opening of 1,500 theatres (at the time, 2,000 theatres was the expected release for a big movie). Excellent word of mouth from sneak previews helped make the film a long runner.
  • Blade was not only a sleeper hit, it probably resurrected the comic book movie genre after Batman & Robin killed it. When Blade came out in 1998 it was thought to be a niche, genre-bending action/horror flick, and in fact the advertising for the film never even mentioned it was a comic-based movie. But all of the elements came together under Wesley Snipes' steely performance, and word of mouth made the film into a hit, spawning two sequels and convincing Marvel to pull X-Men out of some 20 years of Development Hell to get it out two years later. After that, the flood gates opened and comic book movies have been a staple of the summer action season ever since.
  • When the first Twilight movie went into production, no one realized how big the fanbase was. This is plenty evidenced by the fact that it was produced by an independent film studio, Summit Entertainment, with a then-unknown cast and cheap special effects. As the release approached, however, it became steadily more and more obvious that the books' fangirls were going to turn the movie into a hit and the media quickly picked up on it. This resulted in a weird situation in which essentially a low-budget indie was being being hyped as a blockbuster. Of course, after the first one came out, Summit realized what a profitable franchise they had on their hands and the sequels were budgeted accordingly, hence bigger actors for roles not already cast and better effects.
  • Paranormal Activity was picked up by Steven Spielberg after seeing a screener copy in 2007 with the intent to remake the film. After two years on the shelf, Paramount canceled the remake and released the original in a few markets as a midnight movie. After excellent word of mouth and demand for more showings, the studio first allowed it to be shown all day and then went wide in the fourth week after reaching the Top 5 in its third week (doing so in just 160 theatres, a record for the fewest theatres for a film to reach the Top 5). The film grossed over $100 million and the sequels keep on coming.
  • The first Scream movie was initially dismissed as yet another entry into the beaten-like-a-dead-horse slasher genre, and it made only $6 million on its opening weekend. Word of mouth eventually pushed its theatrical take to $103 million, guaranteeing it three sequels and a wave of copycats. Today, Scream is regarded as a classic horror film.
  • The Bourne Identity had tested horribly for Universal and its Summer 2001 release date was pushed back in order to do extensive reshoots on the film. When it opened, it was expected to flop against rival studio tentpole films Scooby-Doo and Windtalkers. Then reviews and word-of-mouth managed to be surprisingly good and became a Long Runner in theatres, grossing over $100 million in the process. The success spawned three sequels.
  • Babe was a $30 million Australian/US co-production with no stars and a Talking Animal lead that wasn't expected to make its budget back in the summer of 1995. After a decent $9 million opening, near-unanimous critical and audience acclaim got to finish with a $64 million gross and an additional $190 million overseas. The film also got seven Academy Award nominations, including a Best Picture nomination (winning for Best Visual Effects), a sequel and a long life on VHS and DVD.
  • Se7en had tested badly with audiences and was slotted into the dumping ground of September against the higher-publicized Showgirls with the hope that the film's star power would allow it to break even. Then the critics responded in praise and with audiences agreeing, the film managed to spend four weeks at the top spot. The film went on to gross $327 million worldwide and launched David Fincher's directing career.
  • Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery was considered a throwaway project for New Line Cinema as Mike Myers had not had a successful project post-Saturday Night Live and the film had the worst test screenings in the history of the studio. Expected to die quickly in the heat of the Summer 1997 movies (such as The Lost World: Jurassic Park and The Fifth Element), the film opened decently but kept on going to a final gross in the U.S. of $50 million. But when it hit video, it started a phenomenon that led it to be the most rented movie in 1997 (and still in the Top 10 one year later) and two sequels (with a third in the works) have been made since. The sequel made more in its opening weekend than the first film did in its entire theatrical run and become one of the top-grossing pictures of 1999.
  • Boyz n the Hood was a low-budget urban film that was only intended to be given a small release until two events happened: 1. The film premiering to mass acclaim at the Cannes Film Festival, and 2. Columbia's big Summer 1991 film Radio Flyer getting pushed back due to reshoots, which led Columbia to slot the small production it is place. Even against strong blockbusters Terminator 2: Judgment Day and Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and violence breaking out at some screenings, the film managed to gross over $50 million, made director John Singleton the youngest Best Director nominee in the history of the Academy Awards, launched the film careers of Ice Cube and Cuba Gooding Jr. and almost single-handedly launched the African American film industry in the 1990s.
  • Bonnie and Clyde. Jack Warner regretted his decision to put the film into production the moment he read the script, as he felt that the audience wouldn't cheer for the outlaws. Warner Bros. had so little faith in the film that they tried to bury it with a release in the doldrums of August 1967, and offered star and producer Warren Beatty 40% of the gross instead of a minimal fee. Despite a glowing reception at the Montreal Film Festival, it received mixed reviews from American critics — while Roger Ebert gave it four stars, many others were put off by its juxtaposition of comedy and (for the time) gratuitous violence. Young Baby Boomers, however, loved it, turning it into a blockbuster and a pop culture sensation that was nominated for ten Oscars (winning two). Beatty became a very wealthy man as a result of his 40% gross, allowing him to do pretty much anything he wanted, while Faye Dunaway became one of the hottest leading ladies in Hollywood. Time magazine, which originally panned the film, featured it on its cover that December. The New York Times even fired its staff critic Bosley Crowther over his panning of the film, feeling him to be out of touch with the modern moviegoing public, and replaced him with Pauline Kael, who had praised the film in an op-ed in The New Yorker. Now, it's recognized as one of the foundational films of the New Hollywood era.
  • While The Hunger Games was the adaptation of a very successful book, no one expected the third best opening weekend ever (especially since it was not opening during a summer month reserved for tentpoles, but in March), or that in three weeks it would pass the $300 million mark, and it would end up with over $400 million, among the top 15 of all time in North America. Industry experts undersold it as the next Twilight and Harry Potter; it outgrossed the domestic totals of every movie of those series with its first iteration, and then the second film topped that mark. And within the third sequel Mockingjay Part 1, the song "Hanging Tree" is merely sung by Jennifer Lawrence in character as Katniss, but on iTunes it outdid the movie's actual pop single, Lorde's "Yellow Flicker Beat" which barely cracked the top 40 despite a Golden Globe nomination.
  • The Denzel Washington/Ryan Reynolds film Safe House was released in the January/February dumping ground and wasn't expected to do much business, but surprisingly the film stayed in theaters for 3 months and made well over 200 million worldwide.
  • The film adaption of Think Like A Man was projected at a $15 million opening, but surprisingly, the opening weekend tally was over $30 million, double what analysts predicted (analysts are rarely ever this off the mark), mostly thanks to positive word of mouth from preview screenings and marketing it well to its demographic. It opened up at number #1 at the box-office, finally knocking Hunger Games down from the top spot that it had held for 4 weeks straight.
  • The highest grossing film of 1987? Not Lethal Weapon or Beverly Hills Cop II or other big-budget action extravaganzas, but Three Men and a Baby, which took in $167m, the equivalent of over $300m today, on just a $11m budget.
  • Opening against Apollo 13, Clueless managed to make back its budget several times over and received critical acclaim.
  • There's Something About Mary wasn't a huge hit at first and only got a small release, but positive word of mouth shot it to the top of the box-office on it's 8th week of release, making back it's 23 million dollar budget more then 15 times over, as well as catapulting Ben Stiller and Cameron Diaz into the limelight.
  • Crocodile Dundee was only expected to be a modest hit, but it ended earning over $300 million worldwide and becoming both the second-highest grossing film of 1986 (only behind Top Gun) and the highest grossing Australian film of all time.
  • The King's Speech was normally expected to be your basic UK-based period film that would be liked by the big cities and do nothing everywhere else. Then the film won the People's Choice Award (the grand prize) at the Toronto Film Festival and with a Holiday season opening as well as heaps of acclaim, grossed over $400 million worldwide on just a $15 million budget. It also won four Academy Awards (including Best Picture and Best Actor).
  • In addition to The King's Speech, no one could’ve expected Black Swan to be as big a hit as it was. An extremely disturbing Mind Screw released around Christmas lead many to think that it would only appeal to artsy and in-the-know cinephiles. However, thanks to the critical acclaim, the shoo-in-for-Oscar performance of Natalie Portman, and of course, the people just there for the sexual content it wound up grossing over $100 million in the US alone, had a tally of over $300 million worldwide, and got a Best Actress Oscar win for Natalie Portman.
  • Universal had such a low opinion of Fast Times at Ridgemont High that the film didn't even open in the East Coast initially and instead mostly opened regionally in mall theatres and drive-ins. After strong opening weekend numbers came in, Universal prepared a wide expansion three weeks later and ended up having one of the big word-of-mouth hits of 1982. Since then, the film continues to be a popular title on home formats and many careers were launched because of it (such as director Amy Heckerling, writer Cameron Crowe and actors such as Sean Penn, Forest Whitaker and Phoebe Cates).
  • Ghost was a notable example. Expected to do only modestly by competing against numerous summer titles as Total Recall, Die Hard 2 and Presumed Innocent, it went on to gross over $500 million worldwide (out of a $22 million budget), making bankable names out of Patrick Swayze, Demi Moore and Whoopi Goldberg, won two Academy Awards including Best Supporting Actress for Goldberg (and was nominated for Best Picture), making it the highest grosser of 1990 worldwide and the second biggest earner domestically behind Home Alone.
  • Another Patrick Swayze film, Dirty Dancing, was also a surprise hit. Vestron Pictures had only planned to release the film in theaters for only a weekend, and then send it straight to home video, since they had originally been in the video distribution business long before entering film production. Instead, it became sensational upon release, with reports of people supposedly viewing the film, then immediately returning to the theater to watch it a second time, becoming one of the highest grossing films of 1987. The unexpected successes for both films got Swayze nicknamed "King of the Sleepers" for a period.
  • Ted was only expected to be a modest hit at best, but it surprised everyone by opening with $54 million — the second highest ever opening for an R-rated comedy. It continued on to make more then $218 million domestically and over $500 million worldwide, dethroning The Hangover Part II as the highest-grossing R-rated comedy film of all time.
  • District 9 was not expected to be a major blockbuster considering that it was released in August 2009 with a 30 million dollar budget. But great critical acclaim and positive word of mouth resulted in a box office performance of nearly 211 million dollars.
  • Disney was busy pushing Hercules in the summer of 1997, culminating in a giant New York City premiere that included a parade, while their George of the Jungle adaptation opened the following month with a modest campaign by comparison. But the films ultimately ran neck-and-neck in U.S. box-office takes, both coming close to the $100 million mark, as George had good word-of-mouth and some unexpectedly (considering the track record of Live-Action Adaptation movies derived from cartoons) positive reviews. It received a Direct-to-Video sequel years later, but it didn't include the big screen George, Brendan Fraser — since his career got a bit of a boost from this sleeper success.
  • The Conjuring was released in a jam-packed summer that had already cannibalized several blockbuster films, without much fanfare or promotion and a teen-unfriendly R rating. Despite all of that, it went on to take $41.5 million during the opening weekend, breaking The Purge's previous record as the biggest opening for an original R-rated horror film. Thanks to rave reviews from both critics (over 80% approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes) and audiences, the film had an abnormally strong second-week hold for a horror film, and ultimately wound up with $137 million domestically and over $300 million internationally. To put its success in context, The Conjuring opened with $41 million on a $20 million budget; the same week, fellow newcomers RIPD and Turbo had a combined opening weekend of $33 million... on a combined budget of $265 million. A franchise starring the Warrens as main characters is now being planned.
  • Gravity: When the film was released, it was on track to a $40 million debut at the U.S. box office. In the end, it made a whopping $55 million in its opening week. Experiencing a very light 23% drop in its second week, it had the best second-week hold for a movie opening above $50 million outside the Holiday season.
  • The Heat was released amidst several blockbusters during the summer and as such it was not expected to do more the modest business. However it wound up earning over 200 million, making it the highest grossing comedy of the year until...
  • We're the Millers was released in the late August dumping ground and as such wasn't expected to do too well, but surprisingly it made over 250 million, more then seven times it's production cost.
  • Ride Along surprised everyone by having the highest grossing 3-day weekend in January (beating out Cloverfield) and making over 100 million in two months.
  • Despite the massive success on opening weekend, Godzilla (2014) legitimately shocked movie analysts and ticket number trackers, expecting the movie, based on social media hype and overall production budget, to only do around 70 million dollars domestically on opening weekend. Instead it did 93 million dollars on opening weekend, beating out The Amazing Spider-Man 2, and just second behind Captain America: The Winter Soldier as one of the highest openings of the year so far. Made all the more impressive due to the character's dormant status for 10 years after Godzilla Final Wars) and the critical thrashing of the 1998 film.
    • The movie also did much better in China than expected. Analysts initially worried that the movie would bomb there due to Godzilla's well-known Japanese heritage combined with both the historical tensions between China and Japan along with their ongoing maritime territory disputes around the time the movie came out. China ended up being the second-biggest box office market for the movie behind the United States. This is subverted later on in the film's domestic run, however, as word-of-mouth quickly became mixed after its opening weekend and it wound up having short staying power at the box office, barely making it to the $200 million mark (the lowest recorded domestic total for a film that opened at $90m+) and actually grossing less than The Amazing Spider-Man 2 (which was considered by many to be a financial disappointment).
  • Divergent and The Fault in Our Stars are two films adapted from young-adult novels, both starring Shailene Woodley. Ever since the Hunger Games came out, other young-adult adaptations flopped, and these two were expected to follow suit. They didn't, and proved to be profitable films with big $50 million openings and helped strongly boost sales. It's saying something when a movie based on one of the most lucrative children's franchises in history and an action movie starring one of the most bankable actors of all time respectively flopped just by going against them.
  • Back to the Future: No one expected the movie to become as big as it did. Director/co-writer Robert Zemeckis openly admitted he was just hoping it would break even and the final bit with the DeLorean flying and "something's got to be done about your kids!" was meant as a joke on Marty having just changed the past for his parents. Michael J. Fox recalled getting a call from his agent telling him the movie was a hit and he was pleased, but his agent had to reiterate that it was a BIG hit.
  • Sharknado gained an unexpected amount of buzz for a Syfy Original Movie from social media posts about the ridiculous premise. And while the original premiere was written off as a ratings failure, the film saw a significant boost in viewership with encore showings in the following weeks.
  • In 2014, the month of May was jam-packed with numerous high-profile blockbuster films: The Amazing Spider-Man 2, Godzilla, and X-Men: Days of Future Past. The ultimate highest-grossing May-debuting film? Maleficent, which came in relatively under the radar compared to the aforementioned films but ended up having longer staying power than them.
  • Guardians of the Galaxy, in spite of Marvel's excellent box office record, was expected by most to do relatively modest Thor-level numbers of around $180 million because it was based on a much more obscure comic book property than Marvel's other films and released in August instead of the more traditional May/June/July summer blockbuster months. Guardians of the Galaxy, however, ended up getting the last laugh all the way to the top summer spot, dethroning the presumed summer box office champion Transformers: Age of Extinction, and Captain America: The Winter Soldier as the highest grossing movie of 2014, a title it ultimately held on to the end of the year (until the even bigger sleeper hit American Sniper dethroned it in 2015).
  • Edge of Tomorrow stumbled at its opening, grossing $28.7M, and was quickly written off by many as a box office bomb (largely due to its inability to draw a female audience against the release of The Fault in Our Stars - see above). However, thanks to Tom Cruise's international appeal and good word of mouth, it managed to show its worth throughout the summer and became a sleeper hit, grossing over $364M worldwide, making it the 12th highest grossing film of 2014 thus far.
  • There was almost no buzz for John Wick when it was first announced, especially after star Keanu Reeveslast film. With initial estimates of a soft $7-8 million opening, it seemed doomed to mediocrity. Then the surprisingly positive reviews and buzz came in and boosted the film to an impressive $14 million opening weekend, starting talks of a Career Resurrection for Reeves.
  • Homeward Bound: The Incredible Journey was not expected to do well, yet upon its release it topped the box office two weeks in a row.
  • American Sniper, a relatively low-budget Clint Eastwood/Bradley Cooper Oscar-nominated drama about the Iraq War, had a $90 million opening in January. Eventually, it became the second-highest grossing R-rated movie of all time (behind The Passion of the Christ) for a while before Deadpool came along.
  • Back in the summer of 1986, many people expected Ferris Bueller's Day Off to be very successful. However, it didn't do as well as Back to School did, thanks to the good word of mouth the latter film got, grossing $20 million dollars more than Ferris Bueller did. The ironic part? Unlike Ferris Bueller, this movie rarely gets referenced at all in modern pop culture, only ever being parodied on certain animated shows.
  • Kingsman: The Secret Service wasn't expected to do as well in the United States as it did, being based on an obscure graphic novel, and with some citing the movie as being "too British" to catch on with American audiences. It was also put up against the juggernaut Fifty Shades of Grey franchise's first film and thus expected to suffer a similar fate to Edge of Tomorrow. The film made more than its entire production budget in the USA alone and more than four times its budget worldwide, ensuring that a sequel was announced.
  • Bring It On was made with a rather paltry $10 million budget, and had a pretty under-the-radar production.note  When it was released in 2000, the highest expectations the cast and crew had was that it might take second place at the box-office to the still-popular-at-the-time Wesley Snipes film The Art of War. To everybody's surprise, the movie topped the box office (moving star Kirsten Dunst to tears), has had a long life on DVD, and spawned a franchise that includes four direct-to-DVD sequels and a Broadway adaptation.
  • Mainstream producers in the Philippines were initially skeptical about Heneral Luna, as they expected a historical film would be a niche title at best amongst audiences glued to so-called "love teams", chick flicks or comedies. It was proven otherwise when the film was released to critical acclaim, earning over ₱163 million for an independent production with a limited budget.
  • People were understandably skeptical when the adaptation of The Martian was announced. A hard sci-fi film made by a director then largely considered past his prime and set on a planet notorious for being the setting of some of the biggest Box Office Bombs in history was bound to engender some less than hopeful reactions. However, The Martian is now a serious Oscar contender, is seen as a return to form for Ridley Scott, and became his highest grossing film in the U.S.
  • The 2015 Will Ferrell/Mark Wahlberg comedy Daddy's Home did much better than anyone else was expecting. It had mixed reviews going in, and opened on Christmas Day, going up against The Force Awakens in its 2nd weekend, and yet it still did remarkably well for itself. It had surprisingly good staying power as well, only decreasing 24.6% in its 2nd weekend. By the end of its domestic run, it had made $150 million, which was surprising for what was thought to just be a throwaway comedy.
  • Mad Max: Fury Road, due to being a revival of a more niche franchise that hadn't seen a film in 30 years and a very Troubled Production, had a lot of people thinking that it would just be another failed revival of an '80s franchise destined to be forgotten in a few short months. On the box office front, while it didn't make a massive profit, it did get the highest numbers in franchise history even after adjusting for inflation. On the critical front, it brought down the house, with almost unanimous praise for its action sequences, visual storytelling and World Building, and surprising feminism and thematic depth despite its very simple plot. It ended up being the most critically acclaimed film of 2015 and became the big surprise at awards season, even garnering Oscar nominations for Best Picture and Director.
  • Before Deadpool came out, it wasn't uncommon to see predictions of it grossing less than $200 million domestically or even bombing outright. It ended up grossing over $350 million, demolishing both the February opening weekend record and the opening weekend record for an R-rated film along the way.
  • The original Halloween was made on No Budget and the only name of note was Donald Pleasance — as PJ Soles would have been known only for Carrie — and Jamie Lee Curtis had not made a film before. The film grossed $47 million, turned Jamie Lee Curtis into a star and popularized the slasher genre.
  • Lights Out was a movie based on a two-minute short film, directed by newcomer David F. Sandberg, and produced on a budge of 5 million. Within one week of its premiere, it had gained back 12 times its budget and has already been greenlit to have a sequel.
  • Bad Moms was released in 2016 during a very brutal Summer box office season, with multiple R-rated comedies underperforming or outright bombing during the year (including Ride Along 2, Zoolander 2, Dirty Grandpa, Popstar: Never Stop Never Stopping, The Nice Guys, Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising, and Mike and Dave Need Wedding Dates). This film wasn't expected to do any better, and it opened to a mediocre $23 million, but positive word of mouth helped keep its audience week after week, and it eventually grossed over $110 million domestically and $150 million total worldwide on a light $20 million budget. It's also the first hit film for STX Entertainment, who had released the bomb Free State of Jones earlier in the year.

  • Older Than Radio: "Penny Dreadful" novels were cheap serials written in the 19th Century by amateur authors on second-rate paper, intended for children and the working class, who couldn't afford the more expensive books by more popular authors. (They were considered by readers like then much like comic books were in modern times.) While most Penny Dreadfuls were indeed, not very good, some have become cultural icons, like Varney the Vampire and The String of Pearls, the first known version of the Sweeney Todd story.
  • Also Older than Radio, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Lewis Carrol was an unknown at the time, and most readers bought it because illustrator John Tenniel was a big draw; his Awesome Art was already well known. But it because a smash hit with kids.
  • Harry Potter, among the most familiar examples. The first book was rejected by several publishers, but, once finally published, got significant attention, which exploded exponentially after the release of the third book. In particular, it was considered too long for a "kid's book"; finally, Rowling's agent gave it to his eight-year-old daughter, only to find she devoured it and couldn't wait to read more. It was only then anyone began thinking it ever had a chance, and the rest is history.
  • Pratchett's first few Discworld books were small, fantasy parodies. Now, the Discworld series is one of the biggest and most popular pieces of modern fantasy literature.
  • Percy Jackson and the Olympians started out as this because of Harry Potter, which itself was a sleeper hit in its first years of publication. While the Percy Jackson books are wildly popular now, The Lightning Thief came out the same year as the sixth Harry Potter book, which vastly over shadowed almost all other young adult fiction releases that same year. Because of the release and success of Harry Potter, and the somewhat similar premises of the two series (young boy finds out he has cool powers and goes to a place where others are like him), The Lightning Thief was cast aside as another young adult fiction trying to play off of Harry Potter's success. Word of mouth quickly spread about the Percy Jackson series after the second book came out, because readers started to realize that the two series actually had little in common with each other, and Percy Jackson is now one of the top selling series in the country.
  • Tom Clancy really struggled to get The Hunt for Red October published, getting no interest from traditional publishers. He finally tried the Naval Institute Press, for whom he had previously written a number of nonfiction articles, and they agreed to print it as their first-ever foray into fiction. The novel became a surprise bestseller after President Ronald Reagan read it and loved it.
  • The EarthCent Ambassador ebooks started out as a standalone story, Date Night on Union Station. Author E.M. Foner originally wrote it while taking a break from a more conventional sci-fi series, but its unexpected popularity on Kindle led to him getting bombarded with requests for sequels.

    Live-Action TV 
  • NCIS was largely ignored as simply another CBS crime procedural early in its run and had fairly middling ratings. It entered the top 10 in 2008 and has its own spinoffs NCIS: Los Angeles and NCIS: New Orleans. For the 2012-2013 season, it was the number one scripted drama on network television. Also a very rare example of a show getting more popular with age; it has broken its record for single-episode viewership in each of its 9 seasons, with "Shiva" as the most watched.
  • NCIS parent series JAG was also, albeit to a lesser extent, a sleeper hit which hardly received any press coverage until the fourth season when it entered the top 15.
  • Power Rangers fit this. Haim Saban spent the better part of a decade looking for a network, be it broadcast or cable, to accept his concept of an Transatlantic Equivalent of Super Sentai. No one would accept until Margaret Loesch, then head of the Fox Kids Network gave him the go-ahead. A last minute change in management at Fox left Loesch with a new boss who was less than thrilled with the idea and wanted the show cancelled before airing even one episode. Luckily, Loesch's faith paid off and she was able to convince her boss to give it a chance saying she had a backup if it flopped. It ended up being a smash hit the likes of which had not been seen since Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. Loesch herself, along with Stan Lee, was trying to do essentially the same thing with Super Sentai when she was at Marvel. So she jumped at the chance to bring it to the air.
  • The X-Files was a classic example. When Chris Carter pitched the idea to Fox, it was initially rejected. When he fleshed it out and pitched it again a few weeks later, they reluctantly took it on. They were unsure about the idea of having a show centered around the paranormal and were not happy with the casting; they wanted someone more more established and traditionally attractive to play Scully. Gillian Anderson was a theater actress but mentioned later that The X-Files pilot was only her second time in front of the camera. The pilot was well-received by those who watched it (not many) and by critics, but the ratings for the first and second season were rock bottom. However, it was the increasing popularity of the Internet in the 1990s that really saw it take off; The New York Times reported the the show was likely one of the first shows to see audience growth influenced by the Internet. The show had its own forums, discussion groups, fan pages and fanfiction far before it became commonplace to do so with a show. By Season 6, The X-Files was Fox's highest-rated show. Its popularity led to Executive Meddling coupled with The Chris Carter Effect and spelled the show's downfall: by its final season, ratings were about where they were for the first and second season. However, the show went on to inspire and influence other shows of the time and subsequent shows (many cult classics in their own right), including Lost, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Torchwood, Eleventh Hour, Alias, Bones, and most notably Fringe, which has a similar blend of Monster of the Week and Myth Arc episodes.
  • Firefly's DVD set sold so well that Universal was convinced to make a movie out of it.
  • The Big Bang Theory started off with okay ratings consistent enough to keep it on and it survived the 2007 writers strike virtually unscathed in writing quality (largely due to its episodic nature), unlike a lot of other shows which made TBBT's modest success stand out more. Ratings continued to grow as the fanbase increased and by its fifth season, due to a record breaking syndication deal that exposed it to wider audiences, it is the highest rated scripted show on television and huge internationally as well.
  • The Five on Fox News Channel was originally intended to be a temporary program meant to fill in the mid-afternoon gap left by Glenn Beck's departure from the network. Viewers ended up really liking the interaction among the panelists, however, so the show was kept. It ended up exceeding the popularity of Beck's show and got the second-best ratings of any Fox News show after The O'Reilly Factor.
  • CBS threw The Waltons on the air solely to answer those who were criticizing the network's "rural purge" in the early '70s, its focus on more urban-focused, boundary-pushing programming at the expense of shows set in Flyover Country. It was expected to die a quick death against the ABC hit The Mod Squad, but instead ran for nine seasons and is now remembered as the "sole survivor" of the rural purge.
  • The American version of Whose Line Is It Anyway? was specifically intended by ABC as a temporary filler show—the show went up against Friends and Survivor, both of which were (at the time) ratings juggernauts which ABC couldn't hope to successfully go against (and several attempts, such as Vengeance Unlimited, proved that point). But Whose Line ended up getting way more viewers than expected (mostly from people disillusioned with "popular" TV), and, given the show's low production costs, ABC was still able to make a profit on it and thus didn't have any reason to take it off the air. Whose Line ultimately became a Cult Classic that lasted for five seasons on ABC proper—not bad for a show the network never intended to renew.
  • Hard to believe now, but Breaking Bad started off like this. Word of mouth, Netflix, and Twitter helped the ratings increase tremendously by the last season, breaking its own ratings record five times and ending with one of the most watched finales in the history of cable television.
  • Banshee could qualify; it began to almost no fanfare whatsoever, but with each passing season the ratings snowballed, ultimately becoming the most-watched original show on Cinemax (surpassing the much more advertised, more "prestigious" The Knick).
  • The first Puppy Bowl was a quick No-Hoper Repeat show Animal Planet threw together to air during the Super Bowl. To everyone's surprise it gave Animal Planet some of its highest ratings ever and has steadily grown in popularity, even spawning its own imitator, Hallmark Channel's Kitty Bowl.
  • The Great British Bake Off started in 2010 as a low-key summer filler show with no significant publicity, on the BBC's secondary channel. Word-of-mouth made it a hit; it nearly doubled its ratings over the course of its first short run, and by 2013 it was the highest-rating show on BBC Two for over twenty years and beating other channels' ratings bankers like EastEnders and The X Factor. Anyone would be forgiven for thinking the show had reached its ceiling at that point, but then it transferred to the flagship channel, BBC One, and got even bigger. In 2015 it was the highest rating show on British television outside of the Christmas period. And of course it's been exported around the world too.
  • Charmed was not expected to be a great hit. Indeed producers didn't warm to the witchcraft concept until Constance M Burge made the leads sisters - feeling that the family values would at least get a few people watching. The show was female-led and didn't have any major stars in it. Shannen Doherty's last project of note was Beverly Hills 90210 four years previously, and she had been doing made-for-TV movies since. Alyssa Milano meanwhile was a Former Child Star who had only just regained traction through Melrose Place. Holly Marie Combs meanwhile was virtually unknown. The first episode drew 7 million viewers and the first season kept a 10 million viewer average. Despite Doherty leaving at the end of the third season, it lasted for eight seasons in total.
  • The Late Late Show had been a cult hit under its previous host Craig Ferguson (aided by his unique humor and charm), but James Corden's incarnation all but surpassed it in mainstream popularity thanks to the viral popularity of his "Carpool Karaoke" segments.

  • "Creep" by Radiohead initially received very little airplay upon parent album Pablo Honey's release in 1992. It wasn't until months later in 1993 that it became an international success that it was re-released in the UK and became a top 40 hit.
  • Korn's 1994 Self-Titled Album Korn is a particularly extreme example. Upon release in 1994, it got little media attention and its songs received no airplay. However, critics, as well as everyone who listened to it, noted that the band had a very 'unique' sound. It featured heavily downtuned guitars, angsty lyrics, funk-influenced bass, and the absence of solos. Additionally, the album would mix genres as random such as funk metal, grunge, groove metal, prog metal, hip-hop (without actually rapping), hardcore, alt metal, and even traces of death metal. With non-stop touring, more and more people were exposed to the album, and the sound garnered an enthusiastic following. As time went on, it eventually charted on the Billboard 200 nearly two years after release, and sold over 10 million copies worldwide. The biggest success however, was that it spawned Nu Metal. Those who heard the album emulated, and later modified the sound by forming their own bands, which started in Southern California, but eventually spread across the world as a genre all on its own. This genre, while polarizing and controversial to metal purists, would take the rock music world by storm in the late '90s, and helped revitalize Heavy Metal after spending several years in the underground following Hair Metal's demise. In 2014, Rolling Stone Magazine even declared it "the most important metal album in the last 20 years".
  • The band Temple of the Dog was formed to record an album mourning the death of Mother Love Bone singer Andrew Wood. The album got little notice when it was released in 1991, but a year later it got some media attention when some of the members had success in a couple other bands you may have heard of.
  • Nicki Minaj's album Pink Friday. It got fanfare when it was released, but it was completely overshadowed by the hype for Kanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy. Its competitors (including Kanye's album) fell, but Pink Friday kept selling, and it reached #1 on the Billboard 200 in its 11th week of release.
  • Hard though it may be to believe, XL Recordings (an indie label) only had moderate expectations for the 21 album by Adele, whose first album had done well enough, but was perceived as being just another Amy Winehouse copycat. The album ended up doing much better in Britain than they had hoped (helped along by Adele's show-stealing performance at the BRIT Awards) and it certainly exceeded expectations for America.
  • Leonard Cohen's much-covered song "Hallelujah". The original version released in 1984 began life as a forgotten album track on Cohen's album Various Positions. Former Velvet Underground musician John Cale did a rearranged version of the song in 1991 for a Cohen tribute album entitled I'm Your Fan but that also went unnoticed. Jeff Buckley then did a cover based on Cale's version three years later on his Grace album, which was in itself a sleeper hit, bringing the song to prominence. The inclusion of Cale's version in Shrek helped a lot, as did another version by Rufus Wainwright (replacing the Cale recording version on the soundtrack album). Since then, literally hundreds of artists have covered it and various versions have frequently been used in films and TV shows (though, ironically, the original Cohen recording didn't appear in any other media until it was used in Watchmen, but that was only because another recording of the tune was rejected from that film).
  • "We Are Young" by fun. came out of nowhere and is more unusual than most pop songs. Todd in the Shadows (during his review of that song and the below-mentioned "Somebody That I Used To Know") attributed the song's hit status to the Glee cast covering the song, though it never truly took off until it was featured in a Chevy commercial that played during the Super Bowl a few months after the Glee episode aired.
  • "Somebody I Used to Know" by Gotye is also unusual for a pop song and became a smash hit without any prior mainstream following - no doubt due to it topping Triple J's Hottest 100 poll for the year 2011. The Walk Off The Earth cover (you know, the one where they're all playing on one guitar) may have also done the trick.
    • A similar scenario happened in 2013 with Vance Joy. At least Gotye was big in Australia at first. Vance came straight from Triple J's Unearthed indie podcast with no record deal even. When he won the countdown, the song "Riptide" was a hit on rock radio and made #32 in the US and the Top 10 in several other countries. Not bad for an out-of-nowhere jam.
  • "Pumped Up Kicks" by Foster The People gained momentum slowly, hitting its chart peak at #3 in the US about a year after its initial single release. To say nothing of it being unusual for pop radio at the time, even more lyrically than sonically. Radio has become more friendly to alternative crossovers since, but it was literally the only major crossover hit of 2011.
  • Geffen Records' alternative rock imprint DGC expected that Nirvana's Nevermind would sell about 250,000 units (roughly the same as Sonic Youth's Goo did for the label) and that after "Smells Like Teen Spirit" built the band some buzz on alternative radio, they could attempt a pop crossover with "Come As You Are". Then the video for "Smells Like Teen Spirit" premiered on 120 Minutes and the rest is history.
  • Nobody would expect a heavy metal band to come close to the Top 40 in 2016, but Disturbed somehow pulled it off with their cover of "The Sound of Silence". It peaked at an amazing #42, though it would certainly have been a Top-40 hit if Drake hadn't released his surprise album and if Prince hadn't died.
  • British boy band One Direction are arguably the biggest sleeper success story of the 2010s. They were five boys who finished third on the 2010 The X Factor, but by then boy bands have been out of fashion for almost a decade - and, as groups like Take That have shown in the past, they had next to no chance of making it big outside the UK. Add the fact that Justin Bieber's massive popularity was derailing similar heartthrobs' careers like Cody Simpson, and it would appear that they would have a very short shelf life. But then, a campaign to promote their debut album "Up All Night" went viral and caught on all over the world. As their fan base continued to multiply dramatically, they started to be as powerful a social media force as Bieber was. Sure, they had a significant American fan base at the time of their album's US release, but the industry was absolutely shocked when it became clear that it was the top contender for the coveted number-one spot on the Billboard 200 for its release week, a feat never before accomplished by a British band's debut album. It accomplished exactly that, and continued to be a strong selling album well after its release, staying in the top 10 for half a year and becoming the third best-selling album of the year. The group would ultimately become more successful that Bieber was, selling more albums than him, trouncing him in awards ceremonies, shattering his records left and right, and one-upping him in the touring circuit by playing in stadiums. Most impressively, they've held on for nearly three years now.
  • Ariana Grande's first song, The Way, featuring Mac Miller - even That Other Wiki considers it an unexpected success. Within seven hours of going up on iTunes, it was top of the download charts. It entered the Billboard 100 at No. 10, which by coincidence made Ariana the first artist since 2008 to enter the Top 10 with her first single. It peaked a No. 9, and as of this writing is behind Justin Timberlake and Jay Z's Suit & Tie and One Direction's Best Song Ever as the third highest first-week sales figures. It sold over 1.3 million copies alone in the US and spent 17 weeks in the charts, 13 of which were in the Top 15. Not bad for a first single, no?
  • The Black Keys had released five albums and were on the verge of breaking up before releasing Brothers. Their first album to chart, it was certified platinum and nominated for five Grammys, winning two.
  • Though Nine Inch Nails debut album, Pretty Hate Machine, didn't sell at all well at first, it gradually managed to crawl its way up to 75 on the Billboard chart. This in spite of being a debut album in a genre (Industrial Music) that had previously had only a handful of relatively minor club hits to its name. The LONG tour and well-received Lollapalooza appearance in 1991 definitely helped- in 1992, it was certified Gold. Almost three years after its release. The next material NIN released (the Broken EP in 1992 and The Downward Spiral in 1994) was much more immediately successful, topping the charts very shortly after release.
  • Scooter's "Jumping All Over The World" was a number 1 album in the UK, despite the band not having released anything there for years. It was released there to cash in on the Clubland tour the band was appearing on. The band had massive success in the UK in 2002-2003, but after the flop of the Jigga Jigga single, they didn't release anything there for a few years (despite having continued success in Europe, and a lot of UK fans who imported their next few releases). The reason is said to be Scooter's obsession with uncredited samples preventing their albums from being released in the UK. In 2008, Scooter joined the Clubland tour and that tour's label "All Around The World" put out the band's most recent album Jumping All Over The World as a UK release to cash in, with the addition of a Scooter version of Status Quo's Whatever You Want, and a bonus disc of their greatest hits. Nobody in the UK was expecting the album to get very far, but lo and behold, it reached Number 1 in the album charts, ousting Madonna, and without a hit single. Critics (of which there were many) were eating their words. Unfortunately, their next (and arguably better) album Under The Radar Over The Top was a flop, so they didn't release anything in the UK after.
  • It's hard to believe that Lorde's Breakthrough Hit "Royals" was an obscure song at one point. Initially a non-single off a little-known EP titled The Love Club, it didn't become the mega hit that it is today until she was lucky enough that an agent heard her sing it at a school talent show. The next thing you know, "Royals" topped charts worldwide, including both the US Pop and Alternative charts, staying atop the former for a whopping nine weeks and becoming the first female artist to top the latter since before she was born. It went 7x multi-platinum in the US alone, easily making it one of the best-selling singles of all time. In a year where Lady Gaga, Miley Cyrus, Katy Perry, and Beyoncé all released new albums, no one ever thought that the female artist who would spend the most weeks at #1 would be a 16-year-old from New Zealand.
    • Her debut album Pure Heroine, despite not topping the Billboard 200 (peaking at #3), stayed in the top 10 for a long time, managing to go platinum - and later, double platinum - (an extremely rare feat for any artist nowadays, and this was her debut album), and sold over three million albums worldwide, easily outselling the Justin Timberlake album that was #1 the week it debuted. All of this was achieved through the quality of the music and positive word-of-mouth, rather than purely mainstream promotion.
  • Imagine Dragons released their album Night Visions in September 2012, narrowly being beaten by the latest Matchbox 20 release. "It's Time" became a big hit on Alternative radio and giving them a big crossover. However, it was the next single, "Radioactive," that would shoot them into the stratosphere. Aside from having a near-record reign on the Alternative charts, it soared into the top 10 with almost no pop airplay that April. About a month later, pop airplay took off dramatically, as the song reached #3 and sold over seven million copies in the U.S. alone, one of less than ten songs to ever accomplish this feat, and the only one that failed to reach #1. It was also the longest-lasting song in Hot 100 history. "Demons" only added onto the success, and Night Visions sold more than 2 million copies, well ahead of Matchbox Twenty's 300,000 total, and outselling similar albums by fun. and The Lumineers.
  • Can you believe that Daft Punk, after seemingly being written off as has-beens, would have their biggest success in 2013? Not only did the duo have their biggest selling album in history (Random Access Memories), but it brought them to the top of the Billboard 200 for the first time ever. And, after years of trying and failing, Daft Punk finally got a top 40 hit in the U.S., "Get Lucky", peaking at #2. Seeing a veteran act finally have a true breakthrough in America was amazing. Add a huge night at the Grammys, and Daft Punk orchestrated arguably the finest breakthrough/comeback in music history.
  • Meghan Trainor is a 20-year old pop singer from Nantucket, Massachusetts. In 2014, she recorded the song "All About That Bass," which had a rather unusual message about body acceptance and a seemingly-dated doo-wop soundnote . Early in July, the song started to make a small impact as a viral hit. Then, at the end of the month, it started to surge up the charts. By the end of August, it was one step away from the #1 spot on the Billboard Hot 100. It stayed atop the chart for a whopping eight weeks, becoming the second longest running #1 of the year and the longest in Epic Records' history. Yes, the same Epic Records behind the catalog of one Michael Jackson (!). It ultimately finished 2014 as one of the top five best-selling songs of the year. She went on to have several other hits since then.
  • Hozier's "Take Me to Church" was released in 2013, but didn't become a hit in the U.S. after the song (and its accompanying video) went viral over a year later, where it shot up to #2 behind Taylor Swift's "Blank Space", and spent a whopping 23 weeks atop the Rock charts (a feat matched only by Imagine Dragons' "Radioactive", until it was broken by Walk the Moon's "Shut Up and Dance").
  • Capital Cities' "Safe and Sound" was released on January 6, 2011 but was completely unnoticed for over two years, until it was rereleased for their debut album. It topped the Alternative charts and reached a #8 peak on the Hot 100 in October of 2013, over two-and-a-half years after it was released.
  • Awolnation's "Sail" was also released in January of 2011, but didn't chart until September of that year. After spending twenty weeks at the bottom of the chart, it fell off. Then it reappeared over a year later, it reached a new peak of #17 and stayed there for 79 weeks, making it the second-longest run in Billboard history.
  • Mark Ronson collaborated with Bruno Mars on "Uptown Funk!" with worldwide success on the horizon. Everyone expected Ronson to get his all-time biggest success, but not too many people thought that Mars would get his biggest hit with the song as well — let alone the biggest song of the decade so far.
  • A number of Breakaway Pop Hits from films fall into this category.
    • Everyone knew that Furious 7 was going to be a huge hit, but nobody could have predicted the runaway success of its lead single "See You Again" by Wiz Khalifa. It sold nearly 500,000 copies in the U.S. alone the week after the movie came out, had a 12-week reign on the top of the charts, and the biggest graduation song since Vitamin C's "Graduation".
    • "Somewhere Out There", as recorded by Linda Ronstadt and James Ingram for An American Tail, could be considered the 1980's equivalent to "See You Again". It reached #2 on Billboard in 1987, as Tail's popularity began to slide off, and was also a top 40 radio hit that became a wedding staple and helped popularize the Award Bait Song for films, especially animated ones.
    • Pharrell Williams' "Happy" initially made little impact when it was released alongside Despicable Me 2. When it got nominated for an Oscar and he performed it at the ceremony, then people noticed; it eventually went to #1 for 10 weeks, and became one of the biggest hits of the decade.
  • Major Lazer had been around for years as the side project of Electronic Music DJ Diplo. They were popular for years and filled up dance clubs across the world, but never truly had a hit of their own. Then in 2015, they released "Lean On" in collaboration with DJ Snake featuring vocals from little known Danish singer MØ. The result was not an immediate success, as it debuted at the bottom and slowly rose up the charts and fell back a few times, but the longer it stuck around, the more people discovered the song. It eventually went Top 5 over five months after release, and became the biggest EDM crossover since Avicii's "Wake Me Up". The most impressive achievement? It dethroned Ed Sheeran's "Thinking Out Loud" as the most streamed song on Spotify of all time. When you consider that Major Lazer was little known outside their audience and Sheeran was a global superstar, that's unbelievable.
  • Swedish singer Tove Lo's song "Habits (Stay High)" was originally released in 2013, then simply called "Habits". It was later rereleased under the new title in late 2013 and started to slowly climb the charts. Eventually, it sold over 2,000,000 copies and received a 5x platinum certification in the US alone. It peaked at top 3 on the US Billboard Hot 100, a feat that neither Avicii's "Wake Me Up" nor Icona Pop's "I Love It" could achieve (the former peaked at number 4 whereas the latter peaked at number 7). Ironically, the original song never chart on the Swedish singles chart, but the Hippie Sabotage remix did. Said remix didn't enter the US Hot 100. However, together they managed to sell over 4,000,000 million worldwide.
  • As hard as it may be to believe, Iron Maiden's 2010 album The Final Frontier was announced to moderate-to-low expectations from people who weren't hardcore fans. The band had been successful and one of the biggest metal bands in the world, yet much of this was coming from their concert ticket sales. Ironically enough, when the album was released, it debuted at #1 in 30 countries, including the band's native UK where they'd had their first #1 in 18 years, and while it didn't debut at #1 in the US, it still reached their highest chart position ever (#4 with 63,000 units sold in its first week of release).

  • Nowadays it's recognized as one of the all-time great operas, but Bizet's Carmen famously opened to great indifference in 1875, with the promoter struggling even to give away tickets. Bizet died without seeing the success it would become.
  • Shuffle Along, like many lesser Broadway musicals of the early 1920s, was a vaudeville sketch expanded into an evening-length show. The production featured an all-black cast of unknowns in borrowed costumes, and barely managed to open in New York at a small, out-of-the-way theater in May 1921, late in the theatrical season. It unexpectedly won critical praise and became the eleventh longest running musical of the decade.
  • RENT also became a surprisingly huge success, largely due to the sudden death of its composer/author just before it opened on Broadway.

    Theme Parks 
  • Disney Theme Parks sometimes get these — attractions that weren't the focus of giant marketing campaigns, but then the word-of-mouth kicked in.
    • Voyage of the Little Mermaid, a multimedia live show, officially opened in a miniscule theater at Disney's Hollywood Studios in January 1992 — right after the Christmas rush. As of 2013, it's still running.
    • How popular is Beauty and the Beast — Live on Stage at the Studios? It opened the same day the movie opened in wide release in 1991, and given the previous tendency of new release tie-in shows to last until the next big release came along, it should have lasted about a year. Again, it's still running as of 2016 — and has been credited for inspiring the company to adapt the show into a full-fledged Broadway musical in 1994!
    • The 3-D movie Honey, I Shrunk the Audience was, according to The Unofficial Guide to Walt Disney World, "launched with very little fanfare" at Epcot in 1994; it came along mainly because Captain EO had run its course and something fresh was in order. Well, that guide mentioned the "little fanfare" part by way of explaining that it swiftly became the hottest attraction in a park devoted mainly to Edutainment, and managed to run until 2010. It's also the only 3D movie besides Captain EO to play in more than three Disney parks, since it was exported to Disneyland, Disneyland Paris, and Tokyo Disneyland — and even though Tokyo didn't get it until 1998, they were rewarded for their wait with a unique preshow. Even The Simpsons made a joke about its tactile special effects in "Special Edna" — Homer and Bart get Covered in Gunge by Honey, I Sprayed Goo on the Audience — and Gigabyte, the python that menances the shrunken crowd, was incorporated into Ridley Pearson's third Kingdom Keepers novel.
    • Turtle Talk with Crush, an interactive Finding Nemo-based show, became this as part of Disney's California Adventure's animation exhibit. It was subsequently ported over to Epcot as a standalone show and repeated its success, and the technology used for it has since become the basis for other attractions, such as Monsters, Inc. Laugh Floor.

  • Many people bashed Mixels before they were released, saying their designs were silly and the shorts were unneeded. Then, it turned out that the sets were cheap for their piece-to-price ratio, contained the new balljoint mechanism, and contained rare pieces in hard-to-find colors, and they soon shot up, to the point many people that bought them for their parts have admitted to caving in and making the Mixels instead and finding them appealing.
  • While Monster High had fans since it began, many thought the dolls were too bizarre looking and the premise was too strange for a young girls' toy line. It's now one of Mattel's best selling toy franchises ever.

    Video Games 
  • Assassin's Creed: Rogue received no real marketing love from Ubisoft, as Assassin's Creed: Unity -the heavily-touted "Next generation starts here!" game- was out the same year. The story mode of Rogue was also around half as long as a traditional AC game, it heavily reused sound effects, animation, and settings of Assassin's Creed III and Assassin's Creed: Black Flag and exactly copied the mechanics ranging from parkour to ship combat. The result? Rogue was hailed by fans as a genuine pleasure whilst Unity will forever be remembered for its bug-ridden launch, insultingly prominent micro-transactions and frequent Ubisoft PR gaffes.
  • The PlayStation itself is one. Or, at least in North America. In early 1995, the system had proven to be a huge success in Japan. However, things seemed a bit less promising on the North American front. Sega was busily hyping its upcoming Sega Saturn, while Nintendo was silently creating some buzz for its upcoming Nintendo 64 (then known as the Ultra 64). How could Sony, then a newcomer to the video game industry, possibly compete? By taking note of and learning from the mistakes their competitors were making. Sega ultimately botched the Saturn's chances of success with a hastily-executed stealth launch and some questionable design choices. Not to mention a $399 price tag.note  Meanwhile, Nintendo's "kid-friendly" image, and their insistence on sticking with a cartridge format for the N64, led many gamers and third party developers, including Squaresoft, to abandon the company in favor of Sony. The PlayStation, despite little pre-release hype, eventually went on to become the most successful video game console of all time until its successor, the PlayStation 2, succeeded that throne in 2006.
  • When Nintendo made the Wii, it was hoped to turn around the diminishing returns for each home console Nintendo released, just a little. The gaming press laughed it off, expecting Nintendo to finally go third party after the Wii flopped (and the system still has extreme Critical Dissonance). Instead, it was sold out for years and even outsold the NES. It's also the third home console to sell over 100 million units.
  • GoldenEye. The game had little pre-release hype or fanfare, getting a listless reaction from critics at E3 1997 and suffering a rather Troubled Production cycle. In fact, Star Fox 64 was originally supposed to be Nintendo's big summer blockbuster that year. However, once GoldenEye was released, the game garnered overwhelming critical acclaim and quickly went on to become the N64's flagship title. It garnered numerous "Game of the Year" awards and, even today, stands as one of the most influential video games of all time.
  • Demon's Souls quickly grew a reputation for its punishing difficulty, and proved to be a hit with both players and critics, garnering several "Game of the Year" awards in 2009 and possibly convincing Atlus and FromSoftware to extend the life of its online servers well beyond its planned six-month period.
  • The original Katamari Damacy got initial moderate, but still not-as-expected success in Japan. After numerous positive reviews, the sales of the game kept gradually increasing, especially when it came to North America.
  • Portal was intended as a small bonus to The Orange Box compilation, but became an instant cult classic of The Orange Box. To put things in perspective, the other games on The Orange Box included Half-Life 2 and its episodes, including what was the much-anticipated at the time Episode 2, and the much-anticipated Team Fortress 2 (which would later go on to becoming Valve's most successful game of all time). That package sold altogether for 50 US dollars at launch. Portal 2 sold for the same price and was still a hit. A Gaiden Game developed by ten people as a follow on to a freeware game, was put on The Orange Box with little fanfare. Fans ate it up, the critics loved it, it sold quickly when released as a stand alone, and it has inspired a massive sequel.
  • Touhou. One man making his own Shoot 'em Up games has become one of the best known Bullet Hell series around.
  • Like Star Wars, it's hard to believe that Pokémon was this. When it was first released over in Japan, the Game Boy was on its last legs. Despite this, Pokémon Red and Blue kept selling, spurred by rumors of a hidden 151st Pokémon. By the time it reached North America, the juggernaut was in full swing. It took a while to catch on in North America, however, as Western divisions of Nintendo had dismissed it as a Widget Game until its popularity had exploded in Japan. Gamers used to complain that Pokémon Red and Blue weren't in color, unaware that they came out only one month ahead of the Game Boy Color in North America and years earlier in Japan.
  • Minecraft, initially a one-man project, gained a ton of press by word-of-mouth alone, and is still receiving steady sales even past its beta release. The Xbox 360 version ended up being one of the most popular games on the system.
  • Scribblenauts. While developers 5th Cell were not unknown at the time, having already made the well-liked Drawn to Life and Lock's Quest, they weren't considered hugely big contenders in the game scene, and Scribblenauts premiered with little fanfare. The concept was enticing, but didn't make any waves until E3 2009, when the greater game journalism public got their hands on the game. Cue explosion.
  • The first Tokimeki Memorial game was this: a low-profile game, it became a surprise massive hit thanks to word of mouth. It soon became a long and successful Cash Cow Franchise for Konami, and lots of companies tried to cash on the non-H Dating Sim genre it created with varied success.
  • World of Tanks got the -tanks part when a small Belorussian gaming studio making "yet another elves and orcs MMO" decided there are bit too many of those. Tank fans were expected to form small yet reliable niche. Notably enough, its popularity also accelerated another sleeper hit: Girls und Panzer. This is because just about every WoT player watches the Anime. The Reverse is proving true as the aforementioned anime series is practically the main marketing plan for the game's introduction in Japan.
  • The original Mega Man fell under the radar until positive word of mouth made into Capcom's flagship franchise.
  • Lunar: The Silver Star was released on the Sega CD and was one of the first Eastern RPGs to hit the States during the 16-bit era. It got so popular that Game Arts couldn't stop making remakes.
  • Angry Birds has proven itself to be the little iPhone app that could, having reached the top of the Apple App Store download rankings in over 60 countries.
  • The World Ends with You had little to no advertising for its North American release, but word of mouth made it the top selling Nintendo DS game its first week in North America. The only reason it didn't stay that way for the next few was because the stores literally ran out of copies to sell almost overnight and would be back-ordered for quite a while. Even today, it still gets rather high on Amazon's best selling DS games, coming after new releases and Nintendo's cash cow franchises in sort by best selling. Now it's even gotten an iOS port!!!
  • The Witcher:
    • The game was a PC-only single player CRPG released in 2007 by a development studio largely unknown outside eastern Europe, based off a fantasy setting almost unheard of in the English-speaking world. It proceeded to sell over a million copies in its first year of release, with its sequel reaching that number in under six months.
    • The first game's success was such a surprise that the studio more or less apologized for their shoestring-budget hack job of a localization by using some of their windfall to produce a much more polished Enhanced Edition, which further boosted the game's popularity.
  • Super Smash Bros.:
    • The original game started a side project by Masahiro Sakurai that Satoru Iwata allowed him to do on the weekends at HAL Laboratory. Eventually, Iwata became interested in this "King of the Hill"-like fighter, and the company asked Nintendo if they could use some of their characters. Nintendo was iffy on the entire thing: keeping the budget on the game incredibly small and planning on a Japan-only release. Despite little promotion, the game took off in Japan and was brought to North America and Europe later that year, becoming a Killer App for the Nintendo 64. Its three sequels on Nintendo's subsequent consoles have followed the trend.
    • When the sequel to the original Super Smash Bros. was released, two characters, Marth and Roy, were originally going to be Dummied Out for the international versions of the game, as at that point, both were part of a franchise that had been Japan-exclusive (and around since 1990, at that). The North American localization team loved the two characters, and their surprising popularity allowed Fire Emblem to be exported. The seventh game in particular was a hit in North America.
  • To mention Fire Emblem again, the series hit a slump when the remake of the first game slumped on the Nintendo DS, which was enough for the (better) remake of the third game to not be exported. It's been mentioned in interviews that had Fire Emblem Awakening not sold over the 250k mark (and the fanfare that North America has given it was a major bonus), Nintendo would've pulled the plug on the series. Instead, not only did Awakening save the franchise, but it was the first in the series to break a million sales. With the large amount of newcomers to the series, Fire Emblem has gone from being "that series with the swordsmen in Super Smash Bros.," to becoming popular on its own merits, leading to heavy worldwide promotion for the succeeding game(s).
    • It should be noted that said remake of the first game is a sleeper hit in and on itself. Done as a last ditch attempt to save the series after the poor sales of Tellius duology, Shadow Dragon introduced several new gameplay mechanics such as reclassing, an extensive update towards Qo L areas of the game, and a newly updated PvP for online game play. These small updates combined with the nostalgia factor ended up able to achieve a fairly impressive 500,000 units of world-wide sales, which led into another remake of Mystery of the Emblem, the franchise's most succesful game at the point of time. The remake of Mystery introduced the Avatar system, a feature that interested the series long-time fanbase, which make the lack of localization of the game all the more frustating. Achieving a decent sales all around, the reclassing system and the Avatar system ended up getting a huge overhaul, bringing along the Qo L update from the DS games into Awakening. And the rest is history.
  • The Nintendo Entertainment System, and by proxy Super Mario Bros. The Great Video Game Crash of 1983 made console gaming a joke in America, and as such, retailers were not real eager to stock their shelves with any consoles. This made it necessary to sell the NES with R.O.B. so that people would buy it for the toy robot but keep it for the games. Mario had seen some moderate success with Donkey Kong and Mario Bros., but not on a scale that was terribly notable. But very impressive word-of-mouth for Super Mario Bros., coupled with the game being bundled with the NES, made both smash hits.
  • Defense Of The Ancients All Stars: Originally just Defense of the Ancients, a custom map for Warcraft 3, it's gone on to become not only a sleeper hit but actually start a genre of games.
  • Mortal Kombat was made simply to fill a hole in Midway's arcade schedule. A four-man team was given 10 months to churn out a fighting game and pretty much gave them free reign to do what they wanted since it was a small project. The team turned it into one big Rule of Cool game that gave Midway its signature, money-making franchise and cut way more into Street Fighter II's marketshare than they could have imagined.
  • Grasshopper Manufacture:
    • No More Heroes became this in 2007; even though it didn't sell very well (40,000 in Japan, 208,000 in North America), it has a rather sizable fanbase and a sequel, and is widely considered one of the best games on the Wii. One could chalk it up to the fact that it's one of the very few Ultra Super Death Gore Fest Chainsawer 3000 games on the Wii, and that its pedigree was a cult classic.
    • Lollipop Chainsaw. Due to the mixed reception from critics, and the fact that previous SUDA51 games like Killer7 and No More Heroes weren't all that successful in sales (especially Killer7, which is one of the most sought-after GameCube titles, even to this very day), most SUDA51 fans were expecting this one to have low sales too, when actually, it ended up selling 700,000 copies worldwide as of August 2012, a mere two months after the game's release.
  • The original Final Fantasy. It was supposed to be Square's swan song title, but instead managed to fish the dwindling developer out from near-bankruptcy and helped turned it into the giant it is today.
  • Edmund McMillen didn't hold a lot of hope in The Binding of Isaac, mostly because he thought it would be too difficult and/or too disturbing for most people to get into it. It was quite a surprise for him when it managed to sell 500,000 copies, and in a relatively short time! He originally planned this game as a side project between Super Meat Boy and another game.
  • Xenoblade was outright snubbed for an North American release despite previous news that it would be released there. However, the game got itself a very vocal fanbase right from the start, since it was a new JRPG from the creators of the cult classics Xenogears and Xenosaga. An entire web campaign (Operation Rainfall) was started to get the game released in Western countries, but Nintendo of America didn't listen. Nintendo of Europe and Australia, however, brought it over to their respective continents. With little advertising and very limited units (understandable, since JRPGs' had fallen from grace), the game was a surprise hit, garnering positive reviews and rather good sales. Since then, the game was released in North America, along with The Last Story and Pandora's Tower (the other two games from the OpRainfall campaign) getting expanded advertising and international releasesnote . Furthermore, the follow-up, Xenoblade Chronicles X, was promoted by Nintendo's Treehouse team on their E3 2014 livestream, and the original game was ported to the New Nintendo 3DS.
  • Borderlands: As Randy Pitchford noted in one interview, the game actually sold better as time went on, compared to the usual pattern of a burst of sales at release, and it was all thanks to word of mouth advertising. This is one reason why the sequel got a much bigger budget and proper advertising.
  • Despite its novel premise (the Console Wars as an actual war for market share waged by goddess Console Patron Units), nobody expected Hyperdimension Neptunia to sell very well and it was developed for peanuts. Surprisingly, it not only got a Western release, but became far and away the best-selling release from Compile Heart, garnering two (properly-funded) sequels.
  • Yo-Kai Watch took only one year to become a multimedia success in Japan comparable to Pokémon in late 1990s. The franchise's second game sold an incredible 1.3 million copies in its debut week, instantly outselling the first game. Its anime adaptation even get better ratings than Pretty Cure staring from the first episode and shows no signs of stopping.
  • As revealed in this interview, the original Raiden was a low-expectation project Seibu Kaihatsu only made because their previous game Dynamite Duke flopped and a Vertical Scrolling Shooter was all they could do with the alloted budget. The game initially sold poorly, but eventually ended up being very successful thanks to positive word-of-mouth. Seibu's U.S. distributor Fabtek boasted in a flyer promoting the sequel:
    The original Raiden has been on the charts since September 1990—38 consecutive months and counting—with 26 months in the top 10. Not even the most popular fighting game ever can make that claim.
  • Five Nights at Freddy's started out as a failed kickstarter — it raised exactly $0 — game intended to be Scott Cawthon's Swan Song. Three sequels later, Scott Cawthon is currently working on a spinoff and an official feature film made by Warner Brothers themselves is currently in development.note 
  • After the troubled launch and release of SimCity (2013), fans of city-building simulation games hoped to find a viable alternative. In came 2015's Cities: Skylines, which rapidly picked up positive buzz as the game those fans wished SimCity had been, with the capability for larger and more expansive cities, and none of the annoying online issues. Skylines became the fastest-selling and best-reviewed Paradox Interactive property in its debut week, selling a quarter of a million copies in just two days, and surpassing the half-million mark in six.
  • Crackdown was not expected to do particularly well, so to ship copies Microsoft gave away the Halo 3 Beta to anyone who bought the game, with the expectation of a high refund rate. However, this didn't happen as it was very well-received by the Gaming public and press alike. It ended up spawning two sequels on 360 and Xbox One.
  • Splatoon brought some attention during its reveal at E3 2014, being a big new IP from Nintendo and a particularly unique take on the Third-Person Shooter genre. Some solid advertisement campaigns later (and meme-creating commercials in the Americas), the game was released with a solid performance worldwide, despite being a new IP on the struggling Wii U console. It broke the 1 million sold copies mark in less than a month, being the 10th game on the console, and the first new IP proper, to do so.note  Notably, despite shooters rarely selling well in Japan, it managed to completely sell out on release day.
  • Rocket League was a fairly small game with not a lot of press during development, made as a sequel to a game that was not particularly well received but became something of a Cult Classic. Then the beta happened, at which point the game's popularity and press shot through the roof to the point that when it came out, it was the #2 best seller on Steam and became a part of Sony's PlayStation Plus "Instant Game Collection" service.
  • WarioWare was not expected by its development team to do particularly well due to its unconventional gameplay, quirky style, and being a Spiritual Successor to a mode for a game released exclusively on the failed Nintendo 64DD. The game ended up doing well above Nintendo's internal expectation and spawned a long line of sequels.
  • Stardew Valley is a Spiritual Successor to Harvest Moon. Despite being of the niche genre of farming Simulation Games, it managed to sell nearly a million copies within a few weeks through mostly word of mouth.
  • Homeworld by Sierra did not have a heavy advertising campaign. The mood of the game also screams Hard Science Fiction, which scares off a lot of casual fans. There is also the Chris Foss/Peter Elson inspiration behind much of the design that screams Old School Sci-Fi. Not a single human character is seen onscreen during the game and the voice acting, while not wooden, is decidedly humorless and subdued, giving it a detached, cold feel. Neverthless, this 1999 game became very popular due in part to it's fully realized 3D gameplay (unlike every other Real-Time Strategy game of the time), resemblance to the plot of the original Battlestar Galactica (a then marginally remembered TV show whose big revival still several years down the road), the moody in game music (such as the brilliant use of Deus Irae) and the Closing Credits song by Progressive Rock group Yes. It had several sequels as well as a remastering and remake for modern systems.
  • Kantai Collection was originally meant for the very niche market of military Otaku (something it shared with Arpeggio of Blue Steel, see example above); but thanks to some Colbert Bumps from big names in the manga and anime industries (the most notable example being Kohta Hirano's epic meltdowns about the game on Twitter), it got a lot more popular than intended.

    Visual Novels 
  • As shocking as it may sound, Higurashi: When They Cry was actually not that well known when it first came out. Word of God says that it wasn't until Meakashi-hen that the series started to garner wide spread attention. The series would eventually become known as one of the flag ships of Japanese Horror and of the visual novel medium.
  • Nine Hours, Nine Persons, Nine Doors, a Visual Novel for the Nintendo DS, was released in North America to little fanfare - there was basically no advertising and retailers had to specifically request copies of the game to stock. It then received several near-perfect scores from major reviewers, and good word-of-mouth led to so many sales that the distributors had to re-print the game. The sequel, Virtue's Last Reward, was released on the Nintendo 3DS and PlayStation Vita to similar critical acclaim.

    Web Animation 
  • The creators of The Most Popular Girls in School didn't think that anybody would even watch their videos. And then, Episode 1 got over a hundred-thousand views in a week.

    Web Original 
  • The Slender Man was not-at-all expected to leave Something Awful, or, at least, not get nearly as popular as it did. It started as a couple pictures for a contest... and, after Marble Hornets began, promptly exploded. Now there's movies and video games being made about Tall, Thin and Faceless, and as a dark twist to this, has caused people to attempt murder in the Slender Man's name. Though it may not be more than a "Devil made me do it" sort of excuse...
  • Podcasts are usually written off as niche topics and rarely break-out as cultural phenoma. But in 2013, Welcometo Night Vale managed to break the mold thanks to vocal support from Tumblr and various other sources. Eventually, it reached #1 on iTunes and the live crossover with Thrilling Adventure Hour ranked higher than Beyoncé for about a day.

    Western Animation 
  • Regular Show was one of only two shows to survive one of Cartoon Network's failed projects, right during the channel's Dork Age. Sure enough, it and Adventure Time helped Cartoon Network out of its slump, and it's easily the second-most popular show on the channel.
  • Adventure Time started out as a short produced for Nickelodeon's Random! Cartoons show, which was pre-screened and then leaked onto the Internet, where it gained a massive amount of popularity in 2007. People who liked the short were already begging for it to be made into a series then. It didn't matter if critics didn't like it, the show had a fanbase three years before it even aired.
  • Recess was originally just going to be another Disney animated series. But due to excellent word of mouth, critical acclaim, and a huge Periphery Demographic, it ended up outliving most of the other shows on the One Saturday Morning block, had a very successful movie, and was rerun to death on every Disney station.
  • While many found the concept and previews interesting, nobody expected Avatar: The Last Airbender to become such a phenomenal success, not even its creators. In fact, many anime fans considered the show's "animesque" look an affront. But by the time A:TLA was at its 8th episode, it had gathered a sizeable fanbase that kept on growing. The show's enduring popularity earned it a sequel series in 2012.
  • Back in 1999, no one had any idea SpongeBob SquarePants was going to be as wicked popular as it became.
  • Invader Zim was originally pitched as an idea to Nickelodeon, who reluctantly green-lit the project and then screwed it over. Despite inconsistent timeslots and gaps between episodes, the show actually got great ratings (though apparently not great enough to justify the show's huge expenses) and a massive cult following. Nickelodeon eventually decided to cash in on the show's success... by yanking the home video rights from the independent company they'd sold those rights to (for next to nothing) years earlier.
  • My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic is one of the best examples out there. The original show from the '80s had the nostalgia factor going for it, but the most recent installment at that point, My Little Pony G3 did not have the best reception from fans and had the Tastes Like Diabetes factor going against it. Combined with the series as a whole often being seen by non-fans as a shamelessly Merchandise-Driven hack-job toy commercial, it was hard to see anyone besides hardcore MLP fans giving it a chance. Indeed, industry watchers thoroughly trashed the show before a single episode had aired. Then, after reading the articles and finding out Lauren Faust, who previously worked on Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends and The Powerpuff Girls, was the showrunner, people started to watch it, and it now has a Periphery Demographic rivaling that of Doctor Who and Star Trek. It even made it into a Super Bowl commercial!
  • In a situation not to dissimilar from Regular Show and Adventure Time, Gravity Falls came out when Disney Channel had alienated many of their over-14 viewers with their endless crop of kidcoms, and Phineas and Ferb and Fish Hooks were the only animated series still running on the channel. Enter Gravity Falls, which came out of the blue with quick gags and random (and slightly dark/adult) jokes reminiscent of shows you'd expect from Cartoon Network, all tied together with an imaginative and intriguing darkly supernatural story. Suddenly, every episode had over a million views, MTV listed it as #2 on their top cartoons of 2012 list, and it now has a massive fanbase on sites like DeviantArt and Tumblr.
  • When the Nicktoons brand started in 1991, Nickelodeon hoped Doug would be the smash hit Nicktoon at the time. In actuality, that honor went to The Ren & Stimpy Show. That show was itself dethroned by Rugrats as Nick's biggest hit, until SpongeBob SquarePants came along.
  • Britt Allcroft, creator of Thomas the Tank Engine, did not believe her series would do as well as it became-previous attempts to adapt the books it was based upon had failed, most notably a particular one in 1953 that failed miserably. Today, Thomas is one of the most popular franchises among preschool boys, and has something of a Periphery Demographic on the Internet (leading it to become one of the most popular YouTube Poop sources ever), all thanks to her!
  • Many people thought that Teen Titans Go!, like most other shows aired on DC Nation at the time, would be screwed over by the channel and would be cancelled quickly. But due to its focus being on comedy rather than action like the other DC Nation shows, it gained a huge following of kids and dethroned Adventure Time as Cartoon Network's flagship show, getting ratings that were on par with prime time shows on broadcast networks and programming on Disney Channel or Nickelodeon. Teen Titans Go's massive success also lead Cartoon Network to be the #1 channel amongst kids in 2015.