Literature / Book of the New Sun
's masterpiece set After the End
in a Feudal Future
which seems to be Low Fantasy
, but is actually science fiction. It tells the story of Severian, an apprentice of the Torturer's Guild who turns out to be a kind of Messianic Archetype
The tetralogy consists of The Shadow of the Torturer
, The Claw of the Conciliator
, The Sword of the Lictor
and The Citadel of the Autarch
, plus a coda, The Urth of the New Sun
, which was written some time later and clears up a number of points from the series proper. It's a work of staggering complexity, with very little explained outright
. The Wild Mass Guessing
alone would be longer than most pages on this wiki (and here's
Part of the "Briah" Cycle, along with the Book of the Long Sun
tetralogy and Book of the Short Sun
This series contains examples of:
- Affably Evil:
- Despite his seemingly generous nature, Dr. Talos.
- Severian, the hero, who is a trained torturer and executioner, and often defends those occupations as necessary parts of society. Though one of his first acts as Autarch is to lock up the members of his guild in the oubliette for a while to see how they like it, and then to issue an order banning torture and dissolving the guild. "By our mercy we will grant even the foulest a quick death. Not because we pity them, but because it is intolerable that good men should spend a lifetime dispensing pain."
- All There in the Manual: The rare supplementary books Lexicon Urthus by Michael Andre-Driussi (which explains some of the more oblique aspects of The Book of the New Sun, as well as the archaic terminology) and The Castle of the Otter (a collection of essays by Wolfe himself about various aspects of the series).
- Also GURPS New Sun, the RPG by the author of Lexicon Urthus, which includes a lot of background hints.
- "Attending Daedalus: Gene Wolfe, Artifice and the Reader" concentrates on the techniques used by Wolfe to guide and misdirect the reader.
- Alien Sky: Urth. The Moon is now green thanks to terraforming, the sun is red and dim, and the stars can be seen during the day.
- And I Must Scream: Early in 'The Shadow of the Torturer', Severian meets a librarian who has developed an obsession with books and reading. He ironically develops blindness. He can still find his way around, locate books, and remember the binding of many books in the massive library.
- Animated Armor: Sidero in Urth of the New Sun. He is not happy when Severian wears him.
- An Axe to Grind: Averted with Severan. Despite becoming a public executioner, his weapon for the job is the sword Terminus Est and not a traditional ax.
- Artificial Human: Jonas. Also, Dr. Talos turns out to be Baldanders' homunculus. Master Malrubius in his post-death appearances is this as well.
- Author Vocabulary Calendar: There are plenty of obscure or archaic words that are used in the books. However, it's used to describe alien creatures and futuristic technology that simply have no modern day analogs for.
- Back from the Dead: Dorcas and several others, including Severian himself, in all probability thanks to the Claw of the Conciliator. Also Dr. Talos, if we're to assume, as it's implied, that Severian hit him a little too hard and broke his neck during their previous meeting.
- Banana Republic: If you believe that the story is set in future-South America, then the massive inequalities of its feudal system is just a futuristic spin on this trope.
- Word of God says Urth is not, in fact, Earth in the distant future, but takes place in another iteration of the universe.
- Big Labyrinthine Building: The House Absolute. Not only is the House so vast and complex that its extents are unknown, but there is a secret "Second House" coextensive with the first.
- Body Horror: Baldanders has attained eternal life at the cost of ceaseless growth. The implication is that he's become a humanoid cancer.
- Brain Bleach: In Baldanders' castle/laboratory, Severian runs through a room whose central feature is a wide-awake vivisected pregnant woman under glass. Spoilered not because you don't know Baldanders is evil, but because it's so disturbing.
- Also, Severian bumps into a gigantic infant (that is, the size of a full-grown man) chained to Baldanders' bed. Even Severian is sharp enough to think "catamite."
- Also, at one point it becomes necessary for Severian to crack a man's head open and eat his forebrain while he's still living. Yeah.
- Brother–Sister Incest: Agia and Agilus. Possibly inter alia, if Severian's missing sister, Severa, is Jolenta or Juturna.
- Call a Smeerp a "Rabbit": As if inverting the popular fantasy trope is not enough, Wolfe subverts it for good measure by naming most of his alien, genetically-engineered or otherwise exotic creatures after obscure prehistoric beasts. Apparently not one term in the tetralogy was made up by the author.
- That claim has confused quite a few readers due to unfortunate typos such as "onegars", a type of animal no one could identify. Turns out it's a typo for "onagers"; onagers are donkey-like animals. (Wolfe gave the definitions for a lot of the weirder words in his book "The Castle of the Otter", which is well worth reading.)
- Christianity Is Catholic: Wolfe is Catholic and the religions existing in the world are based upon Catholicism. Justified perhaps by the Epileptic Trees theory that the novels are set in future South America.
- Cliffhanger Copout: When the story was first published as four separate books, each of the first three books ended with a cliffhanger. In each case, the next book began some time after the resolution of the cliffhanger with what exactly happened never explained in detail. This may have been a protest on Gene Wolfe's part against the novel being Divided for Publication.
- Cold-Blooded Torture: Severan attempts to avoid details of his profession in his story. What little do we get is only to note strange events or if it's relevant to the plot.
- Covers Always Lie: The back cover of the compilation version of The Sword of the Lictor / The Citadel of the Autarch describes the book as containing "Severian's final showdown with the evil Autarch." Not only does this never happen, but to top it off, the "evil Autarch" is an affable eunuch with a penchant for flamboyant attire. No, not Affably Evil. Just affable.
- Cold-Blooded Torture: The Torturer's Guild tortures people as punishment, not interrogation and has no interest in the innocence, guilt, or any attributes of their victims.
- Cool Sword - Terminus Est.
- Also qualifies as a BFS - it's taller than Severian, who is said to be quite tall himself.
- To Wolfe's annoyance, some reviewers insist that it's a ''magic'' sword. It is nothing of the sort. Wolfe gave Latro a magic sword ("It cuts things") as a Take That! to the reviewers.
- Crapsack World: The old sun has dimmed, and the planet that was Earth is cooling. Urth itself is exhausted, and many of its inhabitants live on a medieval tech level. The best place to live is a dictatorship that is constantly under attack externally.
- Crystal Dragon Jesus: In a very Future Imperfect way, religious orders exist that are remnants of Christianity but have become really odd. The Torturer's Guild seems to be a warped version of the Catholic priesthood, as they still think about Saint Catherine in terms of a patron saint and torture is thought of as a messed up version of Confession. Even their formal name, "The Order for the Seekers of Truth and Penitence" equally describes torturers and Catholic clergy. There are the Pelerines who are like nuns but with some Eastern religion thrown in. Finally, there is the ritual of the Alzabo wherein you can gain someone's memories by eating their body along with this alien creature, which has echoes of the Eucharist.
- It goes even further than this. There is an actual Crystal Dragon Jesus in the form of the Conciliator. The religious orders are not actually remnants of Christianity but parallel to Christianity; angels, prophets and healing powers are all very much real. Christianity doesn't exist yet because the New Sun's universe is before our own.
- Sort of. The New Sun's universe is cyclic, so Christianity may have existed, but not in the same form as in our (later) universe.
- And the Conciliator, though being set up to be a distant memory of Jesus, is really Severian himself, via time-travel.
- Chillingly subverted in that the Conciliator myth is engineered by Sufficiently Advanced Aliens to make it appear that their plan to destroy/renew Urth has a divine purpose. Arguably the entire plot is about Severian being manipulated into believing he is on a divine mission, so that he will create the Conciliator myth.
- Cue the Sun: An apparent miracle attributed to Apu-Punchau.
- Dark Messiah / Messianic Archetype: Severian, aka Apu-Punchau.
- He's also the Conciliator and the New Sun... i.e., the bringer of the apocalypse.
- Deadpan Snarker: Jonas, who often uses deadpan jokes. It is with this habit that Severan notes that Jonas must have been a Sailor.
- Dead All Along: Severian. For clarification, in the coda, Urth of the New Sun, Severian died early in the book but immediately had all his memories implanted into a new, identical body that Tzadkiel fashioned for him on the spot.
- Unless he died earlier than that. And there's reason to think he did... there's a skull at the bottom of the river where he "nearly" dies in the first book.
- Deadly Euphemism: The Torturer's Guild refers to its victims as "clients"; also, its technical name is "Guild of The Seekers for Truth and Penitence."
- Deconstructor Fleet: The series deconstructs many things, but particularly of Joseph Campbell's The Hero's Journey. On the surface, Severian is a torturer and executioner who spares a woman, gets banished for it, and eventually rises to become the ruler of the nation, and the savior of the world, while becoming a better person. However, Severian's entire journey is pre-arranged and destined by Sufficiently Advanced Aliens so that he will bring about a future where humanity evolves into the Sufficiently Advanced Aliens. Severian is, for the most part, incapable of seeing the strings.
- Deliberate Values Dissonance: In general, the culture of the Commonwealth has several different social values. Not surprising considering the setting. Severian himself doesn't have any problem with torture, considering it more humane than forced labor or an indiscriminate death penalty. He changes his mind on the matter later on.
- Deus ex Machina: In book four when Severian is rescued by aliens in a spaceship (who had been introduced earlier). His rescuers explicitly state that they are pulling a Deus Ex Machina. However, it is likely that this is a subversion rather than simply lampshading an unsatisfying plot development: the thoughtful reader is supposed to connect this with the puppet imagery earlier in the narrative, and wonder what else the 'powers from above the stage' have been doing during the story. The fact that Severian relates this Deus Ex Machina conversation but still doesn't understand how he's being manipulated, is perhaps one of the clearest examples of his status as Unreliable Narrator.
- Diamonds in the Buff: Jolenta's outfit in Dr. Talos' play. (Severian and Dorcas are completely naked.)
- Dramatically Missing the Point: When Severian discovers a bush covered in Claws on a beach in book IV, does he join the dots and recall that aliens just told him to his face that they were "powers from above stage" orchestrating the story of his life, taking him to the beach so he would have a necessary little adventure? No. He has a religious epiphany instead.
- Dude, She's Like, in a Coma!: Severan undresses Jolenta when she's sleeping.
- Dystopia: The Ascian nation is an Orwellian dystopia. While the rest of the world isn't well off, the Commonwealth doesn't force people to speak only in authorized quotations.
- Eat Brain for Memories: Eating an alzabo gland extract along with the flesh of a human, gives the partaker the memories of source of the flesh.
- Eldritch Abomination: Abaia and Erebus are particularly nasty, apparently, though they're never seen in person - only their human worshippers/slaves, the Ascians, who are an Orwellian totalitarian nation.
- Exalted Torturer: Subverted with Severan. He may be the protagonist, and he believes that Torture is a necessary. But the reader is not meant to see him as heroic for being a torturer.
- Expy: Severian has aspects of the Emperor Claudius as seen in I, Claudius. He refers to people calling him "Severian the Mad" as well as "Severian the Lame", and like Claudius has a less than happy marriage to a woman named Valeria.
- In The Urth of the New Sun he mentioned that his friends called him "Severian the Lame" and his soldiers called him "Severian the Great." This may be a shout-out to the Asian warlord Timur, who was also known by both titles. (It was apparently a pun in Timur's language.)
- Also, sort of a combination of Expy and Shout-Out is the Librarian Ultan who Severian meets, who is clearly based on the author Jorge Luis Borges.
- Which in turn suggests Borges' story Funes the Memorious, about a young man with a voluminous memory, who is so weighed down with details that he is incapable making the generalisations needed to truly understand those facts - which shows us how Severian is an Unreliable Narrator.
- Abaia is arguably an Expy of Cthulhu.
- Fantasy Counterpart Culture: The Commonwealth is based on the Byzantine empire, though set in South America.
- Five-Man Band - Subverted to hell and back with Dr Talos' players, who Severian crosses paths with and then leaves, several times. Severian even meets Dr Talos and Baldanders in an inn.
- Flower in Her Hair: Dorcas does this.
- Foregone Conclusion / Failure Is the Only Option: Either Urth freezes beneath the dying Sun, or billions die with the coming of the New Sun, as prophesied by the Conciliator. The fact that Severian himself is the Conciliator proves that he failed to find a Third Option, before the story even began.
- Future Imperfect: Several examples. While at the library, Severian sees a picture of the first men on the moon and not only describes it in an Innocent Inaccurate way, but also wonders why there's no vegetation on it. Another scene makes reference to the planet Mars being renamed "Present" at some point, and one character can't believe a language existed where the words for "gift" and "now" were the same. There's also a scene where Severian hears a story which has a definite similarity to that of Theseus, but has no idea of the connection. Long lived robot Jonas does understand the connection though.
- "The Tale of The Student and His Son" is a mashup between Theseus and the naval Battle of Hampton Roads: the joke is that after so many centuries, people got the Minotaur confused with the Monitor. (There's a similar story that is a mashup of The Jungle Book and Romulus the founder of Rome - both children raised by wolves.)
The further joke being that the unnamed hero is dreamed up by a student - confusing 'Theseus' with a thesis. And the ship being called The Land of the Virgins is intended as another pun. It ties in nicely with the sacrifice of maidens to the Minotaur, and that the ship fighting the Monitor was the Virgina.
- Genetic Memory: Severian, after ingesting alzabo gland extract and eating part of Thecla, inherits her memories.
- Genius Bruiser: Baldanders is a Mad Scientist.
- Gentle Giant: Subverted. Baldanders appears to fit the archetype, but is actually an Omnidisciplinary Mad Scientist who will eventually, it is implied, ascend at least to demi-godhood. Note that while he's a giant already, he's not even close to full-grown. He will get big enough to have to live in the water eventually, among the Undines and other giant-types too big to walk on land, which as the comment above states, seem to have eerie abilities - there's a throwaway reference to them swimming between the stars.
- God Guise: Tzadkiel appears to Severian in the form of an angel. He falls for it.
- Handsome Lech: While he does experience Character Development, Severian has a really hard time relating women in terms other than their physical attractiveness. While Severian states outright that he himself is not at all attractive, he isn't necessarily reliable on that topic.
- Torturers are forbidden to marry (because their wives would be outcasts the same way torturers are, but without the compensations of belonging to a guild and knowing they are a critical part of the government apparatus.) However, they aren't required to be celibate, and they seem to hire prostitutes whenever they can scrape the money together; also, they're occasionally required to sexually assault the prisoners as part of a court-ordered punishment. Severian's behavior towards women is surprisingly considerate for someone who spent his entire childhood in this environment. (As he says at one point, he's a bad man trying to be a good one.)
- Hero Stole My Destrier: Despite him having a ride, when Severan sees a Destrier (a horse-analog that is far faster than our current day equines) unlike any before, and proceeds to steal it to get to his destination faster. Funny enough, it turns out the Destrier was owned by Vodalus, who latter ponders to Severan who could have stolen it.
- Homage: Many of the shorter stories encountered throughout the main text contain more or less obvious parallels to real-life mythology and literature. One is quite clearly the first chapter of Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book, mashed up with the myth of Romulus and Remus and an American Thanksgiving story.
- Compare and contrast the Man-Apes in the mines with the Morlocks from The Time Machine (which also features the dying sun).
- Have We Met Yet?: Played straight and inverted at the same time. The Hierodules are constantly moving backwards in time, while Severian moves through time normally - hence, his last meeting with them in Urth of the New Sun is their first meeting with him.
- High-Dive Escape: Baldanders makes one.
- Improbable Weapon User: Severian and Agilus, during their duel, use plants which poisonous leaves are picked and thrown like darts.
- Incest Is Relative: Dorcas is Severian's grandmother, although neither of them know that at the time. Agia and Agilus are brother/sister lovers and may also be related to Severian, who has a definite thing for Agia.
- Informed Attractiveness: As with other aspects of the books' world, standards of beauty appear to undergo a ton of translation loss between actuality and the narration. There are strong hints that many of the books' most "beautiful" characters would appear downright unsettling to our eyes.
- Consider the unnatural height and alien-influenced appearance of Exultants, whose numbers include Thecla, Vodalus, and Thea. The exact degree of their distinctive height and features is vague, leaving it uncertain whether they'd strike us as beautiful, or as borderline Humanoid Abominations.
- Severian's throwaway asides about Jolenta suggest a figure that goes right past Curves in All the Right Places to extremes that border on Gonk.
- Innocent Inaccurate: Severian combines this with being a straight Unreliable Narrator. He's more of the former in describing the world he lives in (e.g. his description of a photo of the moon landing), but is more like the latter in describing his own life.
- Istanbul (Not Constantinople): As suggested in the ''GURPS'' game, the Commonwealth where Severian lives is in South America (Buenos Aires is often suggested as the location of Nessus), the Ascians are the former United States of America, and the Xanthic peoples are Asian.
- Kavorka Man: Severian is ugly, often misogynistic, and, you know, a professional torturer and executioner — but the number of women who don't seem to mind is rather staggering.
- King Incognito: The Autarch is (at least) several of his own minor officials, a brothel-keeper, and a conspirator against the throne.
- Lampshaded Double Entendre: Only sometimes sexual in this case, but Jonas' catchphrase is making "as the actress said to the bishop" type comments.
- Language of Truth: The very "newspeak"-like language of the Ascians is intended to be this.
- Subverted by Loyal To The Group Of Seventeen's story.
- Literary Agent Hypothesis: Each volume ends with a note from Gene Wolfe on the 'translation,' often with mentions of how frustratingly unclear Severian sometimes is.
- Low Culture, High Tech: The Commonwealth has access to advanced technology (either through space trade or what's scavenged), but it's limited to the upper classes. The Commonality and middle class are largely a medieval level technology and culture. Urth can no longer produce any higher technology, and is considered a backwater world to the rest of the galaxy, without the resources to trade for anything better.
- Mad Scientist: Genius Bruiser Baldanders.
- The Man in Front of the Man: Those Two Bad Guys, Dr. Talos and Baldanders. Talos, who clearly seems to be the leader, is a clever, glib conman with fox-like features. Baldanders clearly comes off as the subordinate, and appears to be a Gentle Giant and rarely speaks. In actuality, Baldanders is some sort of Humanoid Abomination Mad Scientist who turns out to be a threatening villain, and Talos is an Artificial Human, who is his creation.
- Meaningful Name:
- Dr. Talos is named after a metal man from Classical Mythology, and does indeed turn out to be an Artificial Human.
- Baldanders has the name of a shapeshifting creature in German folklore. He is not what he seems, and turns out to be subject to unnatural growth.
- At first, the name Urth appears to be a corruption of the word "Earth". But Urth is also one of the Norse Norns. The naming of Venus (Skuld) and Mars (Veroandi) follow the pattern.
- Mechanical Evolution: In The Urth of the New Sun, the mechanical humanoid Sidero is revealed to be a robot evolved out of spacesuits with built-in artificial intelligence.
- Medieval Stasis: The Commonwealth of Urth of Severian's time. It's unclear how long Urth has been this way.
- Mega City: Nessus, which takes days just to travel out of the city.
- Mind Screw: Is Severian god? Is the whole thing a complicated twisting plot through multiple timelines? Can we believe a quarter of what Severian is telling us? And many many others. Let's put it this way, there's enough Mind Screw in here to make Evangelion look like an episode of Sesame Street. Ironically, Severian writes that the purpose of his book is to avoid speculation about the events of his life. One can imagine Wolfe having tongue firmly in cheek when he wrote that.
- More Deadly Than the Male: There are no longer women torturers, because of how often they exceeded the punishments set out by the courts. In fairness, this decision was made by a man who may have been extrapolating from one bad example.
- Ms. Fanservice: Jolenta is a deconstruction. Her carefully (and sometimes painfully) maintained figure is a source of inconvenience, and people hate her for being so attractive even as they lust after her. Jonas is the only one who truly and unconditionally loves her for herself.
- Our Angels Are Different: That's if they're not Sufficiently Advanced Aliens.
- Passing the Torch: In the Commonwealth, the Autarch is not a hereditary position (in theory at least), but one which is traditionally passed down to a member of the Commonality. The Autarch does this to Severian. It's also the reason why so many Exultants (the hereditary nobility) dislike the Autarch.
- Perfectly Cromulent Word: Frequently.
He (Master Gurloes) mispronounced quite common words: urticate, salpinx, bordereau.
(Translation: string with nettles, the fallopian or eustachian tube, a memorandum listing documents)
- Plant Hair: Severan goes to see a festival sideshow that supposedly has a future-telling plant man. Much to Severan's surprise, there is a indeed a Green Man. After a moment of silence Severan tries to get the conversation started, by mentioning he always imagined that a plant-man would have grass-like hair. The Green Man finally talks, correcting Severian that he is not a plant.
- Public Execution: Severian is a public executioner and describes some of his jobs when he decides it's relevant to provide a setting for the story.
- Rags to Royalty: Severian, as promised in chapter one.
- Recursive Precursors: The Hierogrammates were created by humanity in an earlier cycle of the Universe. They now forge the humanity of Severian's Universe.
Your race and ours are, perhaps, no more than each other's reproductive mechanisms.
- Robot Buddy: Severian unknowingly encounters one on his journey. It's Jonas, who is a robot that was fixed with organic material.
- Scavenger World: Gene Wolfe once described Urth as "the future where we sit at home and wait for the money to run out" - humanity has exhausted all the resources of the planet and can no longer support any level of technology higher than medieval. Only the ruling class have access to higher levels of tech, which they get by trading for it with extra-terrestrials. In The Claw of the Conciliator Severian runs into a village of "miners" who basically make a living by robbing graves. It's implied that all the resources have run out, so pillaging what we would consider archaeological ruins is the only way to gather resources.
- Sealed Evil in a Can: Typhon, whom Severian accidentally releases... and then kills within the next few pages.
- Show Within a Show: Dr. Talos' play "Eschatology and Genesis", which is an allegory for the overarching plot of the series.
- Space Is an Ocean: Not only are sailing metaphors used for space travelers, their crafts are actually made a lot like traditional sail boats. In fact, not only are ordinary sailors sometimes employed on starships, but thanks to the difficulty of travel, other planets may as well be other continents as far as most people are concerned.
- Speaks in Shout-Outs: Soldiers from the Ascian empire. Any citizen of Ascian can only speak by quoting from the "Authorized Texts". It's another example of the dystopia Ascia is.
- Spiritual Successor: To Jack Vance's Dying Earth stories - both are set in a far future where science has decayed, and feature a dying sun.
- So Beautiful, It's a Curse: Subverted by Jolenta — she herself enjoys being so beautiful that Even the Girls Want Her. However, the process used by Dr. Talos to make her beautiful has left her effectively crippled and dependent on various lotions and chemicals only he can provide, without which it breaks down. Horribly.
- Star Killing: What's happening to the Old Sun. Apparently a black hole was sent into the Sun, causing it to enter a dimmer, red state without expanding into a giant.
- Stop Hitting Yourself: One of the devices the Torturer's Guild uses is the revolutionary, which implants in its victim an overpowering urge to harm themselves. If they concentrate they can temporarily resist the compulsion, but inevitably they will unconsciously bite, choke, and tear at themselves, over and over again. The "demon" inside them weakens as they do, so most last for about a month.
- Solar CPR: What turns out to be the plot of the series. Severian is successful, but at the cost of causing a cataclysmic flood.
- Sufficiently Advanced Aliens: The Hierodules are basically this.
- The Revolution Will Not Be Vilified: Subverted with Vodalus. He and his followers claim to be working to return the decaying Urth to its former past glory. It turns out Vodalus is in league with Abaia, who wants to prevent the New Sun from arriving.
- The Stars Are Going Out: Inverted. The sun is very dimmed and fading quickly — meaning that the other stars are now visible during the day.
- Theme Naming:
- Siblings such as Agilus and Agia are intentionally given similar names, also apparently telling the order of their birth. Severian's name indicates he has an older sister, somewhere.
- Vodalus and all characters from the city of Nessus, including Severian himself, are named after saints (though many of them little-known).
- Those Two Bad Guys: Dr. Talos and Baldanders.