Naruto has a lot, given the show's large cast. Orochimaru, whose pale skin, prehensile tongue, and slitted eyes make him look very much like the snakes he uses in battle. later it reveals that his true form is a giant snake composed of tiny white snakes. And to think that he was creepy enough. He even looked like that when he was a little kid (before he could have done any of the self body modificiation that let would justify most of it), which really raises the question of just who the hell his parents were to pass on genes like that.
The host of the tailed beast in all have some sort of physical traits of the beast. Naruto has the whisker marks on his face (which get bigger as he used the Kyuubi's power), Gaara had the black rings around his eyes, the host of the two-tailed cat has cat-like eyes, Killer Bee has two marks in the shape of ox horns on his left cheek plus a rope belt whose ends stick out behind him like tails, and Kushina had bright-red hair just like the fox (which on cover even had sticking up into nine tails when she was angry). Despite fanon, these aren't really cases of Red Right Hand as the markings are either coincidental (Naruto had the whiskers even before the fox was put inside of him) or indirect effects of being hosts (Gaara's eye rings are a result of him never being able to sleep because the Shukaku would take over otherwise; his father gains similar rings when using his gold dust techniques based on Shukaku's powers despite having never been a host himself).
Many fans figured that Kisame, a man who fights with water jutsu and a sword called "sharkskin", was a shark-man as a result of fusing with Samehada and becoming even more shark-like, but then we eventually saw that, no, he looked like that even before getting Samehada. He's just like that by coincidence. He's not the only native of the Hidden Mist Village with shark-like appearance (especially Samehada's previous owner, also by coincidence), though it's more extreme for him than for the others. Apparently there's just a segment of the population in that town with really odd genes. Or, you know, a really unhealthyattraction to sharks...
One Piece probably provides a thousand examples, but the most "prominent" would be Usopp's long nose. It signifies his lying personality (a reference to Pinocchio, of course) and some fans even speculate that it helps him aim better when shooting. There's also Mr. 7, whose entire face is shaped like sevens. The SBS shows us what he'd look like if he got promoted to Mr. 6. (face full of sixes)
It goes beyond Usopp's nose. His entire body, from his oversized feet and bony limbs to his skull cap all make him look like a giant marionette puppet brought to life. Even his dream is a parallel to Pinocchio's dream. A fake who wants to be real.
One of the funnier examples is seen in a cover arc when it's shown that beneath his heart-shaped sunglasses, Jango has... heart-shaped eyes.
There is a minor side character in the Ranma ˝ manga who cooks okonomiyaki. His face looks like a spatula. Also the Gambling King, who is a professional (though lame) gambler, looks like a king out of a card game, and wears a coat with hanafuda designs on it. The French Cuisine arc had the governess dressed in 20th century French gown in modern Japan, with her hair tied up to resemble a roast chicken. Although plot-justified (sort of), a Takoyaki chef spent the majority of his life wearing a Octopus mask.
Sailor Moon: While it's not natural, Usagi Tsukino and (to an even greater degree) her daughter Chibiusa wear their hair in a way to look like rabbit ears. Likewise, Michiru's hair looks like ocean waves, while Makoto's original school uniform and hairstyle are meant to evoke a Delinquent which she is rumored to be (But not actually, subverting the trope).
Chumley in Yu-Gi-Oh! GX looks like a koala (strangely not mentioned in the dub), naturally this is his deck theme.
Yu-Gi-Oh! 5Ds: Andore of Team Unicorn, has hair resembling a unicorn's mane complete with a massive spike in its centre.
If you showed someone a cast shot of Ano Hana and told them that one of the characters was a ghost, they probably wouldn't have any trouble figuring out which one it is: It's obviously the girl with the pale skin, silver hair, and white sun dress. Naturally, she looked like that even when she was alive.
Himemaru, from the Harem Comedy manga Rappi Rangai, is a ninja who specializes in traps, both setting them up, and immobilizing opponents with ropes. He also has a very feminine appearance. That is, he's a trap who works with traps. It seems he was always like that, as he mentioned having "the most beautiful face in [his] village". Even his own father was shocked when he realized how much Himemaru looks like his mother.
Onpu Segawa from Ojamajo Doremi. She is the idol girl and musical themed. Her head has a shape of a Music Note due to the help of her side ponytail.
Pyro, villain in the X-Men series, fits the description of person with fire powers in the introduction to this trope.
In Roger Zelazny's Lord of Light this is one of the defining characteristics of gods. So much so that they can be identified even if you've never me them before.
Those who look upon gods then say, without even knowing their names, "He is Fire. She is Dance. He is Destruction. She is Love."
Requisite Discworld example: In Making Money, Moist notes that Hubert is one of those names you can automatically put a face to. There might easily be Huberts who are tall and thin, but the Hubert he is introduced to is a good proper Hubert, that is to say, stubby and plump. (He is a bit off-model by having red hair, but it's no great distraction.)
Someone in Fahrenheit 451 was Genre Savvy. At one point the protagonist takes a look around at his fellow firemen and realizes that it can't be coincidence that they are all grim, stoic-looking men with thick, carbon-black hair.
Honor Harrington has Baron High Ridge, description of whose appearance ends in this:
If central casting had sent him to an HD producer for the role of an over-bred, cretinous aristocrat, the producer would have sent him back with a blistering memo about stereotypes and typecasting.
...the wonderful girl's brother's name was Russell, a name which, to Arthur's mind, always suggested burly men with blond moustaches and blow dried hair... Russell was a burly man. He had a blond moustache. His hair was fine and blow dried.
In John Dies at the End, this is a surefire way to know someone isn't real. Entities impersonating people tend to pull their appearance from your mind, so they look exactly as you'd expect them to. This is always a very bad thing
Subverted, then played straight, by Laeshana in A.L. Phillips's The Quest of the Unaligned. At first, her golden hair clashes with her fire-magic and fiery personality. However, this turns into a straight example when she becomes an orah, as orahs are both mages of light (and Gold and White Are Divine), and orahs are elementally unaligned, which in Caederian heraldry is represented by the color gold.
Live Action TV
In many incarnations of Power Rangers, the Rangers display a visible penchant for their Ranger colors even before empowering.
On the other hand, the Jungle Fury Red Ranger's favorite piece of civilian clothing is a black hoodie.
Power Rangers Dino Thunderlampshades the trope: when Doctor Oliver becomes the black ranger, he points out that he'll have to do some shopping, as his wardrobe is somewhat black-deficient. Doctor O is the perfect choice for this one, as he had, in his younger days, served as Green, White, and Red(twice!) Rangers. Each time, the color change was preceded by a change in the dominant color of his civilian wardrobe.
When Bridge, SPD Green, waves his hand to read the area's energy, a green trail is left behind. In a later Reunion Show, he's been promoted to Red. Use of his mutant power also has changed to red when he uses it.
In Super Sentai the show that provides source material for Power Rangers, if a season has a Red-Headed Hero, expect him to be a red ranger. There have been two, the Red Rangers of Gekiranger and Go-Onger, with two non-Red Rangers whose hair was more reddish-brown, the Green Ranger of Shinkenger and the Black Ranger of Goseiger. (Power Rangers averts this, as the only two redheads they've had were a Yellow and White Ranger.)
Pushing Daisies features a brightly dressed cast, however Ned, the main character, always wears black, white, or grays, probably to emphasize his solitariness and his shy, reserved disposition. May also be connected to his ability revolving around death.
Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay has a variation. Wizards and priests develop traits of their magic type or god. For example, fire mages will develop red, flickering hair and a quick temper, while priests of the sea god start having mercurial temperments.
Exalted: Justified with the Dragon-Blooded, as they are quite literally elemental forces within mortal bodies.
It occurs in Mage: The Ascension naturally due to how character creation works. Mages are always people with extreme commitment to a particular world view before their Awakening. For example, a member of the Celestial Chorus is a mage who works magic through their commitment to god, by whatever name they address god. They tend to already be clergy, and if not, religion is already such a big part of their life that it'll likely show through in the character design.
As one of the major trope codifiers of most tropes in High Fantasy and Heroic Fantasy, Dungeons & Dragons (and by extension Pathfinder) classes each have stereotypical looks which most characters fit. Players looking for an image for their character can likely just use Google to search for their race/class combination. Canny players can actually subvert this trope to fool enemies with disguises and magic, provided their GM is not a Killer Game Master who spoils plans out of sheer malevolence.
Justified in Mystic Empyrean, in that Eidolons (ie. a Player Character) get powers directly based on their personality traits. Gruff people grow an armored shell, pessimists suck the light out of the room, dutiful people sprout writhing chains, and artistic people start to turn into living paintings.
BIONICLE's Toa followed this trope to the letter in the beginning. However, recent story has been trying to avert this; the last unique team of Toa was a group of mismatched rogues trying to get used to their new elemental roles.
Kingdom Hearts II has Organization XIII, which averts or plays this trope straight as per Tetsuya Nomura's design of the members.
Played straight with Axel (redhead with caustic attitude and fire powers), Marluxia (pinkhaired, mellow (if not cruel) personality, controls flowers), Larxene (sadistic, lightning powered blonde), Lexaeus (built like a rock, controls earth), Zexion (controls illusions, his bangs droop and cover one eye completely), and Roxas (a denizen of darkness with powers over light, wears black and white patterned clothes under the uniform black coat).
And then averted with Vexen (controls ice and is a mad scientist, but has no distinguishing physical characteristics), Xigbar (controls space, but despite yellow eyes, pointed ears and a long black ponytail, looks normal), Demyx (controls water, has a...mullet thing), and Xaldin (controls wind, has long black dreadlocks).
As for the other three, that's more of a YMMV issue. The leader, Xemnas, controls Nothing. While his hair is white (and his voice is near-emotionless), this is only because the being he is the Nobody of has the same hair color. Then there's Saix, who controls Lunar powers, and has bright-blue hair and bright yellow eyes. However, whether you believe Lunar elements to be represented as blue flames is up for your interpretation. And finally, there is Luxord: He's blonde with a few piercings. That can be attributed to his being a gambler, but his power is over Time.
While on Kingdom Hearts, there is Xehanort from Birth by Sleep; who can't be anymore evil looking if he was wearing a sign with bright orange paint saying "I'm lying to you and I'm going to screw all of you over!"
Some of the Gym Leaders in Pokémon fall under this category.
The film version of Sauron (before he lost the ring) may deserve some blame, but the title character of the Overlord series looks exactly like what you'd expect. Glowing eyes, shrouded face, spiky plate armour, the works.
In the first game, this is of course a direct subversion: because you're given the glowing eyes and spiky plate armor, the trope is invoked to prevent the realization that you aren't in fact the original evil Overlord. If you pay attention, there's even a hint at the beginning of the minions modifying your eyes.
Apollo Justice: Ace Attorney: Guy Eldoon is an ex-surgeon who sells noodles, and his hat and hair look like a bowl of ramen. When he takes it off, the hat is a wig, and he has the hairstyle you would expect a doctor to have. In fact, he strongly resembles the Medic from Team Fortress 2.
Ace Attorney Investigations: Quercus Alba is ancient and sturdy, like a white oak tree (which has the scientific name Quercus Alba). He also has plants growing all around his office.
Averted by Clown Man from Mega Man 8, as there is no way anyone could guess that he could control electricity just by looking at him. The same goes for Turbo Man from Mega Man 7 and Sword Man from Mega Man 8, since both of them don't look like they could manipulate fire unlike their fellow fire Robot Masters, although they aren't as random as a lightning-elemental clown.
Tekken has it's share of fighters who look like their martial arts styles or personalities. Bryan Fury in particular is a good example of what somebody evil with insane fighting capabilities is really going to look like.
Alluded to in Erfworld, with the magic of Signamancy. The basis of the magic is people's appearances, with the implication that their exterior appearance is tied to their personality, disposition, and true nature. So far...
Sylvia: Fiery Redhead that seems to have a preoccupation with fire and a reckless attitude towards danger.
King Slately: A ruler that lets his warlords run the show. Very short, fat, mostly bald with gray hair, unlike his (mostly) heroically-proportioned sons.
Jillian: When she became a Queen, she lost some muscle and her "Warrior" look to seem more "Royal."
Wanda: In flashbacks to her darkest hour, she looks emaciated and withered.
Everyone in Cucumber Quest will have some kind of character design element that is perfectly in line with their name. For example, Bacon's hair is wavy and greasy and looks like bacon while Peridot's is boxy and resembles green gemstone.
In one Nodwick comic, the group manages to defeat several opponents (primarily spellcasters) by first having a chat with their tailors. Once they know what theme the customer is going for, figuring out their weaknesses is a snap.
Both used seriously and spoofed in the Whateley Universe, since it is a comic book world. For example, Fireball has the manic nature, the clothes, the coloring... but she dyes her hair to make it look flame-colored, she's really a strawberry blonde.
Land Games: All of the main characters are genetically engineered to perfectly represent their families, which typically includes giving them eyes and hair the same as their House colors.
Averted in Worm in which everyone with powers starts as a physically normal person. While some change appearance later or due to their power(s) most don't even go that far, instead faking stuff like fancy hair as part of their disguise.
One Mickey Mouse detective story had a minor side character called Peter Porto who was a specialist on postage stamps. He not only had the oddly Prophetic Name which just seemed to destine him to become said expert, he also had a face that looked like a stamp. Of course, he could be so obsessed that he'd cut his beard and hair to look like that, but his face was a frikkin rectangle.
In Transformers Animated Constructicons look remarkably like human construction workers, right down to the hardhats and exposed buttcracks.
For a sort of odd reverse example, see the original series episode "Only Human". Rodimus Prime, Ultra Magnus, Springer and Arcee get turned into humans, and promptly manage to find a set of four outfits which perfectly match their robotic color schemes.
Gaetan "Mole" Moliere, the excavation expert in Atlantis: The Lost Empire, has buck teeth, tiny eyes (actually, telescoping lenses) and large, claw-like hands, not unlike the animal he's nicknamed after.
In the X-Men adaptation X-Men: Evolution (as well as in some of his other continuities, such as the mainstream comics) the appropriately flame-empowered Pyro has orange hair that sticks up, in what is a very classic use of this trope.
In one episode of Sushi Pack, an actor who played an electricity-themed villain in a Show Within a Show had a face that was extremely similar to his character's electric face.
The "fire-powered" character with the stand-up two-tone hair, etc. described in the Trope blurb is a perfect description of Hotstreak from Static Shock (except that he's a villain, not a hero).
You don't get much more appropriate than Discord in My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic. He's the embodiment of chaos and disharmony, and he looks like a mish-mash of random animal parts stuck together with hot glue.
This is sometimes enforced if your job might depend on it. You kind of expect a tailor or dressmaker to have good fashion sense, a dentist to have good teeth, or a personal trainer to be in great shape. It might not affect their performance in any way, but the dissonance can be a little shocking. This is also the idea behind the old phrase "Skinny cooks can't be trusted."
A dentist can, however, take care of their teeth more responsibly, given they know best how to do so.
Finally, appearance might be actually affect their ability to perform their duties. A big bad bouncer stops fights from happening by being big and looking mean a lot more than by actually throwing people around. A salesperson whose appearance surprises Middle America (or the same demographic in their nation) has one strike against them.
Dr. Atul Gawande in his book Complications relays an anecdote where his ability to perform his job was hindered because of his appearance. The patient and her father explained that he just looked too young, and hearing the exact same news from an older physician helped them accept it. Given how professionally he is typically dressed, consider how much more difficult patient interaction is for a doctor who doesn't look the part.
John DiMaggio looks pretty much exactly like one would imagine somebody with his voice would look like. That is, big, burly, red-haired, usually with a beard...
Likewise, anyone who hears Kevin Michael Richardson's voice and then sees what he looks like probably won't be all that surprised.