Babies don't show up in Dragon Ball and its sequels all that often, but the Cell saga featured Bulma and Vegeta's infant son, Trunks, alongside his Future Badass self that came back to Set Right What Once Went Wrong. The one time baby Trunks is in mortal danger, Future Trunks jumps in to save him and his mom. On the other hand, Dende, who is roughly the Namek equivalent of a five-year-old at the time, is brutally murdered because Frieza doesn't want him using his Healing Hands to help the heroes—and this is after Frieza jumped the Moral Event Horizon by murdering Dende's entire village, including his brother. Later on, seven-year-old Goten and eight-year-old Trunks are killed when Majin Buu blows up the Earth and three-year-old Marron is turned into chocolate and eaten along with her parents and the other side characters. (This is the poster series for Death Is Cheap...)
There is a filler scene in the original Dragon Ball where Snow, the girl from Jingle Village, grabs a rifle from a fallen King Castle soldier and takes aim at Piccolo Daimao as his back is turned, but gives up. Piccolo then turns right around and fires eye-lasers in her direction. When the smoke clears, we're relieved to see that he wasn't aiming for Snow at all, but another soldier directly behind her.
It is however, averted when Vegeta and Nappa first arrive on Earth. Nappa's first action is to blow up the entire city they've landed in—- which does include some children seen in the background. And the kicker? Unlike most ordinary civilian casualties, in the series they don't get brought back by the titular MacGuffin... Except in the dubbed version where they write the whole thing off as Conveniently Empty Buildings.
Gunsmith Cats 1-ups Mad Max in one particularly memorable chase scene. A girl runs out into the middle of the road, Bean Bandit (who has a soft-spot for kids) and Rally Vincent (hotshot bounty hunter pursuing him) avoid hitting the girl by running their cars into each other and driving simultaneously on two wheels, forming a triangle over her.
We know from when it's first found that the abandoned baby in Tokyo Godfathers will survive anything. It's implied in the movie that the baby is getting protected by God Himself, with a nice analogy to the infant Jesus. This is probably most apparent during the climax, when the baby and Hanna fall off of a building and are saved by a huge gust of wind.
Subverted in YuYu Hakusho. Hiei, minutes after birth was thrown off a floating island, into a demon infested forest. Luckily, he survived. And what's worse, it was all because he was a male. The Ice Maidens are some kinda cold blooded to have zero pity for an infant, indeed.
Zig-zagged in JoJo's Bizarre Adventure part 4: serial killer Yoshkaga Kira has no problems with killing Hayato, an 11 year old boy, except for the fact that doing so will blow his cover - and when pressed, Kira actually does kill Hayato. Played straight when it turns out that Kira has gained a new ability - a bomb that is able to turn back time, thus undoing Hayato's death. And then later on, during the final confrontation with Kira, Hayato gets blown up again, sacrificing himself in order to get rid of the bomb planted on Okuyasu; Hayato did this knowing that Josuke can heal him right back up, and Josuke is able to fix him while he's still blowing up, ultimately playing the trope straight.
Plenty of children are shown as zombies in School-Live! however no one actually dies on-screen. It looks like Ruu had her head stomped on and died on-screen, however she survives her injuries. Played with as Ruu isn't real. Rii sees a teddy bear as her younger sister, who is implied to be actually dead.