Translation With An Agenda
"Thou translator, thou traitor."
Translators are professional people who would never put their political ideology, religion or other such opinions above their job, and would never violate the text in order to advance their own views.
Well, most of them anyways.
This trope is about the exceptions. Translators or editors that would, yes, and do, yes, ignore or twist the original meaning of a word or text in order to advance their point of view. Serious translators consider this an utterly unprofessional and even evil breach of ethics and of the reader's trust. Unprofessional ones, however, couldn't care less, and the result is a Translation With An Agenda
, a.k.a. a Harry Bosco.
These are translations that gleefully ignore or twist the original text in order to pursue a political agenda either of the translator or of the editor/employer of the translator. Whereas a Tactful Translation
is meant to smoothen the edges of a situation, a Woolseyism
is essentially a distilled translation and a Cut-and-Paste Translation
tends to have cultural or logistical reasons, a Translation With An Agenda
is done solely to advance a political, religious or otherwise ideological goal - twisting or ignoring the original work by falsely identifying villains in it with one's political opponents, mistranslating a "good" adjective as something more specific related to one's agenda, or even by simply mistranslating most or all of the text to make it a tract on one's views. Note that this isn't a mere mistake or simple unconscious bias - there is actual, conscious intent to make the translation fit one's views regardless of what is said in the original text.
Needless to say, fans, translators, and translator fans
who realize what's going on get quite furious, with good reason.
Real Life Examples
- One episode of Torchwood: Miracle Day uses the Harry Bosco Translation With An Agenda process by name - and figuring out what was actually said before the translation was Harry Boscoed is a major plot point of that episode.
- In Knights of the Old Republic 2, the HK-50 droids masquerade as protocol droids (who among other things work as translators) to spread anarchy and war by ruining diplomatic confrontations. Judging by some of the cut content (where you see the place they're manufactured and trained), they are not at all subtle about it, often opening conversations with vile insults and overt threats they attribute to their "masters".
- In the Christopher Stasheff book A Wizard in Chaos, a boss's steward is deliberately mistranslating prices quoted by merchants and taking the excess. This lands him in trouble when the protagonist, a telepath, shows up.
- MAD ran a series of Newspaper Comic strips which had been (allegedly) adapted by the Soviet Union, re-traslated into English, which had the various characters bemoaning their fates or otherwise delivering very unsubtle stabs at the American Way. For example, in a Peanuts Halloween strip which showed the kids going Trick or Treating, the speeches were changed to the kids having to go begging door to door to get something to eat and being so embarrassed by having to do so that they dress in costumes so nobody will see their shame.
- The rest of the examples are taken from tv series, btw, not from comic strips.
- Speaking of MAD, there was a Mad Look At strip where a man was speaking at a political rally with someone translating into Sign Language. Everyone in the room gets offended. The last panel is the interpretor being paid by the man's opponent.
- The final The Critic webisode showed an alternate ending to Pearl Harbor for the Japanese market.
- In the Doctor Who episode "Planet of the Ood", the slavers' presentation reveals that they offer a selection of translation devices to make the eponymous race's speech conform to what their masters want to hear, thus creating the illusion of Happiness in Slavery.
- In a rare heroic example, the translator from "The Greek Interpreter" exploited the kidnappers' ignorance of Greek, questioning their prisoner about the circumstances of his captivity while they thought he was interrogating him about things they wanted to know.
- Subverted in Lawrence Block's Tanner's Twelve Swingers where despite his boss' request that he "translate" an eastern European political author's latest book in a way which would be more favorable to the western countries, especially the US, the title character fully intended to translate it "word for glorious word."
- In Agatha Christie's "The Stymphalian Birds", two conwomen stage the murder of an Invented Individual who they claim is the abusive husband of one of them in a Central European country and get the mark to give them money that they claim they will use to bribe the police to cover up the murder. Since the mark is a monolingual Englishman, he has to trust them to do all the talking to the police. They get caught when they later translate an innocent conversation with another guest as that guest revealing that she knows about the murder and demanding a payoff. At that point, the mark consults fellow guest Hercule Poirot about the apparent Blackmail, and the con unravels.
- A famous, and somewhat universal, joke has a translator interpreting what the captured rich man is saying, and vice versa his captors. Repeated demands for the location of a treasure, threatening the hostage's life, only get the answer "I won't tell" from the hostage - until one of the bandits draws a weapon, at which point the hostage shouts where the treasure is hidden. The (clearly greedy) translator looks at the other bandits, and says 'he doesn't know, and he insulted your mother.'
Real Life Examples in The Bible
- This case is a textbook one. "Nasty", a general insult, was translated as a specific political slur regarding people of a certain Brazilian political party. Since the editor of this comic is linked to a magazine well-known in Brazil for utterly hating said political party, and since it would take specific effort to make such a "mistake" (as "nasty" is a fairly simple word that can be translated more easily into several others), it became clear that this was a Translation With An Agenda.
- While the book has never been translated fully, at least some of the controversy regarding The Satanic Verses in the Arabic speaking world can be attributed to the fact that the title was sometimes deliberately translated using the word "ayat", which specifically means the verses of the Quran as opposed to its more general English title.
- This very NSFW page of the hentai title "What is Islamic Fundamentalism?" (Yes.) has the original Japanese dialogue replaced with "SMUT SMUT SMUT" all over. Trans. note: "stuff about dripping and dicks and stuff". Ed. note: "use your imagination". You could imagine someone has become tired of the stock hentai dialogue...
- In his Let's Play of Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, after having railed against Yoshio Sakomoto for Metroid: Other M in earlier videos of the LP, Slowbeef translated his producers log as thus:
"Hello, this is Yoshio Sakomoto! Itís not easy writing stories for Metroid considering my functional illiteracy. Honestly, I donít really like Samus, and I donít want you to like her either. I hate her and feel threatened by her. I will ruin this franchise. Iím just coming out and telling you. Fuck Metroid and fuck you."
- There's an infamous scanlation◊ of Cardcaptor Sakura where Tomoyo's Love Confession to Sakura is unchanged, but presented with a note on the side that reads "Ewww..." It's uncertain if this was in reaction to the lesbianism or to the fact that they're cousins, but fans were not amused. Both of the pair being notably underage might be a factor, but a professional translator abstains from commentary.
- In an inversion, many Chinese films will have lines altered when exported to the US to remove any pro-Chinese political messages. With some films, this not only means taking out overt references, but anything that can be construed as even vaguely political. Suffice to say, has become a Berserk Button for fans.
- The Franco Regime had a board of censors to make sure Spaniards weren't exposed to foreign filth and dangerous political ideas. This extended to movie dubbing, and some efforts of the censors are still legendary in Spain, the most egregious one being turning the protagonists of the adulterous affair in Mogambo to an innocent-looking brother and sister, making their visually hinted relationship incestuous instead in a spectacular backfire. Another straightforwardly political one was omitting Rick's past as a fighter for the Spanish Republic in Casablanca.
- While not as exaggerated as the Spaniard ones, Mexican-Spanish dubs has did this sometimes:
- As a rule of thumb, any reference towards Americans going against Mexicans will be invariably changed, for obvious reasons.
- When coming up with an Inuktitut word for "uranium", a translator who obviously had some personal views regarding nuclear energy rendered it as "rock that kills", and that term was used for some time before it was realized what had been done.
- Garfield is probably one of the least political comic strips in existence. But in the eighties, one Norwegian translator team kept insisting that Jon subscribes to Klassekampen, a well-known left-wing newspaper. And considering what a Straw Loser Jon was at the time...
Some translations of the Bible are considered by some people to have an agenda. This not only makes this trope Older Than Print
, it also earns the Bible a section of its own!
- The ever so infamous homophobic Leviticus verb actually uses a term more accurately applied to underage [male?] prostitutes than "man".
- You mean, the same term, zakhar, found all the way back in the creation account, meaning "male", as in "male and female created He them"?
- Some Jewish people accused Christians of doing this to the Old Testament, translating lines from the original Hebrew to make them sound like prophecies applicable to Jesus. Of particular note is the line "A young woman shall conceive and bear a son" (Isaiah 7:14) where "young woman" was translated as "virgin". (To be fair, the Hebrew word could have either meaning, but Jews contend that the "virgin" translation is out of context).
- To be fair, the young girl —> virgin translation happened before Christianity existed. It occurred in the first major translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek, called the "Septuagint," which was completed by 132 B.C.
- Either way, the statement is referring to events happening in the lifetimes of the listeners, and the woman in question was a specific one. It is very clearly not a messianic prophecy when taken in context.
- Conservapedia, where they try re-translating the King James Bible from English to English. They feel there's too much Liberal bias in the translation made in the 1600s.
- The line translated in the King James Version as "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live". An equally valid translation would be "poisoner".
- There was no real distinction between the use of malign magic and poison in the culture at the time. Both made people fall dead with no visible reason. In any case, "witch" in the context means "a person who uses magic/poison to harm others", rather than "person who uses magic, period".
- The difference between "poisoner" and "witch" is that, in some countries, women were more likely to be accused (and executed) for witchcraft than men. Poisoner is a far more gender neutral word today, and in the 1600s it would more commonly be applied to men, as far more men had any knowledge on how to use poisons. With the change of a word, the translator changes the focus of suspicion from primarily men to women.
- Speaking of English translations of the Bible, the Geneva Bible was infamously biased in favor of the type of Calvinism embraced by the vast majority of Puritans. This fact, plus the fact that the other, state-sanctioned translation was of less than satisfactory quality, helped pave the way for the King James Version in the first place.
- A New Testament example is the common practice of translating the Greek word "doulos" as "servant" when it meant "slave". The New Testament has a lot of casual and uncritical references to slaves, but slavery is nowadays considered abhorrent. At the time it was fairly matter-of-fact, though to be fair one of Christianity's main selling points was its insistence that slaves were as equal as anyone else in the eyes of God, and (in the context of their status, anyway) should be treated as such.
- The Temperance Bible altered every instance of Jesus drinking wine to drinking grape juice. Also, every other mention of wine is retranslated "grape juice", unless someone is getting drunk off it or condemning it.
- The New World Translation (NWT), produced by the Jehovah's Witnesses, changes most instances of Kyrios ("Lord") in the New Testament to "Jehovah".
- To put that into context: they did so only when a) a new author directly quotes from the Old Testament (OT) and b) the name of God appears in the quoted text or if there are hebrew translations of the NT that feature the divine name in that particular verse. There is an extensive research apparatus in the NWT study edition to justify their decision to use the name "Jehovah" in the NT, accounting for every single instance the name was used.
- And besides, the NWT is hardly the only translation to do so. Here are some translations that also featured God's name in the NT: A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the Text of the Vatican Manuscript, by Herman Heinfetter (1863), The Emphatic Diaglott, by Benjamin Wilson (1864), The Epistles of Paul in Modern English, by George Barker Stevens (1898), St. Paulís Epistle to the Romans, by W. G. Rutherford (1900), The Christianís BibleóNew Testament, by George N. Le Fevre (1928), The New Testament Letters, by J.W.C. Wand, Bishop of London (1946)
- The ending salutation in Romans 16 references Junia, a female deacon or church leader. Nearly all English Bibles (minus the more scholarly ones, like NRSV) render this name as "Junias" in an attempt to make it masculine and disguise the fact that many early church leaders were women.