In the far distance a helicopter skimmed down between the roofs, hovered for an instant like a bluebottle, and darted away again with a curving flight. It was the Police Patrol, snooping into people's windows. The patrols did not matter, however. Only the Thought Police mattered.
Section 9 in Ghost in the Shell. A rare case of members of such an organisation being the protagonists rather than antagonists, focusing on fighting dangerous criminals and terrorists, and are actually supposed to be secret (as in the public not knowing they officially exist). However, Being the good guys doesn't mean they don't play this trope straight in all other respects.
Tower of God: The the Royal Enforcement Division is an Internal Affairs Agency that overlooks the loyalty of Zahard's followers from the shadows, especially his princesses. Ren, the youngest member, is strong enough two wipe the floor with the two strongest fighters of Baam's clout.
In Samurai Champloo, there are couple of characters working for the shogunate's secret police, but they are all good guys. There is hardboiled detective parody, Manzou the Saw, as well as an Action Girl and her partner who work to bring down a prostitution/crime ring.
The "Cipher Pol No. 9" (CP9) of the universe of One Piece: they're the World Government's secret assassins, trained in infiltration and in the Rokushiki (six techniques) in order to complete their missions. They have the authority to kill any citizen that is presented as a threat to the World Government, including nobility.
Ratman has "S Security", the Hero Association's top enforcers who are dispatched to covertly eliminate threats to the Association like the eponymous Anti-VillainProtagonist.
In Mobile Suit Gundam, we have the Principality of Zeon's Secret Servicenote Does the acronym sound familiar?, though they only exist in backstory. Their activities throughout Zeon's existence include killing off the Daikun family and their supporters to ensure the Zabis' rule, and disappearing One Year War protesters and suspected traitors (which is pretty much anyone they or the Zabis didn't like) in typical secret police fashion. Two of the side manga even describe how Side 3 suffered from rolling "blackouts", which in reality were whole neighborhoods being cleared out and left unpopulated; in other words, there was nobody left to turn houselights on over entire city blocks.
Notably in the novels, Ramba Ral (of all people) was a member of the Secret Service instead of being the Badass Gouf pilot we all know him for. As opposed to the Officer and a Gentleman he was in the TV/Movie series, he was more a Gihren loyalist here, such that he harbored shame over his father saving Zeon Zum Daikun's children from extermination.
The Lemony Narrator fears the dreaded Fallacy Police. Apparently they're watching her, waiting for her to slip up. Good thing for her, Loose Change reasons that she's had no faults in logic in her essay so far so she should be fine. But given the absurdity of the statement, it stands to reason that their existence is highly questionable.
It is hinted that Celestia might have had a secret police during the Classical Era. But the name that the narrator gives the organization, "Celestia Watermelon Friendship Surprise", casts doubt into this validity of this claim.
The Grammaton Clerics of Equilibrium. Like the Firemen, the Clerics seek out and destroy anything that the state declares "emotionally dangerous". What separates them from other political police is that they know Gun Kata, making them far deadlier and much cooler.
In a semi-Real Life example the movie The Bank Job features MI-5 acting in a role similar to this when they blackmail a group of thieves to commit a bank robbery to steal blackmail materials against the royal family. Though the incident in the film has been alleged to be true it is entirely unproven.
The dreaded Thought Police from George Orwell's 1984, who were inspired, of course, by the Trope Namer in the Real Life section below.
Also, children are encouraged to listen in on their parents, friends, teachers, and other adults they see to try and catch those against the party. They are given tools to help them spy at school, and are not reprimanded for skipping class and walking off to follow "suspicious characters." At one point, a character is turned into the thought police by his own daughter, and he reports being proud of her for doing her civic duty.
Given this record, the trope is notably averted in the third of the most significant literary dystopias, Aldous Huxley's Brave New World... the people are too happy to care, so no police enforcement is needed, Though it should be noted that there is obviously a police force, as seen when John the Savage starts throwing out the soma rations.
The "Cable Street Particulars" as seen in Terry Pratchett's Night Watch are portrayed as an English version of the Gestapo. In a chronologically later book, Commander Vimes revives them as an undercover division of the City Watch, "secret policemen for secret crimes" as he puts it. It's safe to assume that since they report to the second-most Lawful Good man in Ankh-Morpork, the modern Particulars are a total aversion (or more likely, they were a case of Early Installment Weirdness that was swept under the carpet after Night Watch since they were never mentioned again).
That Hideous Strength has the N.I.C.E. Institutional Police, which act like any other typical secret police. Oddly enough, the NICE also have a female police auxiliary , and headed by a woman who loves to abuse female prisoners.
In the Falkenberg's Legions books, the CD Intelligence Services work to prohibit any scientific research to keep the peace. They have no problems of corrupting databanks, censoring publications, and exiling scientists to deadly prison planets.
The Kingdom of Haven's Secret Police of King David's Spaceship. Just as unscrupulous as their counterparts (they kill off an entire tavern and an landlady to preserve a secret they might have accidentally overheard) Unusual is that their goal is rather benevolent.
The Fingermen in V for Vendetta - with the actual surveillance done by agents of the Eye and Ear, the agents of the Finger are the ones who do the black-bagging of political targets.
In David Weber's Honorverse, the People's Republic of Haven had a number of secret agencies, such as the Mental Hygiene Police and Internal Security. Gets even worse when the Committee of Public Safety comes to power, centralizes the secret police, and creates State Sec, whose initials SS is no coincidence.
In "Shadow of Freedom", one bit character is introduced as the leader of the Mobius Secret Police, an agency whose existence is literally a state secret. Another bit character takes a moment to muse on whether or not the former realizes that in most cases, only a Secret Police's actions are kept a secret.
In Efrafa there is the Oswlafa, or Council Police.
The Brocade Guards (a nod to Jinyi Wei; see Real Life below) in Yulia Latynina's Wei Empire cycle would be this, except they are very numerous, highly public and often quite incompetent; some of the government characters have their own private intelligence services that can be much more like this, though.
Likewise the Caretaker Service in Yulia Latynina's Inhuman, but so much more efficient (also, they can double as special forces).
Barrayar had the Ministry of Political Education in Emperor Ezar's time, and though things have improved by Miles' time ImpSec still enjoys a bit of a reputation, which they do little to discourage.
The Stars My Destination has a Secret Police which even has its own code language ("the Secret Speech"). They have a reputation for Cold-Blooded Torture and disappearing people, although one of their members asserts that they made up stories of atrocities themselves so as to scare people. They are all descended from Chinese tongs.
In The Island of Crimea, OSVAG is the alternate Crimean-White Russian cloak-and-dagger outfit.
The Crisis of Empire series by David Drake and other authors had the Kona Tatsu, whose authority included rearranging a marriage — as in, "You're now divorced so we can have your wife make a political marriage to someone else" — to support their agenda.
Also a partial subversion/aversion, in that the KT are not, as a whole, as horribly bad as they pretend to be. They're certainly ruthless and sometimes sociopathic, but as a whole they are one of the few forces keeping civilization intact, and they know it, and some of their people try to behave decently when they can keep it from being obvious to their victims.
The true issue was that the Kona Tatsu had caused this disaster, and honor required the Kona Tatsu to set things to rights. For the KT cleaned up its own messes. ... There was no mistaking it, even behind the threats and the cold, hard language. This nameless secret policeman was a kindly, decent man.
In M. K. Wren's The Phoenix Legacy trilogy, there was the SSB, the Special Services Branch of the Concord Police. SSB personnel always wore electronic masks that hid their faces in apparent shadow. Their interrogation division was known as Psychocontrol.
Tom Sharpe's black farces of life in apartheid South Africa, Riotous Assembly and Indecent Exposure, centre on the criminally inefficient, incompetent, thuggish and racist Piemburg Police Force. This comes across as a version of Terry Pratchett's City Watch but lacking its redeeming virtues. A memorable character is the certifiably insane Lieutenant Verkramp, the Piemburg sector head of the dreaded Bureau of State Security (BOSS), the old South African secret police. Verkramp is a hysterical paranoid maniac who believes Communist subversion is everywhere, and that every despised black is ultimately plotting rebellion and the bloody downfall of white (Afrikaaner) power in South Africa. Verkramp is obsessed with miscegenation and racial purity, and with the aid of a Nazi-inclined German psychiatrist, is forever devising tests and measurements to precisely define the degree of black contamination in otherwise white people. He is also interested in aversion therapy to prevent white men from desiring black women, and vice-versa. In this he shares character traits with Terry Pratchett's Captain Findthee Swing and may well have been an inspiration for the character, who appears in Pratchett's Night Watch.
In the Troy Rising series, the Kazi fills this slot for the Rangoran Empire.
The main antagonists in Eric Frank Russell's novel The Wasp. The Kaimina Tempiti, or Kaitempi, serve this role for the Nazi-like Sirian Empire. The name is an obvious allusion to the Japanese Kempeitai during World War II. In the novel, the Kaitempi censor all media and use violence and intimidation to quell any opposition to the Imperial government. The protagonist, James Mowry, is sent to a remote Sirian colony in order to foment rebellion and sow chaos as preparation for the Terran invasion. To this effect, he creates (an officially registers) an anti-government (read: terrorist) organization called Dirac Angestun Gesept (Sirian Freedom Party). He also proceeds to hire contract killers to take out Kaitampi officials.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, Brynden "Bloodraven" Rivers used his position as Master of Whisperers to establish the paramilitary Raven's Teeth, which he led in the suppression of Daemon Blackfyre's rebellion. As Hand of the King, Bloodraven was accused of running the kingdom with spies and spells.
Imperial Intelligence (military) and the Imperial Security Bureau (political) are the Empire's two main secret police organs, often at each other's throats.
The Emperor's Hands are a more informal version, Force-sensitive assassins who report directly to the Emperor, don't exist on any record, and serve as judge, jury and executioner.
The Espos (Security Police) of the Corporate Sector Authority straddle the line between this and Dirty Cop.
The Galactic Alliance Guard in the Legacy of the Force books, initially the Galactic Alliance's response to Corellian secessionist movements, quickly develops into this trope.
A few smaller scale examples at the planetary level, like Corellia's Public Safety Service, which is the secret police of the local Imperial government and its successor state after it goes independent.
In the later Garrett, P.I. novels, Deal Relway's Unpublished Committee for Royal Security becomes a covert law-enforcement force to be reckoned with in post-war TunFaire. Still marginally an agency of good, but likely to turn toxic if Relway ever runs out of genuine malefactors to target or gets replaced by someone less righteous.
In Robert A. Heinlein's Between Planets we have the I.B.I. (not stated but probably Interplanetary Bureau of Investigation) which is the Federation's secret police. Their agents are Don Harvey's main antagonist.
The Obsidian Order and Section 31 in Star Trek. Section 31 is notable because it (an amoral, covert agency) operates within The Federation (who typically acts in the open and does the right choice). However, Section 31 is more of a Secret Society than a Secret Police.
Section 31 is even more notable in that while all other said governments at least tacitly acknowledge their prospective organization's existence, even Section 31's name means little to nothing, as it could more technically be called Article XIV, Section 31...that is, of the original United Earth Starfleet Charter, that ambiguously allows an unspecified "investigative agency" to take "extraordinary measures" in cases of "extraordinary circumstances" which threaten Earth, and later on the Federation as a whole. As Luther Sloane makes clear in the Deep Space Nine finale about them...there are no centralized offices for Section 31, anywhere. Some admirals and other high-ranking officials seem to know of its existence, but Section 31 is held accountable to absolutely no one.
The Cardassian Opsidian Order is so powerful, that they are effectively The Omniscient Council of Vagueness that runs the whole empire. Civilian politicians and military commanders do exist, but eventually all major descisions are made by them.
The Tal Shiar behaves as both secret police and political officers aboard Romulan ships.
The Tripods from BBC, has a group of soldiers called the Black Guard who are portrayed as the Tripods' emissaries in the outside world. (though they aren't present in the books)
On one episode of WKRP In Cincinnati, Johnny is convinced that the phone company has their own secret police force - AND they're after him for destroying a phone earlier in the episode.
"California Uber Alles" by the The Dead Kennedys mentions the Suede Denim Secret Police, who drag away the "uncool" for a "shower".
The song Secret Police, sung by Hatsune Miku, describes this trope to a T, with a bit of Paranoia Fuel to the mix, as is implies that the agents could be absolutely anyone, no matter their age or social status.
Parodied in Lost Twists's "Pensè que se trataba de cieguitos" ("I thought these were blind dudes!"), since the narrator is a super oblivious dude who spends three days in the hands of some secret police and doesn't even seem to notice who they are.
Mentioned in the second verse of Resistance by Muse
Quell your prayers for love and peace You'll wake the the thought police
The Inquisition of Warhammer 40,000, with three major branches, each specializing in fighting either heretics, aliens, or the forces of chaos. Also overlaps with State Sec.
For more mundane dangers, there's the Adeptus Arbites. The Arbites deal with organised crime, sedition, rebellion, and everything else outside the jurisdiction or ability of the local police forces. Essentially, they are the MVD to the Inquisition's KGB.
And most shadowy of all is the Officio Assassinorum. While Inquisitors have ultimate authority and their job is to investigate internal threats to the Imperium, the 'secret' aspect of their policing is up for debate, given how the Inquisition have quite a public face and some Inquisitors even become famous to a degree. The Arbites also have a public presence. But the Officio Assassinorum deals with internal threats such as rogue planetary governors and the forte of most of their temples is stealth and secrecy. It is due to this that Space Marines have conspiracy theories against them.
Of course, that last part might have something to do with the fact that the Officio's leader, the Master of Assassins, can, and in one case did assassinate every other member of the Senatorum Imperialis after he fell to Chaos, and was only defeated by the combined efforts of an army of space marines, only one of which survived to put a bolt in the Master of Assassin's head.
The Gnome nation of Zilargo, from the Dungeons and Dragons campaign setting Eberron, all aspects of national security and law enforcement is handled by an order of spies, diviners and assassins known as The Trust. The Gnomes of Zilargo are mostly happy with this arrangement, since their nation has the lowest crime rate on the continent and their national pastime, intrigue, is not generally interfered with.
This, combined with the fact that they're actually rather democratic (Zilargo has the most lax censorship laws in Eberron) means that they actually seem like a mostly normal police force who just happen to be run by a culture where elaborate schemes are looked upon as a fun diversion.
To put it another way: in Zilargo, a gnome becomes paranoid if he thinks no one is watching him.
In Traveller the Zhodani Consulate enforced behaviour with their Guardians of Morality. Given that the Zhodani embraced telepathy and psionics in their society, they were real Thought Police.
As commented upon in BattleTech by players regarding the Draconis Combine's Internal Security Force and the Capellan Confederation's Maskirovka: "One in five people in your circle of friends is an ISF/Mask agent. If four people say they're not, you're it!" It should be noted that while the majority of the Successor State intelligence apparatus do operate within national boundaries, only the ISF has really made a name from it. The Lyran Alliance/Commonwealth's Loki on the other hand verge straight into State Sec
Very practical to have one in Tropico 3. Stupid rebel bombings.
In Tropico 4, the secret police are formed by edict of the Ministry of the Interior. You assign it to an existing service building and they monitor dissent on the island, allowing you to discreetly head off subversive activities and assassinate undesired civilians. They are more effective if they are allowed to tap the island's telecommunications.
In Tropico 5, the secret police cannot be formed until the Cold War. They monitor the island's inhabitants to discover faction leaders and rebels.
Appears to be a large part of the job of the Turks in the FFVII setting, although it's not their official job and they combine it with CIA-type external functions. And dress like Men in Black. Another variant of theirs on the archetype is having only first names and a great variety in appearance and fighting style.
They pulled at least one of their members out of an orphanage and trained her from childhood. This is not standard Secret Police fare; there's a certain ninja vibe to the whole thing and they apparently take lead in most covert ops, even if SOLDIERs are assigned as supplementary muscle.
The Before Crisis game winds up being largely about being a rebel Turk faction trying to Screw The Rules And Do The Right Thing. Interestingly, the ringleader of this little caper, the stoic softy Tseng, is still head Turk during Advent Children, when Shinra has lost most of its control, and is one of Rufus Shinra's personal guards.
He managed this by staging the assassination of his mentor for whom he had betrayed the company, and then apparently doing some politics to get Rufus in his corner.
And please everyone note that these are the secret police not of a country, but of a power company. Though said company is the government.
One of the roles of the Thalmor. One of the reasons everyone hates them so much is because they have a nasty habit of dragging off dissenters and making them disappear.
The Dominion from WildStar has the Imperial Corps of Intelligence (ICI), run mostly by the Mechari. This has the effect of making them terrifyingly effective and extremely cool.
The Federation's Bureau of Internal Investigation in Escape Velocity Nova was founded as this (with a special focus on counter-intelligence). By the time the game actually starts, they've not only (at least de-facto) absorbed all intelligence functions (Federation Intelligence is only mentioned in the past tense), or even just went full-blown State Sec with elements of the Federation Navy answering directly to them: they've gone so far as to to all practical purposes have taken over the Federation.
Avatar: The Last Airbender has the Dai Li of Ba Sing Se. They have an official charge: to preserve the city's cultural heritage. They have an unofficial charge: to keep order within the city walls. Their three modes of operation are through establishing a Panopticon effect where you are always being watched and know it, deploying terrifyingly consistent brainwashed PR operatives, and physically assaulting any remaining problems with intensely trained earthbenders, who apparently also are the main intelligence officers, since they're only supposed to fight when the system has sprung a leak.
They return for Book 3 of The Legend of Korra, now serving as a more generic secret police for the Earth Queen, who unlike her father is a powerhungry despot.
The Protectors of the Plot Continuum have the Department of Internal Security, possibly influenced by the Cable Street Particulars, who started out benign but eventually shifted to the Mysterious Somebody's secret police and began a reign of terror until they were thrown out in a Civil War. Their existence was obviously public knowledge, but their corruption and methods weren't, with even most Guards not seeming to know just how rotten the department had become. The later Department of Internal Operations is a more literal example, as in theory only the DIO itself and the Board of Department Heads know they even exist; their role is to root out Suvian infiltrators of HQ and dispose of them, and anyone who encounters them is promptly neuralysed. In practise, there are rumours of their existence, but nobody knows for sure; according to one of the DIO's agents, the department's discovery would be disastrous, resulting in the deaths of the DIO's members at best and a full-scale rebellion against the Board of Department Heads at worst.
Cecil mentions The Sheriff's Secret Police in nearly every broadcast of Welcome to Night Vale and they, for their part, seem to be completely unconcerned about their public visibility, even going so far as to host an exhibition baseball game against the Night Vale Fire Department (during which the fire department relief pitchers were found mysteriously dead by blow dart). Indeed, it seems that the Sheriff's Secret Police is Night Vale's only form of law enforcement.
For sheer notoriety, nothing tops the Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police Service), much better known as the Gestapo, from Nazi Germany.
There was even a junior Gestapo, called the Jugend Streifendienst, middle-school kids who spied on and reported other kids...or their parents.
This may well be the Trope Namer, in fact, since it actually called itself the "secret police". Most other similar organizations did not use the word "secret" in their names or descriptions.
We should also mention the East German Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (Ministry for State Security), known as the Stasi, who took the observation of the East German population to massive levels. They also received considerable help from the population of East Germany - estimates of the prevalence of informers range from 1 in 50 to 1 in 7. Other communist regimes had similar, just as notorious units: the Czechoslovak StB, the Romanian Securitate, the Hungarian ÁVH... (although none of them took mass surveillance to quite the same extremes as the Stasi).
While also having a slightly sinister name, Germany's current Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution is generally regarded as an actual protector of the German people, mostly keeping watch on far-right or far-left extremists, as well as fighting organized crime and domestic terrorism.
The second most famous (and real) example was the Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti (Committee for State Security), more commonly known as the KGB. They were also a spy agency. They have had a number of other names over the years (Cheka, NKVD etc.) and continue today (sort of) in the form of the Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti (Federal Security Service, FSB). A cynical man could say (to quote Valentin Zukovsky from The World Is Not Enough): "different name, same friendly service".note We should note that unlike the KGB, the FSB does not do foreign intelligence collection, but only domestic spying, etc. The foreign stuff is handled by the lesser-known Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (SVR), or Foreign Intelligence Service.
Before the KGB, Ivan the Terrible created the Oprichnina. They were almost like a monastic order, where the Oprichniki were the "monks" and Ivan was their "abbot". The Oprichniks had free rein to terrorize the Russian population, and not even the nobility were spared. One of the scariest things about them was the banners they flew during their raids - severed dog heads mounted on spears.
That was about four hundred years before the KGB, to be exact. And various kinds of Secret Police under various names existed in Tsarist Russia over the course of those four hundred years.
The KGB were hardly the first modern Russian secret police: the Tsarist equivalent was the Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Security Section), better known in the West as the Okhrana (technically, it was usually called Okhranka, at least in Russia. Okhranka is a diminutive, a "cute" name.). And that was preceded by the "Third Section of His Imperial Majesty's Chancellery".
The Basij, a plainclothes militia in Iran, is controlled by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards who sometimes act as a political secret police. Consisting mostly of male volunteers, the Basij are known for their fanatical devotion to the Ayatollah of Iran. Although it's a semi-decentralized force with many local bands, they have armed battalions controlled directly by the Revolutionary Guards. For most volunteers, their job is to enforce Islamic laws on the population, like making sure the women in the streets wear head scarves. And they have long been criticized by human rights organizations-the most recent controversy was during the "Twitter Revolution" in 2009. The Basij broke up mass protests by shooting into the crowds, killing at least a hundred. During their nighttime raids on universities, they broke into dorms and beat up the students, and several female protesters were taken into custody and gang-raped.
The most disturbing part is that the Basij have middle-school members, called Puyandegan. Apparently, the Basij went so crazy on the protesters that the Ayatollah himself had to step in and curb them.
Before them there was the SAVAK who served under the Shah.
Unlike the Inquisition in most other countries, the Spanish Inquisition was unique in that the Spanish crown had usurped the Church's authority in Spanish territory to collect tithes, appoint bishops, and prosecute Church-related crimes (at its height, the Spanish Empire was that powerful). The Inquisition in Spain became the political police as much as (if not more than) ecclesiastical police. By contrast, the Inquisition in most other Catholic countries was separate from (and usually more fair and consistent than) the secular legal authorities of the time. Franco during his dictatorship attempted to use the Church in much the same way to enforce state ideology, but the Catholic Church in the 20th century was not the same as it was in the 16th and his efforts were neither as consistent nor as successful as the Habsburgs.
Some scholars have suggested that the Spartan Crypteia played this role.
It is said that the Singaporean intelligence services (the Internal Security Department and the Security and Intelligence Division) work much like this.
The Japanese Kempeitai, or military police, increasingly took on this role both in Japan and in its conquered territories during the 1930s and 1940s, up until the end of World War II. In fact, they were the original "Thought Police".
The Ming Dynasty's Jinyi Wei ("Brocade-Clad Guard") and the Dongchang ("The Eastern Commission of Investigations").
Taiwan boasted two oddly-named versions, which operated at the same time-the General Department of Political Warfare, which maintained both political officers and general high-ranking commanders in every military unit, down to the company or battery level, as well as in many police units-and the Taiwan Garrison Command, commanded by a three-star general, which acted to suppress political activism and ensure political orthodoxy, and was tied to various unsavory political murders or assassinations, and kept a hand in influencing society, economics, culture and education. For a relatively small country, Taiwan required a lot of secret police during its long period as a capitalist police state.
These were the descendants of secret police organizations in pre-1949 China, in which the present Taiwan has institutional continuity with-the Central Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, and the Military Bureau of Investigation and Statistics. It also showed some influence from the Russian system of political commissars.
Sun Yat-Sen decided in the 20s that China wasn't ready for democracy and to follow the Soviet model. The Nationalist army was trained at the Whampoa Military Academy by Soviet instructors. Chang Kai-Shek eventually switched to Nazi Germany as a military model.
The Joseon Dynasty's Amhaeng-eosa (Secret Censors), specially appointed by the King to keep tabs on his own administration and yangban nobility, but never as fully institutionalized as some others on this list. Oddly, or perhaps not when one considers their preferred targets, they also tend to be viewed positively today as agents opposed to government corruption.
Austria-Hungary had a fascinatingly incompetent/woefully underfunded version of this. They went from being able to intercept and copy almost all correspondence into and out of Vienna during the Congress of Vienna (1814) (and an invaluable tool for modern historians that is) to a service so badly overstretched that a staff of 20 people was expected to monitor all postal traffic in the nation post-Metternich, including clerical assistants and servants. Despite this, it was still treated as some monolithic instrument of repression and censorship, generally by people not actually within the nation.
To be fair, while it did indeed degenerate when Metternich was exiled after 1848 and the monarchy it served suffered defeat in the two decades afterwards, it began a resurrection in the 80's and afterward, partially spearheaded by the infamous Alfred Redl, who introduced so many innovative techniques that his own protegé eventually used them to discover his spying for Russia. After Redl's ouster stopped the bleeding of information to the Entente, the resurrection was largely complete, and by all accounts the intelligence web lasted well into the 20's, manned mostly by pro-Habsburg fanatics who wished to revive the Dual Monarchy.
The Chilean DINA (National Intelligence Directorate) under the rule of Augusto Pinochet. Actually, all of the various organizations of this type during Operation Condor would qualify, but the DINA is perhaps the most infamous.
Nicaragua during the Sandinista period (1979-1990) had the DGSE, the General Directorate for State Security, which was modeled after the East German Stasi.
Liberal democracies aren't without their secret police — the UK's MI-5 and the US FBI's COINTELPRO operation would both qualify, albeit without the aura of fear that secret polices in more authoritarian countries cultivate. Britain also has the Special Branch, a secretive section of the civilian police force, where "secret bobbies" deal with issues of subversion, counter-terrorism, threats to politicians and the State establishment, et c. In the past they have been fingered in holding files against trade unionists and striking workers - e.g. during the bitter Miners' Strike of the 1980's. The Irish community in Britain was kept under MI-5/SB surveillance during the undeclared war with Irish terrorists, and now Ireland is largely at peace, the same tactics honed on the Irish are being employed against Asian and Islamic communities. The Special Investigations Branch of the Royal Military Police consists of plainclothes military secret police whose job it is to keep the British Army under surveillance for signs of mutiny, disaffection, deviance from the accepted philosophy, etc.
The British Army's 14 Intelligence Company a.k.a 'the Det', an organisation against which accusations of torture and brutality up to and including murder were levelled by Irish republican groups...
Bear in mind that the IRA are not necessarily the most impartial source when it comes to the British Army. It isn't impossible, however.
The Det's modern successor, the Special Reconnaisance Regiment, was responsible for providing the 'intelligence' that led to plain clothes armed police officers shooting the innocent Jean Charles de Menezes dead.
In fact western countries usually have several agencies with budgets that are partially obscured. For the US the list includes the CIA, the FBI, the NSA and the DIA. Though of these, only the FBI has police or internal functions. The CIA and DIA are involved in foreign and military intelligence; the NSA, in cryptanalysis (codes and cyphers).
Historically, the FBI were very close to becoming a straight example under the leadership of J. Edgar Hoover, focusing on the suppression of political dissent at the expense of a worsening organised crime problem and amassing large files of potential blackmail material on radicals... and elected officials, according to some sources.
Averted by the Secret Service, which just protects the president and investigates counterfeiting, and computer crimesnote the Secret Service was originally the law-enforcement arm of the Department of the Treasury, taking on VIP protection duty after the assassination of William McKinley basically because no other federal force could despite its name.
Egypt's State Security Investigations Service proved to be remarkably like the Stasi after revolution revealed its piles and piles of documents, indicating (according to some sources) that as much as 1 or 2 percent of the country's population of 80 million was on its payroll (mostly as informants). It also proved to have had a taste for Electric Torture, although that was well-known beforehand (1975's The Karnak Cafe, one of the greatest Egyptian films ever, depicts torture under the 1953-1970 regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser in graphic detail).
The Roman Empire had the Frumentarii (lit. 'foragers') who were spies tasked with infiltration of foreign groups and collecting information about the situation in various regions. Together with Speculatores (the military scouts) they were also conducting arrests, interrogation and elimination of the most dangerous traitors, dissenters and troublemakers.
The State Security Department. North Korea's answer to the KGB. You don't want to mess with them as they've been successful in putting down a potential coup attempt in the 90s and locking up a few corrupt KPA officers thanks in part to their surveillance network.
Mexico is a fan of these. Currently there is the Judicial Police, but back in the day there was:
The Brigadas Blancas (White Brigades), who hunted down those the government deemed as left-leaning people, guerrilla leaders and guys with communist/socialist sympathies.
Los Halcones: Prior to the White Brigades, Los Halcones was a paramilitary group created to sabotage popular movements, repress demonstrations and prevent big movements from arising. Also, the general public was told they were going to be "to ensure security in the [then-recently inaugurated] Metro".
The Olympia Battalion: A mixture of many security forces (presidential guards, mayor presidential state officers, policemen and soliders) intended to bring security for the Olympic games. They were identified by a white glove or handkerchief in their left hands. Since the Student Movement of 1968 was deemed subversive and a threat to national security and could damage Mexico's view in the upcoming Olympic Games, the security forces were turned into a shock group and repressed, beat, tortured and killed/disappeared many of the movement's sympathisers (including Ana María Regina Teuscher Krueger, who was going to be an aide-de-camp for the Olympic Ceremony).
The Dirección Federal de Seguridad (Federal Secirity Direction), who in the 1970s was infamously corrupt and tortured many people they considered "criminals".
Porros. Porros are people who pose as students and actually work either for the university dean or the government. They drink, do drugs, threaten students with violence and form gangs. They started in the 1950s as cheer groups (Spanish "porras", where their names derives) and in the late 1960s were turned into fascist groups that were intended to divide students among universities (the UNAM and Polythecnic being the most prominent example) and check on left-leaning students to try and repress them. Through corruption, these people can either climb the criminal scale and become drug lords or can gain seats in power (Congress, municipal presidents, etc.). They still exist, but to a lesser degree.
The Secret Policeman's Ball is a comedy benefit to raise money for Amnesty International, the main mission of which is to free political prisoners.
The National Intelligence and Security Authority was the Philippine's most notorious intelligence agency responsible for cracking down on anti-Marcos opposition in the 1970s and 80s under the command of General Fabian Ver. Formerly replacing the National Intelligence Coordinating Agency, the NISA was rebranded to its current name after the EDSA Revolution.
The Council of Ten in Venice during the days when Venice was a sovereign state. It had a fearsome reputation, (which it probably didn't mind) but according to at least one writer it focused mostly on those who were actually powerful enough to pose a threat. Thus it was a more downplayed version.
The Shinsengumi and their rivals/counterparts, the Ishin-Shishi. Most of the Ishin-shishi later became advisers to the emperor.