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Useful Notes: The Apartheid Era
"No, he's never met a nice South African
And that's not bloody surprising, mun!
'cause we're a bunch of arrogant bastards,
Who hate black people."
Spitting Image, "I've Never Met a Nice South African"
—(because apparently ethnic bigotry is funny if you have the right target)

Apartheid, noun - literally, 'apart-ness'. Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation in the modern world to have 'Scientific Racialist' policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single 'race' of citizens - her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that 'race' as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan during World War II. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; 'coloured' citizens' had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the 'black' population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for white people; activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed.

    "How We Got Here": Some Background notes on South Africa and the leadup to Apartheid 
In many ways, this apparent irony in how Apartheid came about (occurring after the second world war that so discredited racism on that scale, in a well-established and genuinely free but highly insular democracy) also helps explain why it happened. South African democracy draws its' roots to the sort of small, insular "settler" communities of British and Dutch/Boer/Afrikaaner colonists that settled along the Cape. Since they lived in fear and hostility with many outsiders (Black as well as White; conflict in the Cape was furious and frequent) they tended to structure governments tailored to keep power for them.

So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of fairly broad broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony *didn't* get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. note 

The British had very good reason to fear dissent from the white communities in South Africa; they had originally taken the colony by force in the Napoleonic Wars and fought several wars to consolidate their power, with some of the most stalwart resistance coming from the Boers note . The Boers were fiercely independent (and borderline xenophobic) descendants of the Dutch colonists in the Cape who objected to both British rule and having almost anything to do with "Blacks." The British government had spent two bloody and embarrassing wars putting them down and even afterwards keeping the peace (in their eyes) largely depended on working with Afrikaaner/Boer moderates. So to the British colonial government, massaging Afrikaaner sympathies by keeping the Black majority disenfranchised was a minor price to pay, especially since the British were usually racist themselves and the wars they had with the various Black peoples had not been anywhere near as troublesome for them as the Boer Wars.

And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons note .

The hardliners took advantage of the outbreak of World War One to try and invade the colony from neighboring German Namibia, but were defeated while Namibia was annexed to South Africa. However, the South African colonial authorities dealt with the German presence much like the British had dealt with the Boers before them (annexing them into the white elite and sidelining the Blacks), and the underlying grievances remained. So in World War II a new generation of Afrikaaner radicals also sympathized with Germany and joined a conspiracy to try and cause a pro-Nazi revolt.

This is notable not for the conspiracy itself- which more or less didn't go anywhere- but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.

So in effect, most of the leaders of Apartheid were disgruntled Nazi sympathizers who were elected into power and decided to put into effect some of the disgraced ideology of their idol. Unsurprisingly, it went downhill from there.

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African 'blacks' and 'coloureds' note  were not considered 'true' citizens as were the country's 'whites' (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and -Dutch/'Afrikaners' - the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the 'blacks' in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent 'apartness'/'apartheid' was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be 'free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords'. In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes - completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure - that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

Making things a tad more complex in this Cold War era, the largest anti-apartheid group ANC (African National Congress, the party that Nelson Mandela belonged to) were openly allied with Marxists. This worked against them, as the white South Africans were so vehemently anti-Communist the anti-apartheid movement could get little support, at least not from the West (USSR was more than willing to provide military training and weapons, however). Meanwhile, the U.S., UK and Israel supported the white apartheid government, mainly because they weren't Dirty Commies.

South Africa engaged in a number of border wars at this time, basically involving frequent cross-border raids into (Communist) Angola and Mozambique. It also fought and lost a war to keep hold of Namibia. Since this was the Cold War, anti-West independence movements were assisted throughout Africa by countries such as the USSR and Cuba. It was assisted in this endeavor by various anti-Communist, pro-West independence movements, notably UNITA.

Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned" — barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism" — defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs" — The Coroner Doth Protest Too Much indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of 'care packages', better known as a bomb in the mail (care packages ... they take care of you). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.

There is a lot of debate over who exactly is responsible for ending apartheid, especially in the post-apartheid era where anti-apartheid activities during the apartheid era is equivalent to ones street cred (and carries a lot of political favor and support). But basically in late 1989 when conservative F.W. de Klerk became president of Apartheid South Africa he announced that he planned to end the discriminatory Apartheid laws, which were successively repealed over the next four years. In 1992 when a referendum was held on whether Apartheid should be continued or not, over 2/3 white South Africans voted to end Apartheid. Of course this referendum is rarely recorded in history.

The announcement of F.W. de Klerk in 1990 started a 3-year long discussion/negotiation between the apartheid government and anti-apartheid groups culminated in the election of Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress (ANC) party in 1994. These elections are generally considered to mark the end of Apartheid and their anniversary (27 April) is now a national holiday in South Africa. For their effort to peacefully transition South Africa out of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. After the election of the first black president (Mandela), de Klerk stayed on as vice-president until 1996 when he retired from politics.

After apartheid ended, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission was created to help address the crimes of past, with perpetrators of crimes (from both the apartheid regime and various dissidents fighting it) given amnesty if they confessed and asked for forgiveness.

Apartheid is pronounced "apart-hate" (but only if you over-enunciate it), which may seem appropriate if your primary language is Englishnote . The word's current political meaning was coined in Afrikaans. It exists in Dutch as well, but it had no political connotations in either language before it was used to name the now-infamous government policy. It translates simply as "apart-ness." What is rather ironic about it is that the term was used because the word "segregation" was considered to have too many negative connotations, and "apartheid" was considered a more neutral term for the policy. Although similar policies existed before then, even before the formation of the Union of South Africa (being known as the "Shepstonian System" in the British Empire's Natal Colony, which joined the Union in 1910), it was only officially and nationally entrenched in law in 1948. If you're in America, this is kind of like the difference between state and federal law: before apartheid, some provinces were less segregationist than others, while afterward they no longer had any lawful choice in the matter.

Did we mention that, although South Africa was part of the Allies in WW2, some members of the South African government when apartheid was first conceived were Nazi sympathizers? Well, we did now. In the early 1970s, an extreme white supremacist and neo-fascist group, the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement, was formed and in fact clashed with the apartheid government itself, which they felt was too soft.

Boycotts

South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards — the South Africans with Surface-to-Air Missiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help (that's right, Israel helped the National Party segregate blacks. Why? Probably so they could get uranium to build their own nukes), including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.

More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labournote  and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre - not so much because multinational Mega Corps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that 'Honorary White' Racial Status - with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay - was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.

South Africa also faced a cultural boycott. South Africa was barred from the Olympics from 1964 to 1992. Going to South Africa to compete would get a sportsperson very bad press. International cricket, a big South African sport, had occurred spottily. There were some "rebel" tours, including two of England players, which resulted in players getting bans as a result. Rugby Union ties with New Zealand remained - when New Zealand toured South Africa in 1976, twenty-five African nations boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal after the IOC refused to ban New Zealand over the tour. Then in 1981, South Africa toured New Zealand, where the anti-apartheid lobby clashed with rugby fans and caused widespread riots. Artists organized boycotts against performing in South Africa during this period also.

It is fair to say the South African government contributed to this situation. The TCCB was perfectly happy to send the England cricket team on tour to SA, until the fateful season where England wished to send Basil D'Olivera, a mixed-race cricketer, as part of the team. South Africa insisted D'Olivera should be subject to apartheid law while in the country and should be segregated from the rest of the team, who were all white. This meant he would have had to be treated as a Coloured (mixed race person in South African parlance) for the duration of his stay and have no contact with the team, except when training or playing. England refused this condition as unacceptable. South Africa then banned D'Olivera from entering the country at all. England, refusing to set a precedent that any host country should dictate their team selection, then called off the tour. Ironically D'Olivera was himself a South African, and had left for England to escape his country's pre-existing ban on non-whites playing first class cricket.

In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to film, you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song, "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when Paul Simon was criticized for recording his Magnum Opus Graceland in South Africa... entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.

Mercenary Legacy

With apartheid coming to an end and a new government in place, one of their first actions was to reform (read: get rid of) the then-current standing military, presumably since for decades the military was the iron first of the apartheid government and performed numerous operations (above-board and otherwise; counterinsurgency isn't always pretty) in order to undermine anti-apartheid activities. To be fair, most soldiers were given the option to stay on, but many didn't want to be commanded by Soviet-trained officers they'd been fighting against for all of the Cold War. Most of the soldiers, well-trained with years of active military experience, became Mercenaries (or Military Contractors), most notably the PMC (Private Military Contractor) Executive Outcomes was founded by former members of the apartheid government and when on to take part in a number of military actions in Africa. Today it is still common for South Africans to be part of NATO-aligned mercenary groups in places like Iraq and Afghanistan, although the increasing age of the apartheid-era generation and the smaller number of new mercenary recruits makes it a dwindling phenomenon. Also, since mercenary companies (and associated activities) are illegal in South Africa, the privatized military-style South African forces you do see these days are called "security companies" now. So, if you ever make any official inquiry, there are no South African mercenaries, but it makes little practical difference.


In fiction

  • Eagle in the Sky by Wilbur Smith
  • The Tom Sharpe novels Riotous Assembly and Indecent Exposure, are satires of the regime. Sharpe spent 10 years in the country until thrown out in 1961.
  • Wonderella, as a teenager, thought it had something to do with elephant poaching.
  • Harry Turtledove's Alternate History novel The Guns of the South has bitter Afrikaners, members of the real-life Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging (Afrikaner Resistance Movement), steal a time machine and provide the Confederate States of America with AK-47s in the hopes of building a powerful nation that supported "white power". They face opposition from Robert E. Lee and other moderates who, regardless of their personal feelings on slavery, recognize that following the AWB will lead the Confederacy down a path of violence and ostracism from the global community, especially when they discover future books the AWB men had brought back with them showing that slavery will be condemned and the Confederacy looked down on for association with it.
    • Of course, actual South Africans also know that the AWB aren't nice guys, which explains why the AWB has always been an irrelevant, extremist fringe organization. Even during apartheid. Everyone knows about them because they're Nazis, but they never had even the modicum of popular support the KKK had.
  • Irvine Welsh's Marabou Stork Nightmares is set in apartheid South Africa during the protagonist's childhood. The Afrikaners are a very unpleasant bunch.
  • In an episode of The Goodies, the Goodies move to South Africa just after all black natives have left. The regime starts a new form of segregation called Apart-Height. Which does not bode well for anyone under a certain height. Eventually the native Jockeys overthrow the government.
  • In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures comic book produced by Archie Comics, a supporting character was a black werewolf whose family moved to Jamaica from South Africa to escape apartheid.
  • The novel and film The Wilby Conspiracy (the movie starred Sidney Poitier and Michael Caine); the story concerns a black South African activist and a white English businessman hurtling across South Africa to try to elude a South African secret policeman which turned out to be a Batman Gambit for them to lead him to the titular Wilby, a black South African dissident living across the border and leading resistance against the regime.
  • The Sixth Battle has South Africa invaded by its neighboring communist states, backed by the Soviet Union Union of Eurasian Republics. The U.S. joins on South Africa's side and some of the Zulu population back South Africa, both on the "better the devil you know" principle.
    • At the beginning, Mandela and de Klerk are killed when someone crashes a remote-controlled Cessna into the South African parliament building.
    • The general scenario is more or less what happened in real life, since the Bantustan "homelands" were political allies of apartheid South Africa, and both SA and its homelands (Zulu and otherwise) were involved on the American side of the Cold War.
  • In The Third World War, South Africa is a key area in the conflict.
  • District 9, an Alien Among Us story set in Johannesburg, never explicitly mentions apartheid — but you can't help thinking about it anyway.
    • The South African writer stated that it wasn't supposed to be an allegory for anything, but was just his idea of what would realistically happen to aliens if they landed in South Africa during apartheid (it's stated they landed in 1983).
  • In World War Z, a Sociopathic Hero modifies an old Apartheid-era South African civil war plan to deal with the zombie threat. It works well and is adopted by many of the nations detailed in the book.
  • Red Dust is a film that explores the Apartheid Era through flashbacks during a truth and reconciliation hearing (hearings where those guilty of Apartheid-era crimes, on both sides, can admit their guilt, apologize and receive pardons).
  • Spitting Image released a song attacking Apartheid called "I've never met a nice South African" (the first chorus of which is at the top of the page) which does admit that nice (i.e. anti-Apartheid) South Africans exist, and that they either left the country or got put in prison.
  • Larry Bond, co-author of Red Storm Rising and creator of the Harpoon tabletop wargame, wrote a novel entitled Vortex, which chronicled a Mandela-less final war with Cuba, Angola, and Namibia on one side, South Africa on another side, the U.S. and Great Britain on a third, and the various revolutionary groups fighting everyone. Better than it sounds.
  • Invictus begins at the very end of the Apartheid era, and deals with the Mandela government's use of the South African national rugby team, long associated with whites in general and Afrikaners in particular, as a means of unifying the nation.
  • An episode of Silent Witness involves Nikki Alexander (born in the country) being hired to identify the bodies of ANC activists executed in 1985. It also features a woman getting "necklaced" for fleeing the house where she's held as a sex slave and telling the police, an ANC punishment for informers that involves placing a tyre around their neck, dousing it in petrol and setting it alight.
  • The Power of One, a novel by Bryce Courtenay, and the movie of the book discuss an English colonist, who boxes in illegal interracial tournaments, and inspires the native Black population, giving them lessons in English. The Afrikaner police are depicted as Nazi-like, and the main antagonist of the story is explicitly a Nazi sympathizer, who has a swastika tattoo, listens to the Horst Wessel Lied, and, as a teenager, swore allegiance to Adolf Hitler. Truth in Television somewhat, since many white South Africans were supportive of the Nazis during World War II.
    • In addition, as a possible Take That against the Apartheid regime, the aforementioned main antagonist is named Botha, after the then-recent leader of Apartheid South Africa.
  • The Disney Channel movie The Color Of Friendship is a fictionalized account of the 1977 visit of an Afrikaner exchange student to the home of African-American congressman Ron Dellums, himself an outspoken opponent of Apartheid. Steve Biko's imprisonment and later death in police custody become major plot points.
  • Almost anything by Wilbur Smith, but especially Power of the Sword and Rage from the Courtney series.
  • Lethal Weapon 2 featured a South African drug dealer hiding behind Diplomatic Impunity.
    • As did the Indio movies. The "South African drug dealer with diplomatic immunity" is turning out to be its own trope.
  • The Big Bad in the original Soldier of Fortune video game is an exiled South African Colonel named Dekker who blames the fall of Apartheid on the meddling of western nations. His ultimate plan for revenge is to drop a neutron bomb (Built in part on expertise he has from working on top-secret South African nuclear projects) on the U.S.
  • In the movie Blood Diamond Danny Archer (Leonardo DiCaprio) is a white man from Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and former South African Apartheid soldier turned mercenary, along with the antagonist Colonel Coetzee (Arnold Vosloo, an actual white South African actor) and the officers of his mercenary platoon all also being ex-apartheid soldiers turned mercenary.
    • In a subversion of the usual portrayal however, they do not make racist statements (unless they are very, very pissed off with a black person) and Coetzee's troops include black South African mercenaries as well.
    • This is basically a realistic portrayal of what South Africa's military, and its mercenaries, are like. Even during apartheid, all races were represented in the Army - except that units were segregated, and only white South Africans were subject to conscription. While fighting against the Communist hordes on the border, South Africans were more concerned about staying alive than being racist. Danny specifically notes that he fought alongside black troops, and that his sergeant told them "there's no apartheid in the trenches."
    • As an added bonus to stack against the stereotype, consider the fact that all white South Africans in movies refer to black people by "the k-word", with this being more common among soldiers and government ministers. Except... even under apartheid, it was illegal to use that word. Those film South Africans may have had diplomatic immunity, but all the heroes had to do was record the bad guys insulting them, and they would get fired and probably fined several thousand Rand for being racially insensitive.
  • South African author Alan Paton is most well-known for his anti-apartheid literature, such as Ah, but Your Land Is Beautiful, which displays several episodes during apartheid's beginnings in the 1950s. Paton's most famous novel is Cry, the Beloved Country, which explores the complex social interactions of Whites and Blacks during the turbulent upheavals of apartheid's emergence through the eyes of a black pastor and a white farmer. The book was adapted to film in 1951 and 1995, the latter one starring James Earl Jones and Richard Harris; there was also a stage musical adaptation, Lost in the Stars, that was itself filmed in 1973.
  • The 1987 film Cry Freedom, based on books by investigative journalist Donald Woods, chronicled the friendship between the white Woods and black anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko, who died from injuries sustained during police detention in 1977. Woods' books accused the apartheid regime of whitewashing Biko's death, which led to Woods being placed under house arrest and having to escape to Britain.
  • The apartheid South African Defence Force is one of the playable sides in Graviteam Tactics: Operation Hooper.
  • Similar to the District 9 example, the South Africa subplot in the MLP FIM fanfic The Conversion Bureau: Not Alone is basically evolving (or rather, hinted at evolving) into The Apartheid Era for ponies.
  • In the Wild Cards universe its mentioned that South Africa developed a policy of treating superpowered black aces as coloured, mirroring the real life policy the South African government had for the few black celebrities who would visit the country during Apartheid, and Japanese businesspeople, as they were essential for the country's economy during the boycotts.
  • Catch A Fire is a biopic of Patrick Chamusso (Derek Luke), a black South African worker wrongly arrested and tortured by white police officer Nic Vos (Tim Robbins) on suspicion of committing a bombing. After being released when Vos realizes he really didn't do it, Chamusso is so enraged he becomes what they accused him of, going across the border into Mozambique and joining the African National Congress (ANC) the main anti-apartheid group. He returns with guerrilla training to blow up the same target he was accused of bombing before. Ruth First's daughter Shawn Slovo wrote the script, while another daughter Robyn Slovo produced and starred as her in the film. Their father Joe Slovo is a character as well, since he ran the ANC's guerrilla military wing called Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), aka MK (Ruth First was murdered with a package bomb for their activities, sent by apartheid-era South African Intelligence).
  • A World Apart is a fictionalized account of Ruth First's struggle against apartheid in early 1960s South Africa, for which the state persecuted her by banning and repeatedly detaining her without trial, as seen through the eyes of her daughter. This film was written by another of First's daughters, Gillian First, and features the analogue character of Joe Slovo, who flees into exile (as the real Ruth First also would).

Fan Works
  • In the Discworld Expanded Universe, the country of Rimwards Howondaland is the Expy of apartheid South Africa. The author considered that this added an extra touch of dramatic bite and drive for the plot, as well as the very idea of apartheid being so unsustainably crazy and unbelievable from the outside that it belonged somewhere on Terry Pratchett's world. And where better than a forgotten colony on the edge of Howondaland... ''Slipping Between Worlds explores the concept, with several Earth people crossing to the Discworld from 1985. Apartheid Rhodesia had fallen, but the old South Africa lived on. One of the men who crosses over is a Rhodesian career soldier still smarting over the loss of his homeland.
    • Discworld apartheid is strained by Igors, who see nothing wrong in replacing a damaged limb on a white Vondalaander (Afrikaner) with a healthy functioning one. From a black-skinned donor. Vampires also strain the system, as they are generally white-skinned Central Continent immigrants. But they mix the blood of black and white people in a novel way the Staadt is not happy with. And what if a white-skinned vampire wants to "make" a black-skinned protegee vampire?
    • It is thought Lord Vetinari actively encourages such emigration to Rimwards Howondaland for devious reasons of his own. He also nurtures liberally-inclined Assassin Johanna Smith-Rhodes, a Howondalandian native and Vondalaander whose opinions have changed after ten years in Ankh-Morpork. Vetinari insisted the Assassins' Guild School, many of whose graduates go into politics in their home nations, should take equal numbers of black and white Howondalandians as pupils and educate them side-by-side for seven years. He has also been seen to ask his Embassy in Rimwards Howondaland for details of pacifistically-inclined black prisoners of conscience, who are currently incarcerated in the country's jails. This was after studying the Roundworld Project's observations of the history of South Africa on our world....


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alternative title(s): The Apartheid Era
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