History UsefulNotes / TheApartheidEra

21st Jun '16 11:21:38 PM GoldenSeals
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Apartheid, noun--literally, "apart-ness". Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation-state in the modern world to have "Scientific Racialis" policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single "race" of citizens--her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that "race" as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; "coloured citizens" had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the "black" population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for "white" (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].

[[folder:"How We Got Here": Some Background notes on South Africa and the leadup to Apartheid]]
In many ways, this apparent irony in how Apartheid came about (occurring after the second world war that so discredited racism on that scale, in a well-established and genuinely free but highly insular democracy) also helps explain why it happened. South African democracy draws its roots to the sort of small, insular "settler" communities of British and Dutch/Boer/Afrikaaner colonists that settled along the Cape. Since they lived in fear and hostility with many outsiders (Black as well as White; conflict in the Cape was furious and frequent) they tended to structure governments tailored to keep power for them.

So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony '''didn't''' get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties--and especially suffrage--in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even '''before''' Apartheid. [[/note]]

The British had very good reason to fear dissent from the white communities in South Africa; they had originally taken the colony by force in UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars and fought several wars to consolidate their power, with some of the most stalwart resistance coming from the Boers [[note]] the Dutch word for "Farmer"[[/note]]. The Boers were fiercely independent (and borderline xenophobic) descendants of the Dutch colonists in the Cape who objected to both British rule and having almost anything to do with "Blacks." [[UsefulNotes/TheSecondBoerWar The British government had spent two bloody and embarrassing wars putting them down]] and even afterwards keeping the peace (in their eyes) largely depended on working with Afrikaaner/Boer moderates. So to the British colonial government, massaging Afrikaaner sympathies by keeping the Black majority disenfranchised was a minor price to pay, especially since the British were usually racist themselves and the wars they had with the various Black peoples had not been anywhere near as troublesome for them as the Boer Wars.

And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also had a colony just across the border in Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at--chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].

The hardliners took advantage of the outbreak of WorldWarOne to try and invade the colony from neighboring German Namibia, but were defeated while Namibia was annexed to South Africa. However, the South African colonial authorities dealt with the German presence much like the British had dealt with the Boers before them (annexing them into the white elite and sidelining the Blacks), and the underlying grievances remained. So in WorldWarTwo a new generation of Afrikaaner radicals also sympathized with Germany and joined a conspiracy to try and cause a pro-Nazi revolt.

This is notable not for the conspiracy itself--which more or less didn't go anywhere--but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.

So in effect, most of the leaders of Apartheid were disgruntled Nazi sympathizers who were elected into power and decided to put into effect some of the disgraced ideology of their idol. [[ThisIsGonnaSuck Unsurprisingly, it went downhill from there.]]

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen official races being split into the broad "Black" (African), "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people successfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

Making things a tad more complex in this UsefulNotes/ColdWar era, the largest anti-apartheid group ANC (African National Congress, the party that Nelson Mandela belonged to) were openly allied with Marxists. This worked against them, as the white South Africans were so vehemently anti-Communist the anti-apartheid movement could get little support, at least not from the West (USSR was more than willing to provide military training and weapons, however). Meanwhile, the U.S., UK and Israel supported the white apartheid government, mainly because they weren't DirtyCommies.

South Africa engaged in a number of border wars at this time, basically involving frequent cross-border raids into (Communist) Angola and Mozambique. It also fought and lost a war to keep hold of Namibia. Since this was the Cold War, anti-West independence movements were assisted throughout Africa by countries such as the USSR and Cuba. It was assisted in this endeavor by various anti-Communist, pro-West independence movements, notably [[http://www.unitaangola.com/ UNITA]].

Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned"--barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism"--defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs"--TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of "care packages", better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages… they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.

There is a lot of debate over who exactly is responsible for ending apartheid, especially in the post-apartheid era where anti-apartheid activities during the apartheid era is equivalent to one's ''street cred'' (and carries a lot of political favor and support). But basically in late 1989 when conservative F.W. de Klerk became president of Apartheid South Africa he announced that he planned to end the discriminatory Apartheid laws, which were successively repealed over the next four years. In 1992 when a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_apartheid_referendum,_1992 referendum]] was held on whether Apartheid should be continued or not, over two thirds of white South Africans voted to end Apartheid. Of course this referendum is [[WrittenByTheWinners rarely recorded in history]].

The announcement of F.W. de Klerk in 1990 started a 3-year long discussion/negotiation between the apartheid government and anti-apartheid groups culminated in the election of Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress (ANC) party in 1994. These elections are generally considered to mark the end of Apartheid and their anniversary (27 April) is now a national holiday in South Africa. For their effort to peacefully transition South Africa out of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. After the election of the first black president (Mandela), de Klerk stayed on as vice-president until 1996 when he retired from politics.

After apartheid ended, the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth_and_Reconciliation_Commission_(South_Africa) Truth and Reconciliation Commission]] was created to help address the crimes of past, with perpetrators of crimes (from both the apartheid regime and various dissidents fighting it) given amnesty if they confessed and asked for forgiveness.

Apartheid is pronounced "apart-hate" (but only if you over-enunciate it), which may seem appropriate if [[InMyLanguageThatSoundsLike your primary language is English]][[note]]because since "-heid" means "-ness", you also have words like "vriendelikheid" ("friendliness") which have nothing to do with "hate" at all.[[/note]]. The word's current political meaning was coined in Afrikaans. It exists in Dutch as well, but it had no political connotations in either language before it was used to name the now-infamous government policy. It translates simply as "apart-ness." What is rather ironic about it is that the term was used because the word "segregation" was considered to have too many negative connotations, and "apartheid" was considered a more neutral term for the policy. Although similar policies existed before then, even before the formation of the Union of South Africa (being known as the "Shepstonian System" in the British Empire's Natal Colony, which joined the Union in 1910), it was only officially and nationally entrenched in law in 1948. If you're in America, this is kind of like the difference between state and federal law: before apartheid, some provinces were less segregationist than others, while afterward they no longer had any lawful choice in the matter.

Did we mention that, although South Africa was part of the Allies in WW2, some members of the South African government when apartheid was first conceived were [[ThoseWackyNazis Nazi]] [[GodwinsLaw sympathizers]]? Well, we did now. In the early 1970s, an extreme white supremacist and neo-fascist group, the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_Weerstandsbeweging Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement]], was formed and in fact clashed with the apartheid government itself, which they felt was ''too soft.''

to:

Apartheid, noun--literally, "apart-ness". Refers "Apartheid" is an Afrikaans word. It literally means "apart-ness"; more accurately, it means "segregation". And in practice, it refers to the overriding policy in South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at 1994 of strictly enforced segregation.

During
the time of its dissolution Apartheid era, South Africa was the most visible nation-state nation in the modern world to have "Scientific Racialis" policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single "race" an official policy of citizens--her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of "scientific racism" -- the population. This was in spite of the fact idea that "race" as certain races were scientifically, objectively, better than others (or were at least distinct enough to deserve protection). As an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the theory, it was mostly discredited after UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, when millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed as a result of such theories. But South Africa did this to happen by "protect" its white citizens, who made up only 15 to 20% of the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that population.

Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote Africa divided people into various categories based on race, but in fair/semi-fair elections; "coloured citizens" had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the "black" population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government practice it was not a true democracy even for between "white" (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised "non-white". Whites got to rule the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].

[[folder:"How We Got Here": Some Background notes
country despite being a minority, segregation was the order of the day, and the whole thing was propped up by a PoliceState.

[[folder:Background and Useful Notes
on Apartheid]]

!HowWeGotHere --
South Africa and the leadup to Apartheid]]
In many ways, this apparent irony in how Apartheid came about (occurring after the second world war that so discredited racism on that scale, in a well-established and genuinely free but highly insular democracy) also helps explain why it happened.
Apartheid.

South African democracy Africa draws its roots to from the sort of small, insular "settler" European communities along the Cape of Good Hope, largely divided between the British and Dutch/Boer/Afrikaaner colonists that settled along the Cape. Since they lived in fear and hostility with many outsiders (Black Dutch (who became known as well as White; conflict the Boers or Afrikaaners). Conflict in the Cape was furious common, both between Europeans and frequent) they against the native Africans; as such, these communities tended to structure their governments tailored to keep power for them.

So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering
in a way that allowed their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise inhabitants to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions maintain power. The colonists tried to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony '''didn't''' get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished unify everyone under their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties--and especially suffrage--in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even '''before''' Apartheid. [[/note]]

The British had very good reason to fear dissent from
own system; the white communities British, in South Africa; they had originally taken particular, tried to assimilate it like the colony by force in UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars and fought several wars to consolidate their power, with some rest of the most stalwart UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire, which saw staunch resistance coming from the Boers [[note]] the Dutch word for "Farmer"[[/note]]. The Boers were fiercely independent (and borderline xenophobic) descendants of the Dutch colonists in the Cape who objected Boers. This led to both British rule and having almost anything to do with "Blacks." such bloody conflicts as [[UsefulNotes/TheSecondBoerWar The British government had spent two bloody and embarrassing wars putting them down]] and even afterwards keeping the peace (in their eyes) largely depended on working with Afrikaaner/Boer moderates. So to the British colonial government, massaging Afrikaaner sympathies by keeping the Black majority disenfranchised was a minor price to pay, especially since the British were usually racist themselves and the wars they had with the various Black peoples had not been anywhere near as troublesome for them as the Boer Wars.

And
wars]]. In the end, the whites stopped fighting with each other and adopted a common model of broad universal rights -- but only for the most part, white citizens. It was under this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who model that the basic segregation policies were established.

The Boers, however, were particularly xenophobic and wanted assurances that the black population could be
kept up the fight, and who largely in line. Some were attracted drawn to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also Germans, who had set up a colony just across the border in neighboring Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to and had their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at--chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal own brutal genocidal campaigns with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].

a similar militaristic attitude to the Boers. The hardliners took advantage of UsefulNotes/WorldWarI and the outbreak of WorldWarOne Germans tried to try and invade the colony from neighboring German Namibia, South Africa, but were defeated while South Africa won and annexed Namibia was annexed to South Africa. However, the South African colonial authorities dealt with the German presence much like the British had dealt with the Boers before them (annexing them into the (then known as South-West Africa). A tenuous alliance of white elite and sidelining the Blacks), and the underlying grievances remained. So in WorldWarTwo colonists ensued, until an attempted pro-Nazi revolt during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII supported by a new generation of Afrikaaner radicals also sympathized with Germany and joined a hardliner Afrikaaners.

The
conspiracy to try and cause a pro-Nazi revolt.

This is notable not for the conspiracy itself--which more or less
didn't go anywhere--but because after anywhere, but it did open up the war door for the people who were involved in it formed formation of the National Party. At Party, who in 1948 defeated the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' more moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but government of Jan Smuts (who argued that it would have to be dismantled in for the future.eventual dismantling of segregation). D.F. Malan's victory in Malan became the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of new leader, and the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.

So in effect, most of the leaders of
policy was formally instated.

!How it worked

Apartheid were disgruntled Nazi sympathizers who were elected into power and decided to put into effect some of codified several dozen "races", but for the disgraced ideology of their idol. [[ThisIsGonnaSuck Unsurprisingly, it went downhill from there.]]

During this time legalized
most part they could easily be divided into:
* "White" --
ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen official races being split into the broad Europeans
*
"Black" (African), -- ethnic Africans
* "Indians" -- ethnic UsefulNotes/{{India}}ns
*
"Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people successfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement -- mixed-race between the three main categories[[/note]] were not Africans and Europeans, or other ethnicities.

Only whites could be
considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the of South African Africa or participate in South Africa's government. The government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular everyone else to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of countryside, where they set up ten ''Bantustans'', "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". microstates. In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") all were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely effectively governed by and subservient to South Africa. Blacks and coloureds could get citizenship in one of the Bantustans, but this was effectively meaningless. The idea was that under the guise of "de-colonisation", blacks could form their own nations and societies separate from the European-colonized areas. In practice, that was impossible, as these places were poverty-ridden, completely devoid of healthcare healthcare, education, or education or infrastructure--that served as infrastructure, and basically just sources of cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

Making things a tad
mines.

Segregation was strictly enforced, even
more complex in this UsefulNotes/ColdWar era, the largest anti-apartheid group ANC (African National Congress, the party that Nelson Mandela belonged to) were openly allied with Marxists. This worked against them, as the white South Africans were so vehemently anti-Communist the anti-apartheid movement could get little support, at least not from the West (USSR was more than willing to provide military training and weapons, however). Meanwhile, in the U.S., UK and Israel supported at the time. Non-whites were formally prohibited from white apartheid government, areas, which could range from public facilities, to beaches, to neighborhoods, to effectively whole cities. Most jobs were completely closed to non-whites. Inter-racial relationships were strictly forbidden; although "coloured" was an officially-recognised "race", it consisted mainly because they weren't DirtyCommies.

South Africa engaged in a number
of border wars at this time, basically involving frequent cross-border raids into (Communist) Angola and Mozambique. It also fought and lost a war to keep hold of Namibia. Since this people whose mere ''existence'' was the Cold War, anti-West independence movements were assisted throughout Africa by countries such as the USSR and Cuba. It was assisted in this endeavor by various anti-Communist, pro-West independence movements, notably [[http://www.unitaangola.com/ UNITA]].

Within South Africa,
illegal.

The government dealt with
political opponents by "banning" them. This meant that they could be "banned"--barred from communicating not communicate with more than one person at any one a time when not at home, from visiting they couldn't enter certain areas areas, and from having anything they said could not be quoted in the media (a media. (This legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention today, just not used as much.) Those suspected of "terrorism" could be detained indefinitely, without charge or trial -- "terrorism" was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism"--defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever broadly defined as anything from "[[DirtyCommies communism]]" to "pissing the government says". Up to off". South Africa, until 1993, South Africa had the greatest dubious honor of having the highest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the prison. (The U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). has since overtaken it thanks to [[DrugsAreBad the "War on Drugs"]].)

And that's if you stayed alive.
Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and or killed with such explanations such as [[CutHimselfShaving "fell down the stairs"--TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public some stairs"]]. Public inquests backing would routinely back such findings. Additionally, findings, even over [[TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch obvious evidence to the security contrary]]. Security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, committed several outright assassinations, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of abroad; their preferred method was [[YouGotMurder the letter bomb]], colloquially known as the "care packages", better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages… package" (because [[{{Pun}} they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to manner.

Since the 1960s, the government would justify such
violence is thought as a way of as beginning in 1960 with the putting down protests, which became increasingly frequent. The Sharpeville Massacre, when Massacre in 1960 is seen as a turning point, as frightened police (including officers (both black officers) and white) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, protest, killing dozens, most of whom were shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in Anything could have sparked a protest; some of the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.

There is a lot
biggest arose out of debate over who exactly is responsible for ending apartheid, especially in a government decree that at least 50% of the post-apartheid era where anti-apartheid activities country's schools teach in Afrikaans rather than English, as many blacks considered Afrikaans in particular the language of the oppressors.

!Foreign relations
during the apartheid era is equivalent to one's ''street cred'' (and carries a lot of political favor and support). But basically in late 1989 when conservative F.W. de Klerk became president of Apartheid

The
Apartheid era coincided with [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the Cold War]]. As was common in authoritarian colonial states, the largest and best-organized opposition group -- in this case the African National Congress, or ANC -- was very leftist and openly allied with the [[DirtyCommies Communists]]. The white South Africans responded by being so vehemently anti-Communist that they attracted some support from the West, including the U.S., the U.K., and Israel. Israel and South Africa he announced that he planned are even alleged to end have collaborated on [[UsefulNotes/TheRestOfTheNuclearClub nuclear technology]]. Meanwhile, the discriminatory Soviet Union was doing what it could to support the insurgents.

When
Apartheid laws, began, South Africa was surrounded largely by other colonial governments that were similarly racist (in Angola, Rhodesia, and Mozambique). That started to change in the 1960s and 1970s, as the black majority in those countries -- again, largely communist groups -- overthrew the European colonial powers and established independence. South-West Africa also won an independence war from South Africa and split to form Namibia. South Africa saw itself surrounded by increasingly hostile nations.

In some sense, though, the experience of the newly independent neighbors caused South Africa to double down on its Apartheid policy. Rhodesia, for instance, became independent as Zimbabwe under its leader Robert Mugabe; but while the country had been one of the most successful in Africa under colonial rule in the 1960s, Mugabe's rule -- while not explicitly racist -- was centered around cronyism and incompetence, suggesting to whites in South Africa that blacks really didn't know how to run a country.

And although South Africa was nominally on the Allied side during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, there was a strong [[ThoseWackyNazis Nazi sympathy]] strain among Afrikaaners. That carried over into the Apartheid era,
which were successively repealed over led to the next four years. In 1992 when a formation in the early 1970s of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_African_apartheid_referendum,_1992 referendum]] was held on whether org/wiki/Afrikaner_Weerstandsbeweging Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging, or AWB]] (literally "Afrikaner Resistance Movement"). They frequently clashed with the Apartheid government itself, thinking it was too soft.

!Boycotts

Over time, South Africa became a pariah state, and from the 1960s onward, it was subject to a large-scale international economic and military boycott. About the only thing South Africa could get was secret collaboration with Israel [[TheRestOfTheNuclearClub over nuclear technology]]; the 1979 "Vela incident" is thought to have been a South African nuclear test captured by an American satellite.

South Africa already suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labour. Most of its black population was not allowed to hold desk jobs, and many of them were illiterate anyway. The country's insularity made it hostile to immigrants, and many people -- black and white alike -- were too disgusted with the country to want to move there.

Foreign investment in South Africa was decidedly lacklustre. This wasn't so much because the {{Mega Corp}}s had any particular moral qualms with the regime, but more that the country looked increasingly dangerous and unstable as its neighbors turned to chaos and South Africa seemed ready to follow suit. Governments were also putting pressure on companies not to invest in South Africa; in the U.S., this was a big reason for the enactment of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. South Africa was so desperate for investment that they gave "honorary white" status to East Asians, trying to entice Japanese and Taiwanese companies to invest.

The boycott was also cultural. South Africa was already notoriously strict on this front -- television was considered [[MoralGuardians morally corrupting]] and didn't arrive there until ''1975''. They also weren't very kind to people who went to the country to film there. If you did get to perform there as a musician, it was likely at the infamous Sun City resort (which was in a Bantustan, as South Africa itself banned gambling for being morally corrupting as well); many other musicians detested the regime and wrote numerous {{protest song}}s. They even criticized Music/PaulSimon for recording ''Graceland'' in the country -- with only black musicians.

South Africa also faced international sports boycotts; it was barred from the Olympics between 1964 and 1992. South African teams that did go abroad often sparked protests against the regime. Going to South Africa at all as an athlete would get you bad press. When the New Zealand UsefulNotes/RugbyUnion team toured South Africa in 1976, the IOC was under huge pressure to ban New Zealand; when they didn't, twenty-five African countries boycotted that summer's Olympics in Montreal. But it really hit them hard with UsefulNotes/{{cricket}}, a favorite sport in South Africa; very few teams were willing to play there. South Africa made it worse on itself by refusing to allow non-whites to play cricket there, and they really got in hot water when they insisted that a mixed-race English cricketer (himself a South African who fled the regime) be subject to Apartheid law while on tour there and not interact with the rest of his team outside game action.

!The end of Apartheid

There's some debate as to who exactly
should be continued or not, over two thirds of white South Africans voted to end get the most credit for ending Apartheid. Of course this referendum is [[WrittenByTheWinners rarely recorded in history]].

The announcement
Nelson Mandela gets much of the credit, but the foundation was laid even before he became the president. Mandela's predecessor, conservative F.W. de Klerk in 1990 started a 3-year long discussion/negotiation between Klerk, announced the apartheid government and anti-apartheid groups culminated in the election of Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress (ANC) party in 1994. These elections are generally considered intention to mark the end of Apartheid and their anniversary (27 April) is now a national holiday in South Africa. For their effort to peacefully transition South Africa out of Apartheid, Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. After the election of the first black president (Mandela), de Klerk stayed on as vice-president until 1996 when he retired from politics.

After apartheid ended,
was elected in late 1989, and many of the discriminatory laws were repealed over the next four years. In 1992, a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truth_and_Reconciliation_Commission_(South_Africa) Truth and Reconciliation Commission]] org/wiki/South_African_apartheid_referendum,_1992 referendum]] was created to help address the crimes of past, with perpetrators of crimes (from both the apartheid regime and various dissidents fighting it) given amnesty if they confessed and asked for forgiveness.

held on whether Apartheid is pronounced "apart-hate" (but only if you over-enunciate it), which may seem appropriate if [[InMyLanguageThatSoundsLike your primary language is English]][[note]]because since "-heid" means "-ness", you should be continued; over two thirds of white South Africans voted to end Apartheid. De Klerk also have words like "vriendelikheid" ("friendliness") which have nothing opened the door to do with "hate" at all.[[/note]]. The word's current political meaning the ANC, formerly the subversive terrorist group, for negotiations.

In 1994, ANC leader Nelson Mandela
was coined in Afrikaans. It exists in Dutch as well, but it had no political connotations in either language before it was used to name the now-infamous government policy. It translates simply as "apart-ness." What elected South Africa's first black president. This election is rather ironic about it is that the term was used because the word "segregation" was considered to have too many negative connotations, and "apartheid" was considered a more neutral term the turning point for the policy. Although similar policies existed before then, even before country and the formation formal end of Apartheid; its anniversary, April 27, is now a national holiday in South Africa. But Mandela was determined to ensure a peaceful transition, and he allowed de Klerk to stay on as vice president until his retirement in 1996. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Union of Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for their efforts.

South Africa (being known as the "Shepstonian System" in the British Empire's Natal Colony, which joined the Union in 1910), it was only officially and nationally entrenched in law in 1948. If you're in America, this is kind of like the difference between state and federal law: before apartheid, some provinces were less segregationist than others, while afterward they no longer had any lawful choice in the matter.

Did we mention that, although South Africa was part of the Allies in WW2, some members of the South African government when apartheid was first conceived were [[ThoseWackyNazis Nazi]] [[GodwinsLaw sympathizers]]? Well, we did now. In the early 1970s, an extreme white supremacist and neo-fascist group, the
then set up a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaner_Weerstandsbeweging Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, meaning Afrikaner Resistance Movement]], was formed org/wiki/Truth_and_Reconciliation_Commission_(South_Africa) Truth and in fact clashed with Reconciliation Commission]] as a way to address the apartheid government itself, crimes of the Apartheid era. Perpetrators of crimes on both sides were given amnesty if they confessed and asked for forgiveness.

They also strove to reform its then-current standing military,
which was for years the enforcer of the Apartheid regime. Most soldiers resented being commanded by the Soviet-trained officers they felt was ''too soft.''had previously been fighting. Many of them became mercenaries (well, [[InsistentTerminology military contractors]]), either fighting in NATO-aligned mercenary groups in places like Iraq and Afghanistan, or becoming "private security" forces. As this generation ages, though, the "racist South African mercenary" trope is likely to die out.





[[folder:Boycotts]]

South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. When an aging, semi-functional U.S. surveillance satellite registered a bright flash in the Southern Indian Ocean on 22/9/1979 the USA's first thoughts were that it was produced by a nuclear weapon. However, analysis of seismic records and the dispatch of an airplane to detect radioactive particles led to the revised conclusion that it had been a simple equipment malfunction. However, some have speculated that it was a real Israeli or South African nuclear test.

More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labor[[note]] Mostly because four-fifths of the population was largely or totally illiterate and not allowed to hold desk-jobs anyway, but also because immigration would mean becoming second-class citizens for non-Europeans. The insular and deeply racist nature of South African society was somewhat off-putting for many would-be European immigrants too [[/note]] and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre-not so much because multinational MegaCorps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that [[LoopholeAbuse "Honorary White" Racial Status]]--with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay--was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.

South Africa also faced a ''cultural'' boycott. South Africa was barred from the Olympics from 1964 to 1992. Going to South Africa to compete would get a sportsperson very bad press. International cricket, a big South African sport, had occurred spottily. There were some "rebel" tours, including two of England players, which resulted in players getting bans as a result. RugbyUnion ties with New Zealand remained-when New Zealand toured South Africa in 1976, twenty-five African nations boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal after the IOC refused to ban New Zealand over the tour. Then in 1981 South Africa toured New Zealand, where the anti-apartheid lobby clashed with rugby fans and caused widespread riots. Artists organized boycotts against performing in South Africa during this period also.

It is fair to say the South African government contributed to this situation. The TCCB was perfectly happy to send the England cricket team on tour to SA, until the fateful season where England wished to send Basil D'Olivera, a mixed-race cricketer, as part of the team. South Africa insisted that D'Olivera be subject to apartheid law while in the country and kept separate from the rest of the team, who were all white. This meant he would have had to be treated as a Coloured (mixed race person in South African parlance) for the duration of his stay and have no contact with the team, except when training or playing. England refused this condition as unacceptable. South Africa then banned D'Olivera from entering the country at all. England, refusing to set a precedent that any host country should dictate their team selection, then called off the tour. Ironically D'Olivera was himself a South African, and had left for England to escape his country's pre-existing ban on non-whites playing first class cricket.

In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica… entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.
[[/folder]]

[[folder:Mercenary Legacy]]

With apartheid coming to an end and a new government in place, one of their first actions was to reform (read: get rid of) the then-current standing military, presumably since for decades the military was the iron first of the apartheid government and performed numerous operations (above-board and otherwise; counterinsurgency isn't always pretty) in order to undermine anti-apartheid activities. To be fair, most soldiers were given the option to stay on, but many didn't want to be commanded by Soviet-trained officers they'd been fighting against for all of the UsefulNotes/ColdWar. Most of the soldiers, well-trained with years of active military experience, became Mercenaries (or Military Contractors). Most notably the PMC (Private Military Contractor) [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_Outcomes Executive Outcomes]] was founded by former members of the apartheid government and when on to take part in a number of military actions in Africa. Today it is still common for South Africans to be part of NATO-aligned mercenary groups in places like Iraq and Afghanistan, although the increasing age of the apartheid-era generation and the smaller number of new mercenary recruits makes it a dwindling phenomenon. Also, since mercenary companies (and associated activities) are illegal in South Africa, the privatized military-style South African forces you do see these days are called "security companies" now. So, if you ever make any official inquiry, there are no South African mercenaries, but it makes little practical difference.
[[/folder]]
18th Jun '16 3:49:44 PM ThatBitterTase
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to:

* One chapter of ''Manga/{{Golgo 13}}'' is set immediately after the election of President Mandela, when apartheid is still heavy on everyone's minds. Mandela, who met Golgo 13 during his imprisonment, hires the assassin to kill a white-supremist general who wants to take South Africa by force and reestablish apartheid.
12th Jun '16 7:17:58 PM Malady
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During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen official races being split into the "Black" (African), "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people successfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

to:

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen official races being split into the broad "Black" (African), "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people successfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.
12th Jun '16 7:16:49 PM Malady
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During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen offical races being split into the boaod "Black" (African), "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

to:

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African "blacks" and "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen offical official races being split into the boaod "Black" (African), "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and "White" (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully successfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered "true" citizens as were the country's "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.



South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. When an aging, semi-functional U.S. surveillance satellite registered a bright flash in the southern indian ocean on 22/9/1979 the USA's first thoughts were that it was produced by a nuclear weapon. However, analysis of seismic records and the dispatch of an airplane to detect radioactive particles led to the revised conclusion that it had been a simple equipment malfunction. However, some have speculated that it was a real Israeli or South African nuclear test.

to:

South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. When an aging, semi-functional U.S. surveillance satellite registered a bright flash in the southern indian ocean Southern Indian Ocean on 22/9/1979 the USA's first thoughts were that it was produced by a nuclear weapon. However, analysis of seismic records and the dispatch of an airplane to detect radioactive particles led to the revised conclusion that it had been a simple equipment malfunction. However, some have speculated that it was a real Israeli or South African nuclear test.
27th May '16 6:35:04 AM Odacon_Spy
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** It is thought Lord Vetinari actively encourages such emigration to Rimwards Howondaland for devious reasons of his own. He also nurtures liberally-inclined Assassin Johanna Smith-Rhodes, a Howondalandian native and Vondalaander whose opinions have changed after ten years in Ankh-Morpork. Vetinari ''insisted'' the Assassins' Guild School, many of whose graduates go into politics in their home nations, should take equal numbers of black and white Howondalandians as pupils and educate them side-by-side for seven years. He has also been seen to ask his Embassy in Rimwards Howondaland for details of [[NelsonMandela pacifistically-inclined black prisoners of conscience]], who are currently incarcerated in the country's jails. This was after studying the Roundworld Project's observations of the history of South Africa on our world....

to:

** It is thought Lord Vetinari actively encourages such emigration to Rimwards Howondaland for devious reasons of his own. He also nurtures liberally-inclined Assassin Johanna Smith-Rhodes, a Howondalandian native and Vondalaander whose opinions have changed after ten years in Ankh-Morpork. Vetinari ''insisted'' the Assassins' Guild School, many of whose graduates go into politics in their home nations, should take equal numbers of black and white Howondalandians as pupils and educate them side-by-side for seven years. He has also been seen to ask his Embassy in Rimwards Howondaland for details of [[NelsonMandela pacifistically-inclined on certain "pacifistically-inclined black prisoners of conscience]], conscience", who are currently incarcerated in the country's jails. This was after studying the Roundworld Project's observations of the history of South Africa on our world....
5th May '16 4:18:13 PM Eievie
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->''"No, he's never met a nice South African''
->''And that's not bloody surprising, mun!''
->'''cause we're a bunch of arrogant bastards,''
->''Who hate black people."''

to:

->''"No, he's never met a nice South African''
->''And
African\\
And
that's not bloody surprising, mun!''
->'''cause
mun!\\
'cause
we're a bunch of arrogant bastards,''
->''Who
bastards,\\
Who
hate black people."''



Apartheid, noun - literally, 'apart-ness'. Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation-state in the modern world to have 'Scientific Racialist' policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single 'race' of citizens - her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that 'race' as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; 'coloured' citizens' had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the 'black' population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for 'white' (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].

to:

Apartheid, noun - literally, 'apart-ness'. noun--literally, "apart-ness". Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation-state in the modern world to have 'Scientific Racialist' "Scientific Racialis" policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single 'race' "race" of citizens - her citizens--her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that 'race' "race" as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; 'coloured' citizens' "coloured citizens" had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the 'black' "black" population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for 'white' "white" (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].



So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony *didn't* get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties- and especially suffrage- in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even *before* Apartheid. [[/note]]

to:

So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony *didn't* '''didn't''' get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties- and liberties--and especially suffrage- in suffrage--in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even *before* '''before''' Apartheid. [[/note]]



And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also had a colony just across the border in Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at - chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].

to:

And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also had a colony just across the border in Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at - chiefly at--chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].



This is notable not for the conspiracy itself- which more or less didn't go anywhere- but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.

to:

This is notable not for the conspiracy itself- which itself--which more or less didn't go anywhere- but anywhere--but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.



During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African 'blacks' and 'coloureds' [[note]] The several-dozen offical races being split into the boaod 'Black' (African), 'Coloured' (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and 'White' (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered 'true' citizens as were the country's 'whites' (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and -Dutch/'Afrikaners' - the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the 'blacks' in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent 'apartness'/'apartheid' was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be 'free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords'. In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes - completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure - that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

to:

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African 'blacks' "blacks" and 'coloureds' "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen offical races being split into the boaod 'Black' "Black" (African), 'Coloured' "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and 'White' "White" (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered 'true' "true" citizens as were the country's 'whites' "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and -Dutch/'Afrikaners' - the and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the 'blacks' "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent 'apartness'/'apartheid' "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be 'free "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords'.former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes - completely hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure - that infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.



Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned" -- barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism" -- defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs" -- TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of 'care packages', better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages ... they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.

to:

Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned" -- barred "banned"--barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism" -- defined "terrorism"--defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs" -- TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch stairs"--TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of 'care packages', "care packages", better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages ... packages… they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.



More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labor[[note]] Mostly because four-fifths of the population was largely or totally illiterate and not allowed to hold desk-jobs anyway, but also because immigration would mean becoming second-class citizens for non-Europeans. The insular and deeply racist nature of South African society was somewhat off-putting for many would-be European immigrants too [[/note]] and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre-not so much because multinational MegaCorps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that [[LoopholeAbuse 'Honorary White' Racial Status]]-with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay-was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.

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More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labor[[note]] Mostly because four-fifths of the population was largely or totally illiterate and not allowed to hold desk-jobs anyway, but also because immigration would mean becoming second-class citizens for non-Europeans. The insular and deeply racist nature of South African society was somewhat off-putting for many would-be European immigrants too [[/note]] and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre-not so much because multinational MegaCorps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that [[LoopholeAbuse 'Honorary White' "Honorary White" Racial Status]]-with Status]]--with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay-was pay--was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.



In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.

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In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... SouthAfrica… entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.



* ''Film/{{District 9}}'', an AlienAmongUs story set in Johannesburg, never explicitly mentions apartheid -- but [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything you can't help thinking about it anyway]].

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* ''Film/{{District 9}}'', an AlienAmongUs story set in Johannesburg, never explicitly mentions apartheid -- but apartheid--but [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything you can't help thinking about it anyway]].



** This is basically a realistic portrayal of what South Africa's military, and its mercenaries, are like. Even during apartheid, all races were represented in the Army - except that units were segregated, and only white South Africans were subject to conscription. While fighting against the Communist hordes on the border, South Africans were more concerned about staying alive than being racist. Danny specifically notes that he fought alongside black troops, and that his sergeant told them "there's no apartheid in the trenches."
** As an added bonus to stack against the stereotype, consider the fact that all white South Africans in movies refer to black people by "the k-word", with this being more common among soldiers and government ministers. Except... even under apartheid, it was illegal to use that word. Those film South Africans may have had diplomatic immunity, but all the heroes had to do was record the bad guys insulting them, and they would get fired and probably fined several thousand Rand for being racially insensitive.

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** This is basically a realistic portrayal of what South Africa's military, and its mercenaries, are like. Even during apartheid, all races were represented in the Army - except Army--except that units were segregated, and only white South Africans were subject to conscription. While fighting against the Communist hordes on the border, South Africans were more concerned about staying alive than being racist. Danny specifically notes that he fought alongside black troops, and that his sergeant told them "there's no apartheid in the trenches."
** As an added bonus to stack against the stereotype, consider the fact that all white South Africans in movies refer to black people by "the k-word", with this being more common among soldiers and government ministers. Except... Except… even under apartheid, it was illegal to use that word. Those film South Africans may have had diplomatic immunity, but all the heroes had to do was record the bad guys insulting them, and they would get fired and probably fined several thousand Rand for being racially insensitive.
17th Apr '16 3:59:39 AM thatmadork
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* ''Literature/FearLoathingAndGumboOnTheCampaignTrailSeventyTwo'' depicts an AlternateHistory where, amongst other wackiness, Magnus Malan becomes dictator of an even more extreme South Africa and implements (even worse) racist policies against black and even non-Afrikaner whites. South Africa in this timeline is a Neo-Nazi state in all but name, and is engaged in a losing war against the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, committing massacres against natives and using dirty bombs and chemical weapons against her enemies. When it becomes apparent to Malan that South Africa's gonna lose, he arranges to wipe out most of the continent with the country's nuclear arsenal. It's quite telling the setting is a CrapsackWorld when the POTUS [[spoiler:Donald Rumsfeld]] openly supports this kind of place.
6th Apr '16 2:49:50 PM MAI742
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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.

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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", When an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by aging, semi-functional U.S. surveillance satellites, satellite registered a bright flash in the southern indian ocean on 22/9/1979 the USA's first thoughts were that it was probably produced by a nuclear weapon. However, analysis of seismic records and the dispatch of an airplane to detect radioactive particles led to the revised conclusion that it had been a simple equipment malfunction. However, some have speculated that it was a real Israeli or South African nuclear test.
6th Apr '16 8:52:43 AM molotov
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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help (that's right, Israel helped the National Party segregate blacks. Why? Probably so they could get uranium to build [[IsraelisWithInfraredMissiles their own nukes]]), including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.

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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help (that's right, Israel helped the National Party segregate blacks. Why? Probably so they could get uranium to build [[IsraelisWithInfraredMissiles their own nukes]]), help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.
12th Mar '16 1:10:06 PM eroock
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-->--'''''Series/SpittingImage''''', "I've Never Met a Nice South African"

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-->--'''''Series/SpittingImage''''', -->-- '''''Series/SpittingImage''''', "I've Never Met a Nice South African"
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