History UsefulNotes / TheApartheidEra

5th May '16 4:18:13 PM Eievie
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->''"No, he's never met a nice South African''
->''And that's not bloody surprising, mun!''
->'''cause we're a bunch of arrogant bastards,''
->''Who hate black people."''

to:

->''"No, he's never met a nice South African''
->''And
African\\
And
that's not bloody surprising, mun!''
->'''cause
mun!\\
'cause
we're a bunch of arrogant bastards,''
->''Who
bastards,\\
Who
hate black people."''



Apartheid, noun - literally, 'apart-ness'. Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation-state in the modern world to have 'Scientific Racialist' policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single 'race' of citizens - her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that 'race' as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; 'coloured' citizens' had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the 'black' population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for 'white' (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].

to:

Apartheid, noun - literally, 'apart-ness'. noun--literally, "apart-ness". Refers to South Africa from 1948 to 1994, which at the time of its dissolution was the most visible nation-state in the modern world to have 'Scientific Racialist' "Scientific Racialis" policies, with a government predicated on protecting and providing for a single 'race' "race" of citizens - her citizens--her ethnically European citizens, who composed between 15 and 20% of the population. This was in spite of the fact that 'race' "race" as an anthropological theory had long since been dis-proven by 1948, not to mention universally condemned as a popular theory [[WorldWarTwo thanks to the millions of people who died in genocides, assorted massacres, and famines implemented and/or allowed to happen by the racialist regimes of Germany and Japan before and during World War II]]. It's also worth noting that Apartheid was made possible by South Africa's status as a minority-rule democracy. European citizens (who were becoming increasingly paranoid about the rest of the country's population) could vote in fair/semi-fair elections; 'coloured' citizens' "coloured citizens" had some token-representation got slightly stronger over time and for a while even the 'black' "black" population had a couple of token representatives amongst several dozen other members of the Parliament. But the Apartheid government was not a true democracy even for 'white' "white" (pale-skinned, typically ethnically European) people; [[PoliceState activists and journalists of all races who criticised the regime were harassed, imprisoned, exiled or even killed]].



So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony *didn't* get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties- and especially suffrage- in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even *before* Apartheid. [[/note]]

to:

So after the Boers and later the British finished conquering their ways up and assimilating all others, the British adopted and institutionalized these basic models into a compromise to try and calm the mutually hostile white populations in its' colony. What they settled on was primarily based on the British model, but with substantial privileges and concessions to the Afrikaaners, on the basis of [[FairForItsDay fairly broad]] broad universal rights, and in particular suffrage to free Whites. Unfortunately, this meant the many Black populations that made up the majority of the colony *didn't* '''didn't''' get suffrage. So in effect, participation in South Africa's democratic tradition was limited exclusively to a small minority of whites, and Blacks who wished their voices to be heard had to hope for a sympathetic government. [[note]] this is something of a simplification, but Black liberties- and liberties--and especially suffrage- in suffrage--in South Africa actually faced serious backsliding even *before* '''before''' Apartheid. [[/note]]



And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also had a colony just across the border in Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at - chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].

to:

And for the most part, this arrangement worked well for what it was intended to do, but it failed to pacify some Afrikaaner radicals who kept up the fight, and who largely were attracted to Germany for all kinds of reasons [[note]]in addition to Germany and the Netherlands being fairly close together culturally and historically, Germany at the time also had a colony just across the border in Namibia where they were busy stamping out various native oppositions to their rule in ways that even the Apartheid Republics might have blanched at - chiefly at--chiefly the genocide of the entire Herero people, of whom there may have been as many as 100k before they were exterminated. To a people who very much saw themselves as rugged individualists and militarists living amongst a sea of "enemies", Germany's militarism, authoritarianism, and ability to deal with "undesirables" efficiently attracted many hardline Afrikaaners[[/note]].



This is notable not for the conspiracy itself- which more or less didn't go anywhere- but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.

to:

This is notable not for the conspiracy itself- which itself--which more or less didn't go anywhere- but anywhere--but because after the war the people who were involved in it formed the National Party. At the time, South Africa was governed by Jan Smuts' moderate government, who defended the existing segregation but argued that it would have to be dismantled in the future. D.F. Malan's victory in the 1948 election is generally considered to be the start of the Apartheid era. It should be noted that Smuts would have won if the voting system hadn't been so biased towards rural areas.



During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African 'blacks' and 'coloureds' [[note]] The several-dozen offical races being split into the boaod 'Black' (African), 'Coloured' (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and 'White' (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered 'true' citizens as were the country's 'whites' (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and -Dutch/'Afrikaners' - the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the 'blacks' in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent 'apartness'/'apartheid' was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be 'free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords'. In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes - completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure - that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.

to:

During this time legalized ethnic segregation occurred and South African 'blacks' "blacks" and 'coloureds' "coloureds" [[note]] The several-dozen offical races being split into the boaod 'Black' "Black" (African), 'Coloured' "Coloured" (composed of all not-entirely-African and not-entirely-European people), and 'White' "White" (European) races. At least 40 people succesfully petitioned The Department Of Racial Affairs to have their legal race changed every year during this period, though there was little movement between the three main categories[[/note]] were not considered 'true' "true" citizens as were the country's 'whites' "whites" (who were/are mainly ethnic-English and -Dutch/'Afrikaners' - the and--Dutch/"Afrikaners"--the latter being Dutch/Afrikaans for "Africans"). Instead, the South African government tried to confine the 'blacks' "blacks" in particular to the countryside and gave as many of them as possible citizenship of one of ten "native homelands". Six of these were provinces of South Africa itself, and while the other four were nominally independent microstates they were still totally reliant on South Africa (which surrounded them) to survive. The initial ethnic cleansing and consequent 'apartness'/'apartheid' "apartness"/"apartheid" was officially done as part of a process of "de-colonisation" so that the native peoples of South Africa would be 'free "free to pursue their own path, free from patronage and protection of their European former-overlords'.former-overlords". In practice, the "homelands" (a.k.a. "Bantustans") were poverty-ridden hell-holes - completely hell-holes--completely devoid of healthcare or education or infrastructure - that infrastructure--that served as sources cheap labor for South Africa's mines.



Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned" -- barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism" -- defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs" -- TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of 'care packages', better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages ... they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.

to:

Within South Africa, political opponents could be "banned" -- barred "banned"--barred from communicating with more than one person at any one time when not at home, from visiting certain areas and from having anything they said quoted in the media (a legal measure which is still on the books today). Indefinite detention without charge or trial was allowed for those suspected of "terrorism" -- defined "terrorism"--defined so broadly, like "communism", that it meant "whatever the government says". Up to 1993, South Africa had the greatest percentage of its own population in prison globally, when it was surpassed by... the U.S. (on account of mandatory minimum sentencing laws for drug offenses). Hundreds of people were tortured in jail and killed with explanations such as "fell down the stairs" -- TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch stairs"--TheCoronerDothProtestTooMuch indeed, to the point of public inquests backing such findings. Additionally, the security and intelligence services assassinated numerous people outright, both in South Africa and abroad, usually making use of 'care packages', "care packages", better known as a bomb in the mail ([[{{Pun}} care packages ... packages… they take care of you]]). Prominent exiled dissident Ruth First was murdered in this manner. The shift from non-violence to violence is thought of as beginning in 1960 with the Sharpeville Massacre, when frightened police (including black officers) fired on an unruly protesting crowd throwing stones, killing dozens, most shot in the back while fleeing. It went downhill in the aftermath, with armed resistance and terrorism beginning.



More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labor[[note]] Mostly because four-fifths of the population was largely or totally illiterate and not allowed to hold desk-jobs anyway, but also because immigration would mean becoming second-class citizens for non-Europeans. The insular and deeply racist nature of South African society was somewhat off-putting for many would-be European immigrants too [[/note]] and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre-not so much because multinational MegaCorps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that [[LoopholeAbuse 'Honorary White' Racial Status]]-with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay-was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.

to:

More importantly, however, South Africa suffered from a serious shortage of skilled labor[[note]] Mostly because four-fifths of the population was largely or totally illiterate and not allowed to hold desk-jobs anyway, but also because immigration would mean becoming second-class citizens for non-Europeans. The insular and deeply racist nature of South African society was somewhat off-putting for many would-be European immigrants too [[/note]] and foreign investment was decidedly lacklustre-not so much because multinational MegaCorps had any particular moral qualms with the regime (though doing so became increasingly controversial) as the fact that the whole country looked like a powder-keg ready to explode and take all one's investments with it. The situation got so bad that [[LoopholeAbuse 'Honorary White' "Honorary White" Racial Status]]-with Status]]--with its lack of restrictions upon travel, jobs, and pay-was pay--was given to the employees of Taiwanese and Japanese corporations willing to do business with them.



In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.

to:

In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... SouthAfrica… entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.



* ''Film/{{District 9}}'', an AlienAmongUs story set in Johannesburg, never explicitly mentions apartheid -- but [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything you can't help thinking about it anyway]].

to:

* ''Film/{{District 9}}'', an AlienAmongUs story set in Johannesburg, never explicitly mentions apartheid -- but apartheid--but [[DoesThisRemindYouOfAnything you can't help thinking about it anyway]].



** This is basically a realistic portrayal of what South Africa's military, and its mercenaries, are like. Even during apartheid, all races were represented in the Army - except that units were segregated, and only white South Africans were subject to conscription. While fighting against the Communist hordes on the border, South Africans were more concerned about staying alive than being racist. Danny specifically notes that he fought alongside black troops, and that his sergeant told them "there's no apartheid in the trenches."
** As an added bonus to stack against the stereotype, consider the fact that all white South Africans in movies refer to black people by "the k-word", with this being more common among soldiers and government ministers. Except... even under apartheid, it was illegal to use that word. Those film South Africans may have had diplomatic immunity, but all the heroes had to do was record the bad guys insulting them, and they would get fired and probably fined several thousand Rand for being racially insensitive.

to:

** This is basically a realistic portrayal of what South Africa's military, and its mercenaries, are like. Even during apartheid, all races were represented in the Army - except Army--except that units were segregated, and only white South Africans were subject to conscription. While fighting against the Communist hordes on the border, South Africans were more concerned about staying alive than being racist. Danny specifically notes that he fought alongside black troops, and that his sergeant told them "there's no apartheid in the trenches."
** As an added bonus to stack against the stereotype, consider the fact that all white South Africans in movies refer to black people by "the k-word", with this being more common among soldiers and government ministers. Except... Except… even under apartheid, it was illegal to use that word. Those film South Africans may have had diplomatic immunity, but all the heroes had to do was record the bad guys insulting them, and they would get fired and probably fined several thousand Rand for being racially insensitive.
17th Apr '16 3:59:39 AM thatmadork
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to:

* ''Literature/FearLoathingAndGumboOnTheCampaignTrailSeventyTwo'' depicts an AlternateHistory where, amongst other wackiness, Magnus Malan becomes dictator of an even more extreme South Africa and implements (even worse) racist policies against black and even non-Afrikaner whites. South Africa in this timeline is a Neo-Nazi state in all but name, and is engaged in a losing war against the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, committing massacres against natives and using dirty bombs and chemical weapons against her enemies. When it becomes apparent to Malan that South Africa's gonna lose, he arranges to wipe out most of the continent with the country's nuclear arsenal. It's quite telling the setting is a CrapsackWorld when the POTUS [[spoiler:Donald Rumsfeld]] openly supports this kind of place.
6th Apr '16 2:49:50 PM MAI742
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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.

to:

South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", When an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by aging, semi-functional U.S. surveillance satellites, satellite registered a bright flash in the southern indian ocean on 22/9/1979 the USA's first thoughts were that it was probably produced by a nuclear weapon. However, analysis of seismic records and the dispatch of an airplane to detect radioactive particles led to the revised conclusion that it had been a simple equipment malfunction. However, some have speculated that it was a real Israeli or South African nuclear test.
6th Apr '16 8:52:43 AM molotov
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South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help (that's right, Israel helped the National Party segregate blacks. Why? Probably so they could get uranium to build [[IsraelisWithInfraredMissiles their own nukes]]), including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.

to:

South Africa was subjected for much of this period to a large-scale international economic and military boycott from the '60s onwards-the SouthAfricansWithSurfaceToAirMissiles developed weapons indigenously with Israeli help (that's right, Israel helped the National Party segregate blacks. Why? Probably so they could get uranium to build [[IsraelisWithInfraredMissiles their own nukes]]), help, including working on a shared nuclear weapons program. The so-called "Vela Incident", an explosion out in the ocean near Antarctica which was picked up by U.S. surveillance satellites, was probably a South African nuclear test.
12th Mar '16 1:10:06 PM eroock
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-->--'''''Series/SpittingImage''''', "I've Never Met a Nice South African"

to:

-->--'''''Series/SpittingImage''''', -->-- '''''Series/SpittingImage''''', "I've Never Met a Nice South African"
7th Feb '16 7:24:28 AM Freshmeat
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In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording his MagnumOpus ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.

to:

In terms of media, Equity banned works involving its members from being shown on South African television, which arrived in 1975 (before that, TV was banned as a morally corrupting influence). If you actually went to South Africa to ''film'', you were not going to be popular. On a more informal level in the 1980s, the same thing applied for popular musicians who performed at the infamous Sun City resort in South Africa, as Artists Against Apartheid pointed out in their protest song "Sun City." Interestingly enough, Sun City was in a homeland/reservation, since gambling was illegal in the Republic itself. This cultural boycott occasionally got rather out of hand, as when PaulSimon was criticized for recording his MagnumOpus ''Graceland'' in SouthAfrica... entirely with musicians who were black in the first place.
11th Jan '16 8:04:01 PM jormis29
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* The BigBad in the original ''VideoGame/SoldierOfFortune'' video game is an exiled South African Colonel named Dekker who blames the fall of Apartheid on the meddling of western nations. His ultimate plan for revenge is to drop a neutron bomb (Built in part on expertise he has from working on top-secret South African nuclear projects) on the U.S.

to:

* The BigBad in the original ''VideoGame/SoldierOfFortune'' video game is an exiled South African Colonel named Dekker who blames the fall of Apartheid on the meddling of western nations. His ultimate plan for revenge is to drop a neutron bomb NeutronBomb (Built in part on expertise he has from working on top-secret South African nuclear projects) on the U.S.
7th Jan '16 4:54:10 PM AgProv
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Added DiffLines:

** It was revealed, in a postscript to Creator/TerryPratchett's posthumously published novel ''Discworld/TheShepherdsCrown'' that Terry had at least an outline for a novel that would have explored "Howondaland" to the same level of detail that he gave to Australia. Its working title was ''The Dark Incontinent''. Some possible fragments of this book, descriptions of people and places, were released in the recent ''Complete Discworld Atlas''. The character of Howondaland Smith, Balgrog Hunter, for instance, is clearly depicted as a White Howondalandian.
29th Sep '15 7:08:07 PM mirisu92
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29th Sep '15 7:07:36 PM mirisu92
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