Lincoln is a historical retelling of the 16th President of the United States's attempts to get the Thirteenth Amendment passed, directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Tony Kushner, based on the acclaimed biography Team of Rivals by Doris Kearns Goodwin. It stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Lincoln, Sally Field as Mary Todd Lincoln, Joseph Gordon-Levitt as their son Robert and has a supporting cast that includes Tommy Lee Jones, David Strathairn, Jared Harris and Jackie Earle Haley.Set during the last four months of Lincoln's life, the film's main focus is on Lincoln's attempts to end the Civil War and pass the 13th Amendment, thereby abolishing slavery. This is much harder than it sounds, due to the many political divisions not just in the country at the time, but also in Lincoln's own party. The Radical Republicans led by Representative Thaddeus Stevens demand a strong bill to be passed at all costs, while the more conservative party members led by the Blair family want to hold off until they can try one more chance at negotiating peace with the rebellious South. Throwing complete support behind either side risks the Amendment not getting passed at all, and even with the support of his own party, Lincoln needs some Democratic support as well. This sets the stage for a series of behind the scenes maneuvers to sway certain Congressmen to break from their party and vote with Lincoln. Meanwhile, Lincoln also has to deal with his family, particularly his son Robert's demands to enlist.The film was given a limited release on November 9, 2012 before opening wide on the 16th and becoming a robust box office hit for a historical political drama. The trailer can be viewed here.Lincoln received critical acclaim, especially for Daniel Day-Lewis' performance. It was nominated for 12 Academy Awards, winning two: Best Actor for Day-Lewis and Best Production Design.
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Action Prologue: The film opens violently with the Battle of Jenkins' Ferry.
Adorkable: Representative Ashley gives off this vibe in some scenes. The round face and curly hair help.
Affably Evil / Token Good Teammate: As was apparently true to life, Confederate Vice-President Alexander Stephens is respectful to the black Union soldiers he meets, in contrast to his fellow Confederate escort. In real life, Stephens was a white supremacist and avid supporter of slavery, but he campaigned for better treatment of slaves and apparently treated his slaves well enough that many stayed with him as paid servants after the war, and one even served as a pallbearer. Lincoln and Stephens were also friends before the war, as hinted at when Lincoln addresses him as "Alex."
Age Lift: Sally Field is 9 years older than Day-Lewis, the reverse of Lincoln's difference to Mary. Thankfully the make-up makes him look older than her.
Ambiguously Gay: One of the radical Republicans is given this sort of characterization.
The American Civil War: Is in its fourth and final year. The struggle to pass the Thirteenth Amendment is to secure what was won and to ultimately ensure that once the scourge of war had passed away that the nation would have a new birth of freedom.
Answer Cut: Lincoln goes to negotiate with the rebel commissioners after some persuasion by General Grant. At the end he asks the commissioners directly, "Shall we stop this bleeding?" The scene fades out and is replaced by one of the Fall of Richmond.
Artistic License - History: As Spielberg put it on the 149th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address: "Itís not the job, and in fact itís a betrayal of the job, of a historian to promise perfect and complete recall of the past, to promise memory that abolishes loss. One of the jobs of art is to go to the impossible places that other disciplines, like history, must avoid.Ē With that in mind...
Lincoln was not clothed upon his death (so the doctors could check for other wounds) and was laid diagonally, since the bed he was put in was too small for him.
The possibility that any Union soldier, black or white, would have committed the Gettysburg Address to memory in 1863 is remote, since the speech did not enter the national vocabulary until the early 20th century.
First Lady Mary Lincoln did not attend the final tally on the amendment and it would have been scorned then for a woman to sit in the House Gallery.
The flag raised near the beginning of the film is raised with a crank instead of a system of ropes.
Votes then were taken in alphabetical order, not by state.
Bilbo jokes that Seward went so far as to forbid the Gang of Three from using the coins that bear Lincoln's visage to avoid any connection between them and the president. While there was money with Lincoln's image at the time, it was on the ten dollar bill, not on coins.
Alexander Gardner would not have sent fragile one-of-a-kind plates to Tad Lincoln, especially since the boy had once ruined several images by locking their developer in a closet.
Tad Lincoln is shown as a normal eleven year-old boy in the film. In real life Tad Lincoln had a very serious speech impediment, to the point that only his closest family and teachers could understand him. (He later had speech therapy to overcome this.) Based on photographic evidence, he most likely had a cleft lip or cleft palate.
In reality, all of the Connecticut representatives voted for the amendment, not just one.
Josiah "Beanpole" Burton is an entirely fictional Congressman.
As You Know: Lots of exposition early in the film regarding the political situation and the mechanics of getting an amendment passed, including Seward explicating things like the 2/3 majority requirement that Lincoln would obviously already know.
Badass Boast: "I am the President of the United States of America, clothed in immense power!" Yes, that is an actual Lincoln quote.
Bathos: In one hilarious scene one of the lobbyists tries to bribe a vote out of a Democrat only for the man to whip out a gun and try to shoot him. The lobbyist manages to grab his hand and make the first shot miss, then scrambles to collect his papers while the Congressman hurries to reload. The lobbyist kicks dirt into his face to delay him, then runs like heck to escape the Congressman.
Bedmate Reveal: An inversion. We're shown that Lydia Smith, who viewers would assume to be Thaddeus Stevens' maid, is actually his common-law wife when he gets into bed and the camera pans across to reveal Lydia in bed next to him.
"Beanpole" Burton is referred to in one of the first scenes when a few of his constituents petition Lincoln. He reappears in the voting scene.
Stevens mentions a wig in one of his early scenes. In his final appearance, we see his magnificent Bald of Awesome.
Broken Bird: Mary, who has suffered the loss of two children, worries about her husband's safety, and fears (sadly, quite correctly) that history will remember her as a crazy woman who ruined Lincoln's happiness.
California Doubling: More like Virginia Doubling - the House Chamber was shot in the chamber of the Virginia House of Delegates in Richmond. The theater which Tad Lincoln was watching his play in can be fond in Fredericksburg.
Call Forward: Abe and Mary have a heated argument in which they speak of her possibly being thrown into the madhouse because of her grieving processes. She even specifically states that if her son Robert were killed in the war, Lincoln should go ahead and put her in the madhouse. Ten years later, she was put in the madhouse, by Robert himself (though quickly released).
Captain Obvious: Lincoln's flag-raising speech. It's no Gettysburg Address.
Lincoln: The part assigned to me is to raise the flag, which, if there be no fault in the machinery, I will do, and when up, it will be for the people to keep it up. ...that's my speech.
Casting Gag: Possibly. Hal Holbrook, who plays Francis Preston Blair, is well-known for his Emmy-winning portrayals of Lincoln in TV miniseries such as Sandburg's Lincoln and North and South.
During the first vote-canvassing montage, one Congressman slams his door in the lobbyist's face and a picture of a soldier falls off a mourning wreath. The picture was of the Congressman's brother, who now opposes the 13th Amendment because he blames black people for his brother's death.
Lincoln's telegraph to Ulysses S. Grant. He initially pushes for the decision to discuss the terms for peace with the South in Washington, only to change his mind and have them sent to another city. On the day of the vote, word reaches Congress of the South attempting to make peace overtures, causing both parties to attempt to delay the vote...until Lincoln uses Exact Words to deny knowledge of any Southern delegates in Washington.
Cigarette of Anxiety: After seeing the amputated limbs at the military hospital, Robert goes for a smoke to calm his nerves. He can't even manage to roll one up before tossing it away in frustration.
Comically Missing the Point: When Robert sees one of Lincoln's young secretaries in uniform for the shindig, he complains that he'll be the only man over fifteen and under sixty-five not in uniform. His uniformed little brother corrects him:
Many of the characters display the usual racial prejudices of the time, and Thaddeus Stevens' belief in racial equality is frighteningly radical to his peers. It's especially hammered when Representative George Yeaman says he cannot endorse the 13th Amendment because it might lead to further reform. Even the Republicans balk alongside their Democratic counterparts as Yeaman floats the idea of woman's suffrage.
Yeaman: What shall follow upon that? Universal enfranchisement? Votes for women?
Also, the shameless use of the Spoils System in order to secure the necessary votes. Short of actual bribery, the promising of patronage positions was legal, if not necessarily well-regarded, which is why Lincoln did not want to be identified with it. These tactics are now illegal and would be seen as blatant corruption in the modern day. Arguably, it was the assassination of another President by a disgruntled office-seeker that was largely responsible for the change.
Another invocation of reality: They are partly fighting about Mary's reaction to Willie's death. The real Willie's funeral took place during a violent thunderstorm, and people writing at the time cited it as an Empathic Environment.
Exact Words: Lincoln pulls this when the Republicans and Democrats jointly delay voting on the amendment after they hear the rumors about the South's peace overtures. When they ask him if there are Confederate delegates in Washington, Lincoln writes back to them that there are not (since he had ordered them to meet in another city). The Democrats immediately recognize this "old lawyer's ploy" but the vote resumes regardless.
A Father to His Men: While Congress may have a cold attitude towards him, it's clear Lincoln loves and is loved by his soldiers.
Lincoln's love of theater is shown midway through the film. The second and final theater scene throws a twist by showing a different show than Lincoln's final one, which is canceled to announce the President's assassination.
Also, the 13th Amendment passed.
In an early congressional debate as to whether or not slavery is "natural law", George Pendleton taunts the pro-abolition and pro-equality Thaddeus Stevens by asking if slavery isn't natural law, what is? Stevens is finally provoked to respond when Pendleton disparagingly mentions interracial marriage.
The Good Chancellor: Secretary of State William Seward frequently and vocally disagrees with how Lincoln does things, but throws himself into fulfilling the president's wishes by any means necessary.
Good Parents: Lincoln is very involved with Tad. At the most crucial point in the film, Lincoln is absorbed in reading with him and watching him make a fort out of books for his toy soldiers. He loves Robert too, contrary to what Mary thinks, and begs him not to join the army.
Historical In-Joke: General Daniel Sickles' leg, which he donated to a museum after it was amputated at the Battle of Gettysburg, appears on display in the foreground of one of the early vote-purchasing scenes.
When Representative Hutton is called to cast his vote for the amendment he is silently praying. The natural assumption that God would have moved him to vote to free the slaves turns out to be incorrect and he votes against the Thirteenth Amendment. This makes Yeaman's "Yes" vote right after all the sweeter.
When you see a theater performance near the end of the film, you will momentarily relax seeing that it is obviously not Our American Cousin, the play that Lincoln was watching when he was assassinated, but then the manager comes out to announce the assassination to the audience, which includes Tad Lincoln.
I Did What I Had to Do: Stevens goes against his principles to claim that he only wants equality before the law, not total racial equality, in order to get the 13th Amendment passed. When brought to task for his statement, an unrepentant Stevens asserts that he'd do just about anything to end slavery.
Insane Troll Logic: Lincoln believes that he has to get the 13th Amendment passed before ending the war, because he freely admits (to his cabinet, at least,) that the entire justification for the Emancipation Proclamation is Insane Troll Logic, and it would never stand up to judicial review once he could no longer back it up with the excuse of "war powers".
Insult Backfire: The Ethan Allen anecdote during the Revolutionary War about an American invited to a British home, the latter hanging a portrait of George Washington in his restroom. The American considers it a compliment because, well...
Jerk with a Heart of Gold: Thaddeus Stevens. Half of what he says is devoted to insulting whoever he is addressing. This has a lot to do with the fact that he is decades ahead of his time (even among many of his fellow abolitionists) in thinking that black people deserve complete equality with whites and considers himself married by common law to his "housekeeper," even though common law itself would not. His insults are directed towards opponents of abolition and people who he does not think are committed enough to abolition.
Large and in Charge: The 6'4" Lincoln towers over everyone else. Day-Lewis' height (6'1") is exaggerated somewhat by the camera angles.
Large Ham: Stanton, "Beanpole" Burton. Bilbo has his moments too.
Large Ham Title: Sort of. Lincoln tells Secretary Stanton to start talking with "Thunder forth, god of war!" Truth in Television, as Lincoln did refer to Stanton as his "Mars."
Leitmotif: A lively bluegrass theme appears whenever Bilbo and his cohorts are onscreen.
Let Me Tell You a Story: A signature behavior of Lincoln, present in many of the conversations he has throughout the film. They don't always have a relevant moral, though. The first time, with the parrot story, it's completely unrelated. The second time with the Ethan Allen story, it's just to get everyone to lighten up a bit. Lampshaded hilariously by Stanton who at one point interrupts Lincoln, shouting "I am not going to sit through another one of your stories!"
Lightning-Fire Juxtaposition: There is a scene where Lincoln is arguing with his wife on the morality of going to war. There is lighting flashing through the dark window on Lincoln's side, while there is fire burning in a fire place next to the wife. Lincoln is arguing going to war to stop slavery and stop an insurrection. Meanwhile, his wife is arguing that the lives of young soldiers and consequently their families are at stake. It seems that the use of lightning and fire shows that both are serious arguments-but both have different connotations. Lincoln's lightning might represent both the "divine" justice needed to be done and Lincoln's strong ideological stance. His wife's stance is depicted as a fire-place, usually a symbol of home, and fire as a symbol of truth, indicating there would be a high cost to pay for the war. Also, male vs female.(Justice Ideals vs Justice truths?)
Makes Just as Much Sense in Context: Lincoln's story about the doomsayer parrot. Once it's finished, everyone who heard it is staring confusedly wondering what on earth that was all about.
When the black people enter the gallery to hear the vote on the amendment, Rep. Litton's voice goes rough and cracks as he greets them.
Litton. We welcome you, ladies and gentlemen, first in the history of this people's chamber... to your House.
Match Cut: An audio Match Cut from one of Seward's operatives whacking a crab with a mallet to a gavel banging the House of Representatives into session.
Meaningless Meaningful Words: After discovering Lincoln sent Preston Blair as a peace feeler to the rebels, Seward rages about how it could jeopardize all their work to pass the 13th Amendment. Lincoln says some reassuring words which the spent Seward reluctantly agrees with. Then he takes a moment to think and realizes Lincoln probably just said some nonsensical platitude.
Lincoln: Time is a great thickener of things, William.
Mood Whiplash: Often occurs thanks to ongoing war. For example, Lincoln once tells a hilarious anecdote to lighten the mood of telegraphers, then listens urgently with them as they report the outcome of the Battle of Fort Fisher... and the casualties.
Nice Hat: Abe and his stovepipe hat, in which he sometimes stores speeches.
Not Even Bothering with the Accent: Tommy Lee Jones plays Thaddeus Stevens with his normal Texas accent, though Stevens was from Pennsylvania, and it would have been very ironic to have such a fiery abolitionist from the deep South.
Not-So-Omniscient Council of Bickering: Lincoln's powerhouse cabinet spends much of their time together yelling at each other instead of getting policies carried out. At least until Lincoln brings down the thunder. And they're just a few men. The original book was called Team of Rivals for a reason. Congress is even worse.
The Congress scenes come off like a cross between C*Span's coverage of today's Congress and Prime Minister's Question Time. Several reviews point out, positively, that the entire picture is "two and a half hours of historical C*Span".
Peace Conference: As promised to his conservative allies, and after delaying long enough to get the 13th Amendment passed, Lincoln meets with Confederate peace feelers at Hampton Roads. The talks go nowhere despite Lincoln's plea to "Stop this bleeding."
Percussive Pickpocket: Inverted. Lincoln's lobbyists deliberately crash into a Democrat they hope to bribe a vote from, apologize, and help him recollect his papers. It takes a second or two for the Congressman to realize that they're piling money into his folder.
Place Worse Than Death: Washington, D.C. in general and the White House in particular, according to Mrs. Lincoln.
When Bilbo realizes that his guest is none other than President Lincoln, he blurts out, "Well I'll be fucked!" as he stumbles to get to his feet. Lincoln replies, deadpan, "I wouldn't bet against it."
Bilbo actually gets a couple of these as just moments before in a flashback scene when a Democratic Congressman attempts to shoot him with a single shot pistol. Bilbo, having dropped his folder runs back to collect it, kicking dirt on the Congressman as he reloads yelling "Fuck you, you son of a bitch!"
The punchline of the Ethan Allan story could also count, as it uses many euphemisms for using the toilet until the exact perfect moment.
Rambling Old Man Monologue: Lincoln has a habit of breaking into anecdotes that sometimes don't have any relevance to the topic at hand. Other times they're quite calculated to produce an effect.
Reality Is Unrealistic: Lincoln impressions almost invariably use a deep, sonorous tone (this started with molasses-voiced Raymond Massey in his 1940 performance), when in reality Lincoln had a high and nasal voice. Many viewers were confused to first hear Lewis's performance, which has been praised by Lincoln scholars for being very realistic. It didn't help that Day-Lewis's voice was at its highest and most nasal when he was shouting or speaking loudly in excitement, and the movie trailers contain a disproportionate (to the movie) number of those moments.
But even so, despite said voice, Lincoln was known as an immensely charismatic man who held gravitas in his stance, which Day-Lewis captures perfectly.
His voice actually gave him a political advantage at the time. This predated microphones and in order to be heard ina crowd one would have to speak ina loud booming voice, like the members of congress. Lincoln's voice was soft, but was very clear and projected well (as demonstrated by the speech at the end). This meant he came across as very affable to the poeple.
Thaddeus Stevens gets off a good one at the expense of pro-slavery Congressman George Pendleton. Which oddly enough, is worded to say, "You suck, but you deserve equality!"
Stevens: How can I hold that all men are created equal, when here before me stands, stinking ... the moral carcass of the gentleman from Ohio? Proof that some men are inferior! Endowed by their maker with dim wits! Impermeable to reason! With cold, pallid slime in their veins instead of hot red blood!You are more reptile than man, George! So low and flat, that the foot of man is incapable of crushing you!
Pendleton: How ... dare ... you ... !
Stevens:Yet even you, Pendleton, who should have been gibbeted for treason long before today, even worthless unworthy you ought to be treated equally before the law!
Stevens himself receives one at the hands of Mary Todd Lincoln, reminding Stevens that he lacks the love of the people, something her husband has and they both need to keep support for the amendment alive.
Red Herring: One of the final scenes is at a theater... but the Grover's, where Tad is watching Aladdin. Then the manager enters to announce that Lincoln had been shot at Ford's.
Thaddeus Stevens and Francis Preston Blair and their affiliated factions respectively. Stevens and the Radical Republicans want the amendment to pass in order to abolish slavery and help bring about more racial equality, while Blair and the conservative Republicans are only interested in passing it as a pragmatic means to end the war.
The two black soldiers who talk to Lincoln at the beginning of the movie. Corporal Clark takes the opportunity to criticize the government's poor treatment of black soldiers, while Private Green is more conciliatory towards the president and just wants to hear some news.
Thaddeus Stevens: You are more reptile than man, George!
Roman ŗ Clef: The names of the Representatives who voted against the 13th Amendment were changed for the film. Steven Spielberg said this was done out of respect for the families. (However, this was not done for opposition ringleaders George Pendleton and Fernando Wood.)
Running Gag: Lincoln keeps trying to get rid of his dress gloves, complaining they never fit right. His butler is always there to make him put or keep them on.
Lincoln is faced with the decision to either do what he can to end the war as soon as possible, or to continue trying to pass the amendment at the risk of prolonging it just a little longer.
When the Democrats force Stevens to declare his beliefs on racial equality, he either has to express more moderate views, which would be anathema to the Radical Republicans and those who support abolition, or be completely honest about them and seriously jeopardize the passing of the 13th amendment. He manages to Take a Third Option, sort of.
Those unfamiliar with Lincoln family history may do a double take to see that Robert Todd Lincoln (Joseph Gordon-Levitt) is present at the surrender at Appomattox Court House. Robert was in fact actually there and not a Throw It In by the filmmakers.
Rather than go for depicting a famous battle like Gettysburg in the opening scene, Lincoln opens with the lesser known Battle of Jenkins' Ferry.
During the assassination of Lincoln, it is not shown from Lincoln's point-of-view but rather Tad's, who was watching a different play, Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp at the Grover Theater, before it is stopped to inform everyone that his father has been shot.
Spielberg's sound design team went to the White House to record the sounds of the clocks and doors inside. They even got the sound of Lincoln's watch recorded from where it is held in the Kentucky Historical Society. It was the first time the watch had been wound up in nearly two centuries.
Daniel Day-Lewis performing Lincoln's actual voice, as well as many of his recorded quotes. He also portrayed Lincoln as a storyteller and sometimes jokester, which Lincoln was indeed recorded as being so.
Sleazy Politician: Seward is not sleazy in character, but he still maintains his contacts with political operatives who are, whom he sets to rounding up lame-duck Democrats that can be persuaded to vote aye.
Sliding Scale of Idealism Versus Cynicism: This film is about Honest Abe, but he is the one who orders his Secretary of State to get professional lobbyists to wheel and deal with patronage appointments as much they can to secure the votes necessary to get the 13th Amendment passed. In Stevens's words concerning himself: "The greatest measure of the nineteenth century was passed by corruption, aided and abetted by the purest man in America."
Spoiled Sweet: Tad has the run of the White House, wears a Union uniform, and drives a goat cart through the hallways, but he's a very good-natured little boy. A delicious bit of stage business happens when Bilboe dash into his office to inform him that the House has found out about the peace delegation from the Confederacy. A propos of nothing whatsoever, Tad dashes in, glomps his dad, snatches a couple of pencils out of the container on the desk and dashes off. Lincoln takes this completely in stride and goes right on with what he is doing.
Sudden Principled Stand: Clay Hawkins despite being threatened with violence from his own constituency votes for the amendment, vigorously defying his own party to "shoot me dead!" This act of courage prompts a moral tug-of-war in the next Democrat who can't decide whether to stand by party or principles.
Suspiciously Specific Denial: "So far as I know there is no Confederate delegation in Washington." They're in a steamboat docked on the Potomac.
Take a Third Option: Southern congressmen who support the amendment on moral grounds but will not defy their party completely can choose to abstain rather than vote either way. This didn't necessarily help their political careers any more than just voting for the amendment, however.
Edwin F. LeClerk: No! Oh, to hell with it, shoot me dead too. Yes! I mean, abstention! Abstention.
Tears of Joy: The passing of the amendment and the final abolition of slavery results in many Republicans, Ashley and Litton among them, to break down sobbing after seeing their greatest dream made a reality.
There Is No Kill Like Overkill: Stanton and Welles describe the amphibious attack of Fort Fisher as beginning with a "steady barrage" from the largest fleet the navy had ever assembled. When another cabinet member wants clarification Stanton elaborates that it means 100 shells every minute until the rebels surrender. For context, in the last war America fought 180 shells an hour was the rate of fire during the siege of an entire city.
William Fessden (stunned): Dear God!
Title In: A frequent sight throughout the film, e.g., JANUARY, 1865 / TWO MONTHS HAVE PASSED SINCE ABRAHAM LINCOLNíS RE-ELECTION / THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR IS NOW IN ITS FOURTH YEAR.
Toilet Humor: Lincoln's story of Ethan Allen, concluding with the claim that "nothing makes an Englishman shit faster than the sight of George Washington!"
Token Enemy Minority: Bilbo, one of Seward's lobbyists, is a southern Unionist who was driven out of Tennessee after siding with the Republicans.
Lincoln's own second Vice President, Andrew Johnson, was also a Tennessee Unionist, and he was added to gain the votes of loyal Southerners in the occupied South and border states.
The Unfavorite: Mrs. Lincoln thinks Abe sees Robert as this, while Abe suggests that Mrs. Lincoln sees Tad as this. (The film depicts their true feelings towards their sons as much more complex.)
Villainous BSOD: The last we see of George Pendleton, oldest opponent of abolition, is him silently walking through the celebrating House chamber with an expression of despair that the 13th Amendment passed.
The opening scene is very violent, brutal, and nasty, with soldiers fighting in hand-to-hand combat and stamping their enemies' heads into the waterlogged battlefield to drown them. It then cuts to an African-American soldier who says that, given that the Rebel soldiers didn't take black prisoners at a previous battle, the black soldiers at Jenkin's Ferry decided they weren't going to take prisoners either.
Abraham Lincoln takes his oldest son to a veteran's hospital to try to talk him out of enlisting. The young man nearly cracks when he sees some orderlies pushing a wheelbarrow dripping blood to a hole where they're dumping amputated human limbs by the dozens. Everyone in the hospital itself is missing one or both their legs.
After the Confederate negotiations go nowhere, there's a poignant scene of Lincoln and his men riding their horses through a field of bodies, all piled high from the siege of Petersburg.
Why Did You Make Me Hit You?: Lincoln slaps Robert after Robert accuses him of barring him from service for fear of Mary more than Robert's death. The blow is not physically hard and Lincoln tries to embrace his son right afterwards, but it has a very bad effect on both men.
Windbag Politician: On the day of the vote, the speaker tells the audience they will now briefly recap the proposed amendment. Everyone bursts out laughing on "briefly".
Worthy Opponent: Ulysses S. Grant, Robert Lincoln and the other Union soldiers solemnly doff their hats to Robert E. Lee after he surrenders at Appomattox. (This actually happened, of course.)