A direction in the script to lay words on the screen. This could be a dateline such as "Amsterdam, 2026", or "Three Days Ago". Primarily used to fix the setting firmly in the minds of the audience.
Comes in two major flavors: words on a solid background, usually black (a milder and less Anvilicious
take on the Opening Scroll
), or text shown at the bottom of the screen as the camera shows an Establishing Shot
of the location. The latter can appear on the screen all at once or one letter at a time, as if typed with a typewriter (bonus points for a fixed-width font).
This is very common in shows taking place Twenty Minutes into the Future
or Exty Years from Now
(in either direction) and Thrillers
of any kind, particularly, Spy Fiction
. May exhibit the London England Syndrome
Also known as Scene Shift Caption
. The closest term the industry has for it seems to be chyron
. See also Boss Subtitles
and In Scene Title Text
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- Y: The Last Man is a rare comic book example. It gets played with in one issue where Yorick is drugged and the Title In panel reads "Where The Fuck Am I?". It's also occasionally used for humor: Yorick complains that the last time he lost his monkey, it took him three hours to track him down, and then the Title In reads "Four Hours Later".
- Scott Pilgrim has such titles that feels like they were wrote by teenagers. Little gems like "So Yeah", after Scott asks Ramona out; "24 Hours Later", after announcing that they were gonna play in, yeah, 24 hours; and "So Anyway", after Scott defeats Gideon and rescues Ramona, and they talk about making it work again.
- In the 2001 remake of Oceans Eleven, Danny tells Tess he should be out of jail for his parole violation in three to six months. There's a blackout, and then we Title In with a card that reads "Three to six months later..."
- Spoofed in Star Wreck: In The Pirkinning, which makes a typo in the title and backs up a bit to remove it.
- The 2009 Star Trek movie has Iowa or Vulcan tucked away in a corner for a part of the movie, then "Three years later" in the center.
- In High School Musical, the callback auditions are rescheduled to the same day as Troy's big game and Gabriella's Scholastic Decathlon. As such, the following titles appear:
Scholastic Decathlon Day
- The Super Mario Bros. movie started with the title:
20 million Years Ago
- Zombieland plays with this one constantly. Columbus's Zombie Invasion Rules are placed on the screen during the introduction to the movie, each with examples of why one should follow that particular rule. During the movie itself, examples of characters following the rules are pointed out with one, usually set to feel like it is part of the environment (for example, the blinking "CARDIO" sign).
- The date and time are shown each day of the mission in the film The Guns of Navarone.
- Used in Team America: World Police, where it shows the name of the country and its distance to the U.S. (specifically New York) in miles.
- Un Chien Andalou kinda parodies this with meaningless and contradictory days and times.
- Can be taken too far, as the Captain America movie does.
- In Mr. and Mrs. Smith, after the couple has their first therapy session and disagree how long they've been married (5 or 6 years), the movie flashbacks to their first meeting and says, "5 or 6 years ago." At the end of the flashback there's another caption reading "5 or 6 years later."
- The Ringo Starr comedy Caveman starts with these two captions:
One billion zillion B.C.
- Played with in Johnny Dangerously. The caption "1910" appears at the bottom of the screen, and we see a car drive by behind it. Then another car drives into frame and crashes into the 1910, breaking the digits into pieces.
- Parodied in the opening of Orgazmo, where the caption "Hollywood" helpfully appears under an Establishing Shot of the Hollywood sign.
- The captions in The Hunt for Red October go all-out: bright green monospaced font, printed letter by letter with computerised teletype noises as they appear.
- Adam's Rib uses some fancier-than-usual intertitle cards. "That Evening" is the most common caption.
- The Logans Run movie begins with a surprisingly large amount of backstory on the screen all at once:
"Sometime in the 23rd century ... the survivors of war, overpopulation and pollution are living in a great domed city, sealed away from the forgotten world outside. Here, in an ecologically balanced world, mankind lives only for pleasure, freed by the servo-mechanisms which provide everything. There's just one catch: Life must end at thirty unless reborn in the fiery ritual of carrousel."
- "December 23" in the opening of Legion.
- Silence of the Lambs. When Clarice Starling went to the town of Belvedere, there was a subtitle with the town's name.
- Pacific Rim: The first use defines "Kaiju" and "Jaeger" respectively, but the rest are used for times and locations.
- Spy Hard uses this as a Running Gag, where the person writing the caption commits misspellings and more with the text.
- In the first Captain Underpants book, George and Harold order the 3-D Hypno-Ring, which takes four to six weeks to arrive. The next chapter is titled "Four To Six Weeks Later".
- Any book written in diary format will inevitably provide the place and time at which the character supposedly wrote each entry.
- In Connie Willis's Blackout / All Clear, the chapters don't have names; merely location and date, like "Oxford—April 2060" or "Saltram-on-Sea—29 May 1940".
- Eoin Colfer likes to use these to establish scenes in his Artemis Fowl series. For example, the prologue of The Arctic Incident starts with the words: "Murmansk, Northern Russia; two years before".
Live Action TV
- The Middleman spoofs this practice constantly:
The illegal sublet Wendy shares with another young, photogenic artist.
Middleman Headqua—WHOA! FREAKY!
The Underworld. Time has no meaning.
God, am I underpaid.
- Monty Python's Flying Circus parodied this with such captions as "One strawberry tart without so much rat in it later".
- Fringe absolutely loves to play with these. The giant floating letters that mark locations are used pseudo-realistically. In one instance rain can be seen striking the letters and in another the letters are visible after the camera cuts to a location behind them, showing the letters in reverse.
- At least Once an Episode in JAG, with the current time (given in military time format, e.g. "0451 Zulu") and location.
- Used in Doctor Who epsiode "Midnight" to show how much time had passed between scenes. Also used in the season 4 finale "The Stolen Earth" when we hopped from across the galaxy to where the Doctor's other companions were.
- Also used quite a lot in the season 5 finale due to all the time jumps involved.
- Used in early seasons of Heroes to identify the name and location of another person with abilities.
- To varying degrees of accuracy.
Matt Parkman. Somewhere in Africa.
- In Law & Order, they always sound the Doink-Doink and show the location and time in text at the bottom of the screen whenever the scene changes.
- There's another parody in The Young Ones pilot episode "Demolition": "Meanwhile, the next day".
- Robin Hood frequently captioned its changes of scene, nicknamed the 'arrow of exposition' as the caption flew in from the side of the screen with the sound of an arrow being fired. It did this even when it was already clear where the scene was in the first place ('Nottingham Castle', 'Sherwood Forest', and perhaps most infamously 'The Meadow', among others), and was even on occasion inaccurate.
- The Stargate SG-1 episode "Absolute Power" has a strange example: a "one year later" caption for a scene that later turns out to be All Just a Dream, with considerably less time than that having passed. Apparently the captioner lives inside Daniel's head...
- In The X-Files, this usually happens on a bottom corner of the screen when Mulder and Scully first go somewhere for a case. Sometimes the name of the town and the state appears as a second line underneath a specific building they are going to such as a hotel, government building, business, etc.
- Amusingly, in the episode "Bad Blood" during Scully's recounting of the tale, the location name first appeared incorrectly until Mulder corrected her, and then the screen display changed to show the correct location.
- The Mentalist frequently does this at the beginning of the episode to tell the viewers what part of California the CBI team has been called to.
- Spooks uses this every time there's a change of location, even ones we see every episode like MI-5 headquarters.
- Burn Notice did this at the start of the pilot to tell us that Michael was in Nigeria, as well as to introduce characters.
- Alias always does this, except rather than a subtitle, the camera zooms through the words and into the scene.
- Green Acres: In one episode, we get a cut to an Establishing Shot of a New York City skyline, as well as the following subtitles:
"Can you guess what city this is?"
"If you guessed New York, you're right!"
- Warehouse 13 does this, sometimes animating the text for emphasis.
- Game of Thrones did this with major locations in the pilot, specifically Winterfell, Kings Landing and Pentos so as not to confuse viewers.
- The Cold Open to each episode of Its Always Sunny In Philadelphia begins with the opening dialogue playing over black title cards with "[Time]", "On a [day]", "Philadelphia, PA".
- The pilot episode of Mash has a Unique Pilot Title Sequence which announces the setting as:
a hundred years ago
- Each scene of Gypsy opens with a vaudeville-style sign describing the setting.
- Present in the Ace Attorney series. Played with at one point, when a character wakes up after being kidnapped (Location: ??? Date: ??? Time: ???).
- Also done in Deus Ex.
- Used extensively in the No One Lives Forever series.
- Can be seen at the beginning of every level in Mirrors Edge.
- This happens in Sonic Adventure 2.
- BlazBlue does this occasionaly to establish the date events are occurring on. And at one point gives a date 100 years in the game's past to indicate that Time Travel has occurred.
- Done on the (short) Loading Screens of the Metal Gear series to let you know what area you are entering. Once things start getting strange in Metal Gear Solid 2, they may occasionally show such unhelpful names as "New York 52nd Street", "Funabisha City" as you explore the guts of Arsenal Gear.
- Left 4 Dead: "2 WEEKS AFTER FIRST INFECTION"
- Used at the beginning of every mission in the Call of Duty series, except for one occasion: You begin the mission (Of Their Own Accord, Modern Warfare 2) in a bunker, evidently being shelled, wounded everywhere around you. You go outside and around a corner to see Washington DC in flames. Then the Title In happens. And thus begins one of the most chilling chapters in the Call of Duty series to date.
- The same as Modern Warfare for Portal 2, where every chapter is titled-in... except the last one:
- In Tales of Symphonia, this happens every time you enter a new area, with the added benefit of a short line describing the town. Such as the starting town, "The Village of Oracles—Iselia."
- Assassins Creed II mixes it with Title In: at the start of each memory sequence, the camera pans over the current city and its name and the current year are displayed. Also, whenever you synchronize with a view point, the camera does an Orbital Shot of the surrounding area, albeit without any subtitles.
- Assassins Creed III lets you know when you've entered a new area. As the Frontier is a single HUGE area, it's been subdivided into a number of regions so players can roughly identify where important things are. It also allows for a hunting sidequest.
- 3D Zelda games usually do this, starting with Ocarina of Time, do this not just with towns but also new environments, such as Death Valley or Hyrule Field. The same service extends to dungeons, as early as Link's Awakening.
- Metroid Prime games show the area names, and do a pan-out of the areas, when you first enter them.
- Final Fantasy XII shows the name of areas when you first enter.
- Xenoblade not only shows the names when you first enter a new area, it also shows where there area is on the Bionis or Mechonis.
- Pokémon gives the town name but there's no pan out.
- Paper Mario: the Thousand-Year Door does this too, also with no pan out.
- In the Grand Theft Auto series, each time you enter a new zone, its name is displayed in the lower right corner.
- When you first visit a new landmark in Skyrim, the game displays "Discovered _______" across the top half of the screen. The area name appears again (much smaller, of course) in the upper corner when you reenter a previously visited area.
- An Untitled Story displays name of area the player enters in top-right corner of the screen.
- Solatorobo does this, but only the first time you enter a new location.
- World of Warcraft does this every time you enter a new zone/subzone, along with different coloured text to tell you whether the area is neutral, friendly or hostile to your faction.
- In Homestuck, players' planets are typically introduced by showing them in the environment, then progressively panning out to show the entire planet with a subtitle. Subsequent appearances of these subtitles, sometimes seen hanging over the characters' heads, suggest these subtitles are actually there, floating out in space.
- Lloyd in Space: Similarly, Lloyd Nebulon orders a helmet by mail order, and we have a caption saying "4 to 5 weeks later".
- The Simpsons has done the same thing at least twice with "Six to eight weeks later".
- Parodied in the Aqua Teen Hunger Force movie, which opens with a pan over the pyramids of Giza with a title crawl reading thusly;
Millions of years ago
New York City
- Sponge Bob Square Pants occasionally plays with titles.
- "Can You Spare A Dime?": "So much later that the old narrator quit and they had to hire a new one."
- "Wet Painters": It is revealed that Patrick is holding the title cards, and he tells SpongeBob to hurry up because he's all out.
- "Rock-A-Bye Bivalve": SpongeBob and Patrick take care of a baby scallop. Only SpongeBob is the one taking care of it while Patrick goes to "work". SpongeBob keeps telling Patrick to take care of him and Patrick's responses are followed by a title ("Tomorrow for sure", "Uhh"). Finally, they agree on 6:00 PM, with them repeating it constantly as Patrick leaves. Cut to the title "12:00 Midnight".
- Recess used this in certain episodes, such as "Two days later" or in the case of "Rainy Days", with the rain going on for several days, they used "Day One", "Day Two", etc.
- Used in every establishing shot in Young Justice.
- Also used very effectively to deliver a Wham Line. Season 2 starts right where the finale left off; we then transition to a scene of Superboy and M'gann taking down a villain in the sewers. There are subtle indications that something's not right, but its only when the Title In says FIVE YEARS LATER you realize what, exactly.