Cousin Itt is a frequently recurring character in the 1992 Addams Family cartoon when he only appeared on a few occasions in the original live-action show.
American Dad!: Principal Lewis was in the eighth season, and Klaus gets a lot more importance starting at about the twelfth season. Jeff becomes part of the main cast later in as well. Characters who appear more often now than in earlier episodes are Tuttle, Parker, Mayor Woodside (although he died in “Rainroaded” which may not be canon), Mertz, Snot’s mom, Hooper, Stiles, Coach Trey, and Memphis Stormfront.
Noelle Sussman on As Told by Ginger ascended from extra in "And She Was Gone"... and was demoted back to extra after "Wicked Game", and after she and Carl part ways in "No Turning Back", she is not seen at all until the series finale.
In Avatar: The Last Airbender, Suki started out as an extremely minor character, appearing in only one episode of season 1, but as the series went on, her prominence gradually increased, culminating in her addition to the main cast in season 3.
Haru originally was a minor character in the first season. However, when the videogame, Avatar: The Last Airbender came around, he became one of the playable characters. This was the only other thing he was a part of before Book 3 was released where he and his father, Tyro, returned to join the attack against the Fire Nation.
Jinora in The Legend of Korra is a minor character in season 1, only really being one of Aang's grandkids. She serves vitally in the season 2 finale and by the end of season 3 is an Airbending master.
Jules and Verne, Doc Brown's kids in Back to the Future: the animated series, likely qualify for this, since their only appearance in the original films is a brief, non-speaking appearance at the end of the third film.
Harley Quinn was originally just a one-time moll character who made such an impression she became the Joker's pseudo-girlfriend/top henchwoman, then began developing relationships with other characters and got her own spotlight episodes, including a comic tie-in detailing her origins that got adapted into an episode. Then she became a Canon Immigrant into the comic universe and a Breakout Character in general. So she's ascended twice from one-shot to supporting character, from cartoon to comics, in that order.
Robin was featured infrequently in the first season, with the series bible even stating that he was not intended to be Batman's full-time partner like in the comics. Thanks to some Executive Meddling, the show was renamed The Adventures of Batman and Robin in its second season, and Robin appeared in nearly every episode.
Batgirl also appeared relatively infrequently throughout the original series, but was promoted to lead character status when the show was retooled as The New Batman Adventures. Bruce Timm claims her increased prominence was requested by network executives, who felt adding a woman to the main cast would win over female viewers.
Betty Boop was originally an extra from the Talkartoons short "Dizzy Dishes" (starring Bimbo the dog) and was even an anthropomorphic dog back then. After regular reappearances in the cartoons she was eventually turned into a human, given the starring role with her name in the title and Bimbo was demoted into a supporting extra.
A stated goal of Beware the Batman is to utilize obscure Batman villains who haven't been as heavily exploited as his A-list rogues. This means unknown (to the general public) villains like Magpie, Anarky, and Professor Pyg are getting their moment in the limelight, with Ra's al Ghul as the only remotely-recognizable villain confirmed for now. Katana also gets promoted to Batman's principal sidekick.
In the original 1993 Biker Mice from Mars series, Throttle's girlfriend General Carbine and the experienced Martian Freedom Fighter known as Stoker were minor characters who only appeared in a few episodes. In the 2006 revival, however, they are more prominent characters, with the Myth Arc having the Biker Mice answer to Carbine on their mission to retrieve the regenerator, a device Stoker invented that could be used to rehydrate Mars and save it from the drought it suffers.
In Bob's Burgers, Teddy, the most loyal customer of the titular restaurant and a friend of the Belcher family, was a recurring character at first, debuting in the second episode "Crawl Space" as the local contractor. His character became much more prominent soon after, appearing in all nine episodes of Season 2. Since Season 3, Teddy is considered part of the main cast and he now appears in almost every episode, even if only in a brief scene. He is on track to appear in every episode of the current seventh season, and was only absent from one episode of Season 6 ("Wag the Hog"). Teddy has also had multiple episodes with him as the central character.
In Christmas Carol The Movie Belle and Old Joe have more to do than in the book. In the present day, Belle is a nurse who helps care for the sick Tiny Tim, and Old Joe is a henchman of Scrooge's who arrests or robs people who owe Scrooge debt.
Valerie Grey originally appeared briefly in the second episode of Danny Phantom, but after her popular life was ruined by ghosts (or rather, unintentionally by Danny), she became one of the most badass humans in the series, as well as one of Danny's toughest antagonists (though, in light of the Series Finale, she may now be an ally).
Daria started as a minor background character on Beavis And Butthead. She's mostly just seen in the classroom and we never meet her family (though her surname Morgendorffer is established and surprisingly remembered by the writers, even if the spelling isn't). The episodes where she speaks can be counted on one hand and even then, no episode revolved around her. Her interaction with the boys was mostly just her snarking at their stupidity and Beavis using his nickname for her, "Diarrhea," before she writes them off as morons and walks off.
Loud Howard is a minor, one-note character in the Dilbert comic; Scott Adams was mystified as to why people demanded more of him, since he wasn't clever or interesting, he was just loud. In cartoon, he's a prominent supporting character, since the presence of sound allows for many more jokes.
The 2017 DuckTales reboot has the fate of Della Duck, the sister of Donald and mother of Huey, Dewie and Louie, as one of the central mysteries of the first season. She never appeared or even got mentioned in the original series or Quack Pack, and only ever made a handful of appearances in the comics.
Scruffy the Janitor. He shows up to comment on things when all other characters are used up. He's also occasionally featured as being even lazier than Fry, spending all his time in the basement reading porno magazines.
A strange case of this occurred with the "Number 9 Guy", who appears in many crowd shots as early as the series pilot, before finally getting a plot relevant role. The writers had always wanted to feature him, but were unable to fit him into an episode plot until "Into the Wild Green Yonder." Originally, he was to have been a part of a futuristic caste system, but this was abandoned early on.
The sexy young doctor named Dr. Cahill, (although Fry just called her Dr. Good and Sexy) who, after the first movie, become a regular character in the next seasons.
Zapp's Beleaguered Assistant Kif Kroker could also be considered one. Throughout the first two seasons of Futurama, Kif was simply a Satellite Character to Zapp. But from Season 3 onwards, his relationship with Amy gave him a more significant roles in the episodes he appeared in.
Harvey Birdman, Attorney at Law gives expanded roles to several Birdman villains, including Mentok, Reducto, Birdgirl (who started off brainwashed) and X. All had originally appeared in only one episode each.
Charles Foster Ofdensen was just the routinely ignored voice of reason, and general straight man during early episodes. Then came the season 1 finale, where we learn he's a secret asskicker. Since then, he's become one of, it not, the most popular character on the show.
Edgar Jomfru initially appeared in one episode and was believed to had been killed offscreen. Season 2 saw him still alive, undergoing a Face–Heel Turn, and joining the Revengencers to get revenge for his brother's death. After being Put on a Bus, he's eventually revealed to have gone back to a Heel–Face Turn, helping Ofdensen find out more about the prophecy, and later tries to convince the rest of Dethklok to go save a kidnapped Toki.
In Moral Orel, there's a fat woman who's often seen at church as well as in the background in many other scenes (including being picketed by Miss Censordoll's group of protesters). One of the last episodes, "Sundays" is all about her (spread out chronologically over the course of the show), revealing that her name is Florence, she's Officer Papermouth's ex-wife and that she has a crush on Reverend Putty.
Derpy Hooves/Ditzy Hooves/Muffins is one of the most interesting examples of this, as she was so unimportant that she almost didn't exist all together. She was present among dozens of other background ponies during a longer sequence in the opening episode, but in a brief "blink and you'll miss it" cutaway shot, she was shown wall-eyed with a goofy grin. Word of God admits her momentary appearance was either an animation error or a joke by one of the artists. Either way, the fans loved her. No, that's an understatement. They adored her, fleshing out her job, her personality, and even how she talked through a slew of fan works. Eventually, the show's creators caught on. Derpy slowly gained more acknowledgement throughout Season 1 and the first half of Season 2, first by the animators going back and intentionally derping her eyes in every scene she was in, then by placing her somewhere in the background of every new episode, then by giving her her own Funny Background Events, until finally it climaxed in the fourteenth episode of Season 2, where she was referred to by her Fan Nickname, given a voice actor, and interacted with a main character.note This didn't go smoothly though, with her portrayal being seen as highly offensive to the mentally disabled by some, leading to episode receiving a number of edits and the character briefly going unacknowledged until the following season. The character has been a regular background staple of the series since. Not bad for a animation error.
Applejack's brother Big Macintosh was a fairly minor character who rarely spoke more than a simple "Eeyup!" or "Nnnope!" and appeared in only a handful of episodes in Season 1, usually as just a cameo whenever Applejack was involved. Once the second season came around, he was given more to do (although he still rarely spoke). By the fifth season, a number episodes had been written with him as the central character.
Trixie. She began as a one-shot Villain of the Week, but quickly became a fan favorite. The character eventually returned in Season 3, before reappearing in Season 6 as recurring supporting character. She is also the focus of two story arcs in the comics, while her human counterpart in the Equestria Girls franchise is a recurring supporting character.
Discord was likewise just the Big Bad of the season two premiere, with no further plans for him afterwards. Voice actor John de Lancie even went un-credited for those episodes! But thanks to his popularity, he was brought back as a recurring character who tends to gets a focus episode once per season, and sometimes appears in other episodes as well.
Cross-generation, there's Applejack. G1 Applejack was the one who happened to be on the rickety bridge when it broke so the Sea Ponies could be introduced. Appeared once. Was more important in the comics, with her clumsiness and greed for apples giving us the "Who's A Silly Pony" song (and therefore meme), but except for one A Day in the Limelight story, had nothing to her but being a pony who really, really liked apples, at least in the issues currently available online. G3 Applejack was nothing more than a background pony. Being colored lighter than her better-known toy color scheme means you'll have a hard time spotting her few blink-and-miss-it moments. G4 Applejack, however? One of the main characters, part of a huge extended family, and makes the second most episode appearances after series protagonist Twilight Sparkle. Speaking of...
Twilight, too, though to a lesser degree than AJ. In the G1 cartoon, she only appeared once, and only had a few moments, but those moments were memorable and one was very important. In the comics, this is magnified: her appearances are not the most frequent, but when she does appear, you remember it.note In this case, she's insanely overpowered, and only appears at night, most often hiding herself in a magical fog when she must travel during the day. She's one of the most memorable things about the comic. But in terms of screentime, there are several downright "Who's that, again? Are you sure she was in the comics?" characters who actually got more. There was another Twilight, a pegasus who also appeared once.note How much of Twilight Sparkle is owed to her is unknown. Pegasus Twilight is purple, but so is the G3 earth pony Twilight Twinkle, who really looks like the inspiration for Twilight Sparkle in terms of design. Pegasus Twilight's cutie mark is a candle; an identical one adorns the door of Twilight Sparkle's library. Twilight Sparkle is, of course, the main character of the FIM series, and eventually goes on to become the fourth alicornprincess.
In the Nickelodeon series Peter Rabbit, Cottentail is a main character and even has a major role in a few episodes.
Mittens also becomes a recurring in the series despite her giving the least focus in The Tale of Tom Kitten and her mother and her the other siblings (Most notable Tom Kitten) aren't seen in the series itself.
Stacy Hirano. In the early episodes, she appeared only infrequently, if at all (she was originally just an unheard voice on the other end of Candace's cell phone conversations). As the series progressed, she appeared much more often, and has actually played a role in the plot of some episodes ("Put that Putter Away", "Elementary my Dear Stacy", "Phineas & Ferb-busters", "The Lemonade Stand"). In fact, it was almost rare to see a later episode where she doesn't appear, even if it's only for a scene or two.
Norm. Started out as one of Doof's inventions (after learning "the enemy of the platypus is man", he built a robot man), and then began making more appearances as Doof's lovable but bungling henchman, and even had two episodes centered around him ("A Real Boy" & "Norm Unleashed").
Of the Fireside Girls, Ginger has had noticeably more focus than the others starting in season 4, probably because her relationships with Stacy and Baljeet provide additional dynamics beyond simply being backup support for the title characters.
In 1932, E.C. Segar created a character named "Bluto the Terrible" to serve as Popeye's adversary for a single storyline in the Thimble Theatre strip. After the story ended, Segar discarded the character and never used him again... but when Popeye was adapted to animation a year later, Bluto became the series' main villain.
Rumor has it Segar created Bluto at the request of Fleischer Studios so that they'd have a recurring villain to use in the cartoons. And evidently, when creating him, Segar decided he may as well do a story with the character.
Popeye himself is perhaps the greatest example of this, actually. The comic strips he starred in began with chronicling the adventures of the Oyl family. Popeye was going to be a one arc gag, but became so popular that he ascended to the main character of the franchise.
Purno de Purno has two characters that became Ascended Extras: Sjakie and Kiet. For the show's first three seasons, these two characters would be nothing more than characters that appeared in episodes as either supporting characters or background characters. When the show got Un-Canceled in 2006, however, they became main characters alongside Purno.
Cornchip Girl from Recess started out as a nameless background character. Around season four or five, she became a more prominent member of the cast, and became the unnoficial seventh member of the gang.
Miss Grotke, the gang's fourth grade teacher, was only in a few episodes of the first season. Come season two and she's in almost every episode of the season. Though by season five, she got Demoted to Extra and suffered from Chuck Cunningham Syndrome in the final season.
CJ also applies. She began as a one-off character who Mordecai spent time with in Season 3's "Yes Dude Yes" when he mistakenly thought his love interest Margaret had become engaged to another guy. After Margaret left to go to college at the end of Season 4, CJ was reintroduced as a supporting character and became Mordecai's on-and-off girlfriend and Eileen's friend.
Eileen definitely applies, as she goes from a minor character whose only real trait was having a crush on Rigby, to a supporting character around the show's fifth season, and finally a main character in the show's final season.
Filburt the turtle was initially a minor recurring character in Rocko's Modern Life who served as a nerdy employee for various jobs. He would go on to become one of Rocko's friends and have larger roles later on in the cartoon.
The All Grown Up! character Harold appeared in only two Rugrats episodes ("Preschool Daze" and "Angelica's Assistant").
Others notable Simpsons promotions include Disco Stu, the Sea Captain, Hans Moleman, and many others. Disco Stu is a particularly obvious case, as he was only introduced for the sake of a single joke, but still pops up every so often.
Apu Nahasapeemapetilon started off as a character whose only role was being the local convenience store owner, with little characterisation beyond that. It stayed like this for a bit, being little more than an extra, but soon changed. He's now become one of the most iconic secondary characters, receiving several focus episodes, becoming the only non-Simpsons player character in The Simpsons: Hit & Run, and becoming far more rounded and deep.
Bart's best friend Milhouse wasn't even an extra on the show—he was first seen as an unnamed kid on a Simpsons "Butterfinger" commercial.
Comic Book Guy first appeared in the late-Season 2 episode "Three Men and a Comic," as a one off character. He didn't appear again for several seasons before starting to becoming more prominent.
Shauna was originally a briefly appearing one-off character in the episode "The Good, the Sad, and the Drugly". Since then, however, she had made frequent appearances on the show, including a major role in "Beware My Cheating Bart" and an instigator of the plot of "What To Expect When Bart's Expecting" (which also established her as the daughter of Superintendent Chalmers).
Apparently, though not exactly an extra, Tails was also due to get a bigger role in S3 as well (he was rather low-key in the first [and only] two seasons).
South Park has many instances of this, and the show is fairly notable for promoting far more background characters into prominence than introducing new ones altogether. Virtually every member of the boys' class now has an established personality to some degree.
Butters in particular started off as a Living Prop before being increasingly used as a supporting background character in seasons 3-5 and eventually becoming the Fifth Ranger. He is now pretty much a main character with more focus than Kenny. This happened around the same time Kenny was more or less Demoted to Extra, though it's hard to say if Butters' rise is the cause or effect of that. Maybe it's just that Butters is capable of talking. Official sources generally list him as a main character with the other four these days, even though he's not usually depicted hanging out with them as a group.
Randy Marsh has been promoted to the most prominent adult character, with many episodes dedicated to him whenever he does something stupid. Like Butters he's now listed as a "main character" by the show's website.
Jimmy was originally just supposed to be a one-episode rival for Timmy; in his first appearance he wasn't even depicted as a South Park resident. As with Butters, the fact that he can talk normally (m-m-more or less) seems to have helped him pass Timmy in prominence.
The girls in particular have been really underdeveloped over the show's run, even as the boys get distinctive personalities; season 20, however, suddenly makes Heidi Turner, who had no real distinguishing characteristics before this, into a major character as she begins a relationship with Cartman.
Karen in Spongebob Squarepants. The more recent the episode starring Plankton, the more likely Karen will play an important role. In her first appearance she didn't even have a name or personality; she just seemed to be a non-sapient computer with a female voice.
Speaking of Plankton, he has been appearing more in the later seasons compare to the early seasons.
Hotstreak only appeared in several issues of the original Static comics, and was defeated pretty easily due to his Weaksauce Weakness. Static Shock removed said weakness and gave him a much larger role, effectively making him Static's Arch-Enemy.
Several minor one-off villains from the comics like Rubberband Man and Puff also had much larger roles in the cartoon than they ever did in the source material.
The inmates in Superjail! were mostly interchangeable minor characters, aside from a few that were given distinct designs or personalities. With the second season, some of these inmates had their roles greatly expanded, speaking more often and having more to do with the plots. The third season continued this sort of development. The creators have stated that if they come to like a particular inmate design, they'll do what they can to reuse them.
Team Umizoomi's Umi Car started out as just transportation for the team that eventually disappears for the rest of the story. Midway through season 1, he gained a face but still didn't ascend from his role as an extra until season 2, where he has gotten several major roles.
Leatherhead in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2012). After being a guest character for the majority of the first and second seasons, he takes on a pivotal role in the second season finale and becomes a recurring character in the third.
The "Two-Tone Town" episode of Tiny Toon Adventures reintroduced a trio of obscure Merrie Melodies characters from the black-and-white 1930s shorts: Foxy and Roxy (obvious Mickey and Minnie Mouse ripoffs) and Goopy Geer (who would be an obvious Goofy ripoff if he didn't predate Goofy). They were modernized and given more distinct personalities for their Tiny Toons appearance; most viewers were probably unaware that they were actual characters from the black-and-white era and not just Retraux imitations like the subsequent Warner siblings.
Also, Gogo Dodo and his residence of Wackyland are a large part of the show, to the point that Gogo appears in the opening theme. He is based on a character from a single 1938 Porky Pig short, not counting the color remake.
Likewise Pumyra was a secondary character the writers of the old show just didn't know what to do with most of the time. In the remake she's confirmed to have an expanded role and even has multiple episodes dedicated to her development.
In the original U.S. Acres comic strip, Orson's nasty brothers only briefly appeared in the first three weeks, and they didn't have names then. Garfield and Friends turned them into recurring villains and gave them the names Mort, Gort, and Wart.
Similarly, Binky the Clown only appeared and/or was referenced in a handful of Garfield comics, but was given a much larger role in the cartoon show.
21 and 24 from The Venture Bros. were minor characters early on in the first season, but became a bit more important as the season went on, and then starting with season 2 they were part of the main cast. Same could probably be said of the Monarch who went from a recurring character to getting equal screen time to the Venture family.
21 and 24's ascension is actually lampshaded a couple times, once by 21 himself ("We're like main characters!") and later by the Monarch ("They have that weird mix of expendable and invulnerable that makes for a perfect henchman."). Later on in the latter episode, 21 and 24 reiterate their status to a new character, claiming he's the Red Shirt on their mission.
The creators often mention looking over crowd scenes and attributing characterization to whoever catches their eye, many showing up later in the show as actual characters.
Such as Sgt. Hatred. He was initially a throwaway off-screen villain that the 21 & 24 stole equipment from, to being one of the many unnamed villains who became excited at Dr. Venture's Walking Eye in Season 2, he eventually got a big plot upgrade in Season 3 where he eventually became Venture's new Guild arch and became tied to the backstory of why Brock was assigned to the Venture family. As of Season 4, he's become one of the main characters, becoming the new Venture bodyguard!
Elyon in the animated version of W.I.T.C.H. is portrayed this way. Those only familiar with the show may or may not be aware that in the original comics, Elyon was a major character from the beginning. However, the TV series deliberately portrays her as a seemingly minor character who gradually "ascends" to being a major character .
Truth be told, a lot of characters in WITCH are ascended extras, the biggest ones being the previous Guardians minus Nerissa - in the comics, Yan Lin dies halfway through the second issue and becomes a member of the Council, Halinor's been dead, Cassidy was just an exposition ghost and Kadma was the bitter old lady. In the cartoon, Yan Lin's alive and The Mentor, Halinor's alive and part of the Council, Cassidy actually comes back to life and Kadma becomes a ruler of another world.
Woody Woodpecker's girlfriend Winnie Woodpecker was only shown in one classic Woody Woodpecker cartoon called Real Gone Woody, but she was mainly shown in comic books as a recurring character. It wasn't until later in The New Woody Woodpecker Show that she became an active member of the series, with a personality similar in silliness to Woody, though showing a more developed sense of dignity.
Some one-shot villains on WordGirl might qualify. For example, Ms. Question, a villain previously seen as a student of the Coach, (another villain), has recently had two episodes where she was the main villain (after gaining the power to confuse people), as has smooth-talking game show host Seymour Orlando Smooth, who had previously only appeared in one episode. In fact, the only WordGirl villain who hasn't returned at least once is the Masked Meat Marauder (although he's probably enjoying his time in that other city with lots of butcher shops and no superhero girls or monkey sidekicks).
Artemis and her family in Young Justice. Artemis is based on a D-list (or lower) character in the comics while she is part of a team of young superheroes like Robin, Superboy and Kid Flash for the show. Her supervillain parents and sister become more prominent because of this as well. Said sister isn't even related to her in the comics where she's the most prominent of the lot, but thanks to the writers mixing up DC Comics lore she gets an even larger role as one of the heroes' more prominent adversaries.
The second season premiere, "Happy New Year," is a long parade of ascended extras: Bumblebee is one of M'gann's and Conner's friends from high school, Lagoon Boy had a single-line cameo when Kaldur visited his old class in "Downtime," Beast Boy was a character of the day in "Image," and Batgirl had a single-line cameo in "Home Front," plus silent cameos in "Failsafe" and "Misplaced." Mal Duncan actually ascended twice: he's promoted from Conner and M'gann's background high school friend to the team's Mission Control, then from Mission Control to Badass Normal hero.