Iä! Shub-Niggurath! The Black Goat of the Woods with a Thousand Young!note The little specks down there are people; her spawn are the tree-like monsters about to eat them.
Named after HP Lovecraft's Shub-Niggurath, the Mother of a Thousand Young is one Older Than Dirt, going all the way back to the Sumerian Tiamat.
The trope itself is based on the concept of a terrible monster that is mother to many, many more types of monsters, though she is usually the stronger when compared (save against the father, though not always the case). Typically, the mother is a foul beast, or a diabolical deceiver of would-be mates, sometimes even having the power of shapeshifting, thus allowing for greater variety of half-breed children (and infinite amounts of Shapeshifting Squick).
The purpose of the Mother is usually to cause mayhem and destruction, or destroy an ancient foe by being the procurer of a living Diabolus ex Machina, which will cause the inevitable destruction of the civilization in question, unless the hero can prevent it.
This generally also makes it One Bad Mother.
The children of the mother are always different from her, and may even be different from their siblings. For the monster who is the first of a line of identical monsters, see Monster Progenitor. Not to be confused with Hive Queen. Can easily overlap with Mook Maker and Weaponized Offspring.
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Anime and Manga
Lilith the Second Angel from Neon Genesis Evangelion fits this trope. It is stated that she is the source of all terrestrial life note according to Jewish belief, Lilith was Adam's first wife and mother to many demons and spirits. She also turns out to be one of the keys to The End of the World as We Know It; the only reason she hadn't done it yet is because her soul was sealed into Rei (and because she needs Adam the First Angel for it).
Adam also counts, as it's the progenitor of all the Angels.
The Vampire Ancestors, especially Cars, from Jo Jos Bizarre Adventure, whose stone masks created the vampires. Thus they are also responsible for Dio and his ghouls and all the stand users.
It might be a bit unusual example, but in Tenshi Ni NarumonBig Bad Mikael is this for Noelle and Silky. Originally, they were one angel soul, which, due to accident, fell to the ground and split into three imperfect souls. It is lampshaded heavily that Mikael was the original source from which other two were created, particularly in episode 13 when Baba was foretelling him his future and her crystal ball showed one string from which other two sprouted out. Mikael even wanted to kind of absorb Noelle and Silky into himself or fuse with them, so it fits with the devouring mother image.
The D-Reaper from Digimon Tamers. It's already an Eldritch Abomination style being, and the Mooks it generates come in a variety of forms. The form of the D-Reaper with the Freaky Mask and Jeri's Head is titled the Mother Reaper. Combined with the most powerful D-Reaper in the Digital World, they'll cause the End of the World.
Piccolo Daimao, the so-called "demon king" from Dragonball. While all Namekians reproduce asexually, their offspring are generally homogenous (if not exact clones with aone-time-use-per-bodyidentical spirit), and King Piccolo instead birthed matured warrior children of vastly different apparent species and biology.
Angel Sanctuary: God, who is the Father of all angels. But not really. Yes, He created the angels, but they're all derived from the flesh of Adam Kadamon, who is a much more straightforward example. Counted as the "mother" of Alexiel and Rosiel, but they only got the lions' share of his/her dismembered body - most other angels were only born from small cellular clusters taken from the leftovers.
In Marvel Comics, the Elder God Chthon is the creator of a race of demons known as the N'Garai, as well as indirectly the creator of vampires which came to be from a spell in the evil magical tome he wrote. The Elder God Set likewise has the Serpent Men, as well as literal offspring in abominations like Sligguth and Damballah; the Legions of Hell were created from the dark energies of the god-killing entity Atum, which was corrupted after it consumed most of Chthon and Set's evil brethern and became the demonic creature called the Demogorge, though in that case the creation of those demons was unintentional.
DC also has the Mother of Champions, a member of the Chinese superteam the Great Ten, who experiences greatly accelerated pregnancies (three days) and births short-lived superhumans, twenty-five at a time.
First is Nyx, the protogeneia (primeval goddess) of night, who gave birth to beings like Thanatos (Death), Geras (Old age), Moros (Doom), Eris (Strife), Lyssa (Madness) and many more. Not all of her children are demonic, though — they include Hypnos (Sleep), Philotes (Friendship and/or Sex), Hemera (Daytime) and many more.
Then Eris, in turn, gave birth to Ponos (Toil), Lethe (Forgetfulness), Limos (Famine), Algos (Sorrow), Hysminai (Combats), Makhai (Battles), Phonoi (Murders), Androctasiai (Manslaughters), Neikea (Quarrels), Pseudologoi (Lies), Amphilogiai (Disputes), Dysnomia (Lawlessness), Ate (Ruination), and Horkos (Oaths)
The half-snake, half-nymph Echidna is the mother of several monsters, including Cerberus, the Chimera, the Sphinx, the Nemean Lion, the Hydra, and Orthrus the two-headed dog.
Gaia, Mother Earth herself, gave birth to the Giants (some of which have hundreds of serpent tails in place of legs); the Cyclopes; the hundred-handed, fifty-headed Hecatonchires; and Typhon, himself something of an example (see below).
There is Echidna's mother, the literal mother of all sea monsters, Ceto, who is traditionally depicted as either an unpleasantly large shark, or an ultracarnivorous whale. In Classical Mythology, Ceto, together with her husband Phorcys, are the personification and progenitors of everything fear-inducing about the sea (bad weather, tidal waves, sea monsters, toxic fish, sharp barnacles...)
The giantess Angrbođa is mother — by Loki — to Fenrir (a giant god-killing wolf), Hel (the half-undead goddess of the underworld), and Jörmungandr (the continent-sized World Serpent). She dwells in Ironwood, where she gives birth to monstrous wolves.
Loki himself is a shape-shifter, and by becoming female can bear monstrous young — though they might be benevolent ones, such as Slepnir, Odin's eight-legged horse.
According to the Enuma Elish, the primordial goddess Tiamat gave birth to at least 11 entire races of monsters, including "ferocious dragons," "virulent" and "horned serpents," mushussu-dragons, various demons, scorpion-men, and rabid dogs.
The biblical Leviathan fits here since God, having originally created two of them, killed the mate so that their offspring, which are implied to be all manner of other sea monsters and otherwise, would become not so numerous that the world could not stand before them. This makes it very much a mirror of Tiamat and Ceto.
In her case, however, none of the offspring come anywhere close to matching the threat and terror their ancestress embodied. Even Shelob is a joke compared to Ungoliant.
In Clive Barker's Weaveworld, the Magdalene makes a habit of raping men and, mere hours later, subsequently spawning new members of her innumerable brood, the hideous 'by-blows'. And just so we're clear, the Magdalene (along with the Hag) is one of the Big Bad's triplet sisters who she killed in the womb. Ghost rape.
Clark Ashton Smith give us Abhoth, a sentient pool of gray mass that bizarre creatures constantly form from. Abhoth just devours most of its children, though some manage to escape.
Casimira is the "mother" of all the vermin of Palimpsest. They see everything and report back to her.
Live Action Television
Supernatural has the Mother of All Monsters (the creator of The Alphas), the Big Bad of the second half of season six. Funnily enough she calls herself Eve, rather than Echidna, the mythological Mother of All Monsters.
A Monster of the Week in Reaper would replace the sperm in a sperm bank with his own, resulting in dozens (possibly hundreds) of children.
Angel: One episode had a demon hire men to help him impregnate dozens of human women.
aversion: the succulent plant Kalanchoe diagremontiana is commonly referred to as 'mother of thousands' in reference to the rows of plantlets that grow along the margins of its leaves. It's quite toxic if eaten, but in the scheme of things it's not particularly eldritch or horrific
Edition 3.5 had a creature named Ragnorra (Elder Evils) that was a being from the positive energy plane. Her arrival to a world brings about large amounts of life and good health until it grows to the point of cancerous effects, rabid, mutated monsters that she gives birth to, and all sorts of delightful events of chaos.
A third-party supplement introduces the Chaos Mage class, whose practitioners risk accidentally mutating their own bodies with their magic. One option is a gradual transformation into a giant sedentary womb that continually gives birth to bizarre and unique monsters.
2nd Edition had the Deepspawn, a monster that exists solely to hang around in dungeons stocking them with its utterly random offspring, which can pretty much be whatever the DM picks from the Monster Manual.
3.5 has the demon known as Pale Night. While she is certainly old enough to be the mother of lots of creatures, it's never outright stated she is. It is, however, stated that she and several other sources consider her to be a mother to something, although they disagree on what. Pale Night says she is the mother of many demon lords, with another source claiming "she is the mother of several tanar’ri lords, including Graz’zt, Lupercio, and Vucarik of Chains." The Black Scrolls of Ahm claim she is the mother of nothing less than the tanar’ri race (the tanar'ri are by far the most common types of demons). Yet another source says she is not a mother of demons, but the mother of several monstrous races on the material plane. As such Pale Night is possibly this trope, but it is intentionally left inconclusive.
The patron deity and progenitor of beholders, the Great Mother, has as her dogma the desire to replace all life with her own offspring. Fortunately for Material Plane folk, she's Chaotic Evil with a twist of Blue and Orange Morality even by beholder standards, so it's not like she'll be mobilizing the kids any time soon.
Terra, the Titan of the World in Scion, embodies fertility through its female avatars. Kamimusuhi in particular defends herself by giving birth to bodyguards (though one-eighth of them ditch her and go to fight for the Gods instead). Gaia and Jord, meanwhile, have divided the labor - Jord conceives the children and Gaia births them. Coatlicue, on the other hand, is a subversion - Mother of a Thousand Stillborn Young. (She embodies infanticide and the "devouring mother" concept.)
Norse Mythology's Angrboda turns up in the game, having expanded her interest in the creation of monsters; she's not content simply birthing them, she also creates them using gene-splicing, cloning, and other techniques. It should be noted that she - and her subjects, the troll-wives - were apparently spawned by Terra's power.
Werewolf: The Forsaken has Aharnuz, from its "Predators" sourcebook. A ghastly creature that spawns an apparently infinite variety of twisted "children", the only mercy is that none of these creatures can breed - something it/she is struggling to overcome. The two sample possible origins given for this thing is that she is an almost complete Host that has become even more twisted than it was originally, and that she used to be one of Luna's Handmaidens that remained overlong in the world and was stranded there by the Gauntlet. Its name even means "The Mother" when translated from First Tongue.
In Vampire: The Masquerade, the Nosferatu antediluvian Absimiliard is seen as a father of monsters, as he's produced monstrous children known as the Nictuku who have a habit of hunting down and wiping out chunks of the rest of the clan. You see Echidna, mentioned above? Yeah. That's one of Absimiliard's special children.
All Antediluvians count, seeing as each of them is the progenitor of a legion (well, Clan) of vampires who are more or less monstrous, though often in a psychological sense. However, with the Tzimisce being what they are, the Tzimisce Antediluvian is a textbook example.
In Magic The Gathering, the three Eldrazi titans spawn legions of twisted critters in the image of themselves. Each of the three brood lineages has traits that make them similar to the particular titan that spawned them, from writhing masses of tentacles to abnormal numbers of limbs to Eyes Do Not Belong There.
Exalted gives us Kimbery, one of the Yozis. She's a creator goddess with serious Yandere tendencies, alternatively either smothering those she loves or utterly destroying those she hates, and you're never really sure which side of that divide you're on. She can't give birth (given that her current form is an acidic sea), but she does have Charms that allow her to infect others with parasitic offspring that come in a delightful assortment of configurations.
In Final Fantasy VII, JENOVA is an interesting treatment of this idea. Originally she appeared to be a very resilient alien monster that killed the Cetra using a plague. However, a human who was studying her impressive regenerative powers hit on the idea that if her cells are implanted into other creatures they can take on part of her superhuman aspect. He initially tried introducing her cells to a human foetus, and when that process created a powerful superhuman he next implanted cells into multiple fully developed humans. These altered people have serious identity issues, monsterous powers that can lead to bodily transformations into imitations of JENOVA, and crave the chance to become one with her again. In this way JENOVA became a Mother of a Thousand Young through rape by mad science.
Dragon Age has the Brood Mothers, creatures created from females of different species, which give birth to legions of Darkspawn. You fight one created from a Dwarf.
In Awakeningthe Final Boss is The Mother, an insane "freed" Broodmother (and boy is she pissed about that) who might have been human judging by her appearance, but spawns The Children instead of Hurlocks.
Mem Aleph from Shin Megami Tensei: Strange Journey, creator of all earthly life. Her name is derived from the Phoenician and Semitic characters that would become "MA", the root for "mother".
Tiamat also counts- she's the mother of the first four Sector bosses and her plan is to give birth to demons faster than mankind can kill them.
Prototype has Elizabeth Greene (codenamed, naturally, MOTHER); since her first baby was taken away, she's decided to make up for that with more babies. Mostly in the form of giant man-eating fleshy shaved-bear things. Rather than giving birth directly, she packs water towers with human bodies and deposits some genetic code in among them to give the creature something to feed on before it hatches. She also considers Alex Mercer, or rather, his viral doppelganger one of her children, despite them being quite different in abilities and motivations. Finally, the viral strains ravaging New York were all originally extracted from her body, so in a sense all the shambling zombies are her children as well.
Isaac's mother from The Binding of Isaac. Most — if not all — of the various enemies are implied to be other children of hers.
Brütal Legend's Emperor Doviculus is a highly rare male example of this trope. He fathered all of his soldiers. Yes, this includes the cars, the Chicken Walker and the various other weird monsters of the Tainted Coil.
Baldur's Gate has a sorceress named Centeol who is found looking very swollen and pregnant. She explains to you that she had been cursed by her sorcerer lover shortly before exploding into a mass of spiders.
Ow, my sanity has Shubby herself as the Cool Big Sis character, who looks more than a little pregnant in her humanoid guise. She gives relationship advice to the protagonist, on the theory that given her, erm, experience, she is more than qualified.
Similar to her mythological counterpart, the Echidnas in the Monstergirl Encyclopedia (there's an entire race of these things in that setting) are stated to produce any number other types of monsters and that many races are believed to have originally been children of the Echidnas. A fanfic with the setting has one whose daughters consist of a dark elf, a slime, a harpy, and a minotaur.
Worm has Echidna, a parahuman who creates Evil Twins of anyone she touches.