Vegeta of Dragon Ball Z has this as his sole reason for, in order, working with Goku & his allies on Namek, staying on Earth, achieving his own SSJ transformation, & training further. Up to the Buu Saga, his Always Second Best status was taken for granted, but in his Majin state, he finally let it out & accepted that Goku's purity led to his strength always eclipsing his own.
Mello of Death Note wants to defeat Kira simply to satisfy his own inferiority complex. While he hates Near for surpassing him, Near hardly tales notice of this.
Envy from Fullmetal Alchemist. In the first anime, it's envy towards the Elric brothers, because they received the love of their father Hohenheim while Envy (the failed resurrection of Hohenheim's firstborn son) was abandoned and thought of as a monster. In the manga and Brotherhood, it's envy towards the entirety of humanity because they're able to feel things he, as an Artificial Human, cannot.
Ho from Tower Of God. He is very envious of fellow Wave Controller Baam's incredible talent. His envy is not just mere anger at someone else being better. Ever since all his friends got senselessly slaughtered, he was always wondered why some horrible people were stupidly strong whereas God made him so horribly weak. This was his incentive to climb the Tower: he wanted to become a person strong enough to protect someone. However, faced with the TeenGeniuses Laure and Baam, he realized that the two of them were standing in his way. He was especially envious of Baam because he started out weaker than Ho and his friendly attitude just angered him further.
In The Twelve Kingdoms, Princess Shoukei from Hou had a playmate who was very pretty and graceful. Shoukei's mom, Queen Kakai, was so upset by the girl being "better" than her little girl... that she falsely accused her mother (one of her own handmaidens) of accepting bribes, which led to both mother and daughter being executed. After King Chuutatsu is overthrown and killed, the Rebel Leader Gekkei captures Kakai and Shoukei, and harshly calls the queen out for killing the two maids before he beheaded her as punishment.
He actually has real reasons to be jealous of Negi, and he points them out himself. He was an orphan from a fallen country, thus an arena slave, while Negi had, compared to his, a happy life (excluding the Doomed Hometown). Tohsaka had to fight twenty years to earn his freedom (and even after obtaining his own freedom, he stuck arround to help his companions), while Negi will buy his students and friends' freedom within two months of fighting. Also, despite all of his training, Tohsaka is still not above par for the Magic World, whilst Negi could very well fit in the same category that houses monstruous powerhouses like Rakan.
Still doesn't justify blackmailing Negi into becoming his slave out of pure envy. Thank God Ako went Take Me Instead, which let Tohsaka realize he was going off the deep end and show that he actually was much less of a jerk than we thought.
Hell Girl has a lot but the most notable is probably the theatre episode.
Aki Honda from Narutaru is really envious of Hiroko's grades. The end results are not pretty for either of them.
Gundam SEED's Muruta Azrael is a genocidal madman who's out to exterminate every Coordinator. He claims it's because they are a threat to humanity, but his flashbacks and some of the things that he says suggest that what he's really angry about is that they dare to be better than him.
In Detective Conan, this is why Motoyasu Tsukumo killed Yashiro Kinoshita: he was jealous and fearful of Yashiro's raw talent as a magician, so Tsukumo tampered with the supplies of his water escape trick and as a result, he drowned while practicing the trick. Too bad Yashiro's little sister Mako saw the whole thing and she later becomes his apprentice so she can get her chance to kill him as part of her revenge.
In Inu Yasha, the miko Tsubaki becomes overwhelmed with jealousy that Kikyou was chosen to entrusted the Shikon Jewel and not her. Her envy would lead her to become a black miko
A combination of jealousy, arrogance, and stubbornness prove to be the driving motivation of NarutoBig Bad Madara Uchiha. While he and future 1st Hokage Hashirama Senju considered each other a Worthy Opponent while their families were at war, Madara went mad with envy when he ended up Always Second Best to Hashirama in the final days of the war and the early days of the Hidden Leaf Village their families founded together. Many of Madara's future actions can be chalked up directly to spite against his arch-rival's descendents; even nearly a century after the final battle between the two of them, Madara's still not over the fact that people chose to follow Hashirama's vision of the future instead of his own.
Flintheart Glomgold from the Disney Ducks Comic Universe is made of this trope; his entire motivation is that he's the Second Richest Duck in the World.
This is also a facet of both the Master Jailer's hatred of Superman and that of Lex Luthor himself. In Lex's case, he hates Superman because he's the only person alive who is simply better than him, and he knows if Superman wasn't around he would be humanity's greatest hero instead. In Blackest Night, Wonder Woman used her lasso to make Lex admit that he wanted to be Superman.
Ocean Master/Orm was indeed this trope in the Silver Age comics, where he grew up as Aquaman's non-superpowered half-brother and tried competing at things like swimming but he's had a different backstory since the first big Crisis CrossoverReBoot.
Captain America villain Flag-Smasher didn't start out this way, but from his second appearance onwards admitted to hating Cap for simply being so much better physically and morally.
The primary and secret reason for newspaper publisher J. Jonah Jameson's hatred of Spider-Man and why he uses the Daily Bugle to public denounce him. It is revealed in Amazing Spider-Man #10 that Jameson is envious of Spidey's altruistic heroism. Jameson admits to himself he needs to tear down Spider-Man because he can't be as good a man as him.
Although he'll never admit it, the reason Doctor Doom hates Reed Richards as passionately as he does is because he can't stand the fact that Reed is smarter, better, and more admired than him, and always manages to foil his schemes through superior intelligence.
One of the reasons Loki's relationship with his brother Thor was so conflicted was because Loki envied Thor for being Odin's favored son. Of course, Loki's constant scheming against Thor (though Thor was far from being Loki's only target) in his efforts to one-up him gave Odin and the rest of Asgard more and more reasons to hate Loki, to the point that now every Asgardian except Thor and (maybe) the Warriors Three wants to kill Loki even after he was reincarnated as a relatively innocent and powerless child with no memories of his past self.
The Amazon Alcyone frequently tried to kill Wonder Woman, claiming that she was an abomination who would bring doom to Themyscira. After one defeat, Diana forced her to reveal the real reason: Alcyone envied Hippolyta because Hippolyta got to have a child while Alcyone couldn't. Deep down, she wished Diana was her daughter.
From the same author, Isaac Boxtel of The Black Tulip, who, jealous of the hero's talent at horticulture and success at creating a black tulip, frames him and tries to steal the tulip's discovery for himself.
Snape from Harry Potter, though subverted in many ways. He still regularly bullies small children, though, whatever his redeeming characteristics.
In the Myth Adventures book, Little Myth Marker, small-time magicians jealous of Skeeve's success hire a "character assassin" to sabotage his career and destroy his reputation.
Zhou Yu, of Three Kingdoms quasi-fame manages to envy himself to death when confronted again and again (and, crushingly, again) with Zhuge Liang's downright unfair genius.
In The Wheel of Time, at least three of the Forsaken - Sammael, Be'lal and most especially Demandred - have hatred and envy of Lews Therin Telamon as their primary motivation for turning to the Shadow. Demandred in particular is noted for being basically Lews Therin Lite in almost every way, and when their rivalry drove him to the Shadow, it's noted that no one hates Lews Therin more than he was. Maybe no one hates anything more than Demandred hates Lews Therin. Considering just how hateful the Forsaken in general are... that's a hell of a lot of hate.
In Zora Neale Hurston's Moses Man Of The Mountain, Moses's uncle Ta-Phar plots against him because Moses upstaged him with his tactical genius.
In The Silmarillion, Morgoth's main motivation for trying to destroy reality is that he is envious of Eru's ability to create. This later morphs into envy for all his creations: the Valar, Elves, Men and Middle-Earth itself.
This is part of what drives Lorgar and the Word Bearers to side with Horus in the Horus Heresy. Lorgar was envious of the fact that Ultramarines Primarch Robuote Guilliman was so great in the Emperor's favor, while Lorgar's devotion was, at best, unnoticed and at worst unwelcome.
Live Action TV
An entire episode of Buffy the Vampire Slayer is devoted to the plots of another witch Amy the former rat setting up traps for Willow out of sheer jealousy for Willow's talent at magic. Villain even rants about how she had to work and work and work to be half as powerful as Willow was without even trying.
On Merlin, this seems to be Morgana's main motivating factor in her vendetta against Guinevere, considering Gwen has more or less taken what Morgana considers to be her rightful place in Camelot and is destined to be its Queen.
In Promethean: The Created, this is how disquiet manifersts for the Galatea. Being around them causes people to feel intense envy. At first a thought that they can't quite get out of their heads but gradually becomes an obsession as the guilt of feeling attracted to this person leads them to commit evil acts that eventually turn towards attacking the Galatean.
Salieri again. This time in the play that inspired the better known movie Amadeus.
Iago from Othello - subverted, as his priority is not Cassio, but Othello (although he might envy the latter's relationship with Desdemona).
Alternate Character Interpretations by Shakespeare scholars also suggest the possibility that Iago was in love with Othello himself, so the entire play was really a ploy to remove those people closest to Othello so Iago could either have him all to himself, or so he could make Othello suffer for marrying Desdemona and promoting Cassio.
Athene, who hated losing a weaving contest so much that she turned the winner into a spider.
Aphrodite did not take people claiming that Psyche was more beautiful than her very well at all. In Aphrodite's case, she ordered her son Eros to make Psyche fall in love with an ugly man, which backfired when Eros fell in love with Psyche and married her making her an in-law.
Apollo, who hated losing the first round of a music contest so much that he changed the rules of the second round making it impossible for his competitor to win, then skinned the other guy alive and cursed the judge who ruled against him in round one to have donkey ears.
The inventor Daedalus threw his nephew Perdix off a cliff because he realized the boy's natural genius would someday surpass his own or already had and Daedalus couldn't handle that. Athena rescued Perdix by turning him into a bird and branded Daedalus to mark him as a murderer forever.
Sticky Fingaz in Def Jam: Fight For NY. His resentment of the player character's greater skills leads to him switching sides and trying to murder the hero and his girlfriend.
Also, what drives a good part of the conflict between Trabant of Thracia and Cuan of Lenster in Fire Emblem Seisen no Keifu. Thracia is a montainous land that borders on Crapsack World, while Lester is more peaceful and fertile; this drives Trabant to desire at first for the well-being for his people, and then to cruelly murder Cuan and his wife Ethlin and take their daughter Altenna hostage so his land will have the upper hand.
The backstory of the Fallout New Vegas DLC Dead Money has singer Dean Domino envious of businessman Francis Sinclair's happiness, which he saw as self-absorbed pretentiousness. Because of this, he planned to rob the vault of his casino, the Sierra Madre with the help of Vera Keyes, an old fling. The plan failed due to a combination of Vera getting cold feet and the nuclear holocaust happening moments afterwards, though Dean (now a ghoul) stuck around trying to rob the vault. By the end of the DLC, Dean either gets killed by the Courier or survives and helps the Courier into the vault, where in the epilogue he learns Sinclair and Keyes' side of the story, goes through a Heel Realization and leaves the Sierra Madre for the world outside.
Ultimately, this triggers everything that goes wrong in Live A Live. Straybow, friend and accomplice of the beloved knight Oersted, was so tired of being trapped in Oersted's shadow that he sabotaged the other man's life, tricking him into murdering the king and turning everything else in the kingdom against him. This ended with Oersted killing Straybow, Oersted's beloved Alicia committing suicide out of her love for Straybow, and Oersted, having lost everything he had in his life, turning his back on all of humanity and becoming the Demon King Odio. All because Straybow was jealous of Oersted's fame.
Joseph Bertrand of Infamous 2. His reason for wanting all Conduits dead, is because of his raw deal as a Conduit. While people like Cole and Nix got easily manageable powers, Bertrand's Conduit form is a mindless, enormous monstrosity. His jealously and anger over this is what leads him to brand Conduits as 'Abominations'.
Shown in the page image is Princess Morbucks from The Powerpuff Girls. Her penchant for evil is entirely driven by her desire to be better than the Powerpuff Girls.
Or rather that the girls won't let her be one and with good reason. She's a glory hog, has no powers of her own and almost got herself killed when she tried to make her debut. In a nice bit of irony, once she gets an upgraded suit it never strikes her that she could strike out on her own. Instead wasting it on fighting the PPG.
Morbucks even attacks the Powerpuff Girls' new friend Robin because she can't understand why the girls would want to be friends with Robin and not her.
The Simpsons might be considered to have on in the episode "Homer's Enemy" with Frank Grimes, while not only putting up with Homer who's Too Dumb to Live. He's gotten angrier at the fact that despite Homer's stupidity and laziness, Homer met several presidents, won a Grammy, and met famous celebrities just to name a few while Frank has to work from scratch. Even though Homer tries to please Frank, the latter was driven an deeper hatred and jealousy that lead him to his death.
Ethan Hawke admitted that he felt "Salieri" levels of envy of his friend and Explorers co-star, the late River Phoenix, when he got so much acclaim and attention for his work in movies like Stand by Me.