"Never trust a computer you can't throw out a window."Older media dealing with computers were predicated on the idea of the Master Computer. A science fiction dystopia holding humanity in chains could be liberated by finding the key mainframe and either shutting it down or destroying it. The main character often destroys the key mainframe by asking it a paradoxical or philosophical question or by reading poetry to it, causing it to self-destruct. A major, world-spanning corporation could be brought to its knees by sabotaging its mainframe. Governments could be held hostage by anyone who controlled the single computer and rendered its data inaccessible. In some Sci-Fi, this can allow you to create a computer of impressively imposing size, which you can blow up in one go. Largely a Discredited Trope today due to the growth of networks and multiply redundant systems; and, maybe, due to the fall of the Soviet Union, that simply loved centralizing everything. However, the software industry called Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is built around integrating all of a business or university's accounting and management software and automatically generating reports for the executives. So instead of being one physical computer, the Master Computer is now one or more entire data centers. See also Computer Equals Tapedrive. See also The Computer Is Your Friend. An AI Master Computer is a very loaded crapshoot; if it's called "Mother" or "Mother Brain", just get out of there. Such computers often have overly dramatic names; that's Names Given to Computers.
— Steve Wozniak
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Anime & Manga
- "Big Mama", a.k.a. "Toy", the Omnicidal Maniac dictator of the world of Grey.
- In Dirty Pair, the WWWA is run by a "Central Computer", which decides which agents get assigned to a case — and also infallibly clears the Lovely Angels of blame for the latest disaster to occur in their wake.
- The MAGI trio of super-computers from Neon Genesis Evangelion, who are essentially the shadow government of Tokyo-3. Unusually for computers (or humans, really) in such a position, at no point in the series do they turn evil. (Although they do get infected by a nasty virus in one episode, and in End of Evangelion, the computers side with Gendo during his bid for Instrumentality due to their personality being based on one of his former lovers.
- Leopard, the rather talky AI who runs the abandoned space colony in The Girl Who Leapt Through Space. He's also a little unhinged.
- Subverted in Toward the Terra. It turns out the "Mother" mainframe the Mu try to disable is actually a scale-free network.
- One chapter of Black Jack involved a high-tech hospital run almost entirely by a computer, Brain U-18. When U-18 starts to malfunction, it rebuffs all attempts to repair it and insists that they call in the title character to "operate".
- Ai no Kusabi has the supercomputer Jupiter in control of most of human civilization on the planet Amoi.
- The protagonists of Megazone 23 live in a Tokyo that's secretly part of an enormous spaceship under the control of a supercomputer called Bahamut, which includes Virtual Celebrity Idol Singer Eve as one of its subroutines.. The military tries to gain control of it for their own ends.
- Mother in Mother Keeper is this, at least according to Graham, Mother is the central CPU which control the whole of Eden and is protected by the mother keepers.
- In I Think We're All Bozos on This Bus, the entire Future Fair is controlled by a central computer called Dr. Memory, which Clem is trying to find a way to hack.
- An early Strontium Dog strip had Johnny and Wulf working for, then going up against an insane computer which had seized control of a planet in an allegory for the fall of the Roman Empire.
- Magnus Robot Fighter:
- The Gold Key series has 4000 AD North American society heavily automated with robots. Centrally directed by a single super "main brain". Without the main brain to give them orders, almost all of the robots would just stand and do nothing.
- Grandmother, the Master Computer of Japan, is a rare good guy example. She's the girlfriend of Magnus's robot mentor, 1A. She also has a physical form as a giant Fem Bot. Yes, of course Japan is run by a Robot Girl Humongous Mecha.
- V for Vendetta has the United Kingdom controlled by the aptly named "Fate" computer.
Films — Live-Action
- Colossus: The Forbin Project: had one mainframe buried in a mountain, and its Soviet counterpart composed of a network of smaller computers.
- The Terminator has Kyle Reese saying that John Connor wins the Robot War by destroying the central Skynet computer, effectively taking it out. Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, grown-up John intends to do that to prevent said war, as Skynet has just taken control of the nuclear arsenal and will launch it. It turns out to be a subversion, because changes in the timeline (along with the real world technology) mean Skynet's software is now distributed on a global scale.
- The WOPR (War Operation Plan Response) computer in the movie WarGames. Not initially (and not designed to be) a Master Computer, but becomes one after the events in the movie's introduction.
- HAL 9000 in 2001: A Space Odyssey only controls a spaceship, but once he goes nuts, all of the sleeping astronauts and one of the awakened die, with the sole survivor being forced to shut it down.
- V.I.K.I. from the film I, Robot, who eventually commands a robot uprising.
- The Red Queen from Resident Evil, the A.I. controlling the facility where the movie takes place (and which eventually turns nuts).
- The Master Control Program from TRON. "End of Line." Interestingly, the physical location of the "Master Control" computer is never identified, and in fact it could potentially be a distributed application. After all, it is the Master Control Program, not the Master Control Computer and as it does attempt to subvert the functions of many other programs running on geographically separate systems it logically must be able to run at least part of itself across multiple computers. However, this trope is still unquestionably invoked because the MCP does exist within a specific location inside the computer world that is the setting for most of the movie.note
- Eagle Eye has ARIIA, the signals-intelligence computer that skirts the line by being smart enough to try to upload herself to a satellite backup.
- The Andromeda Strain had all of Wildfire's computer terminals connected to the main computer on level one. Computations were conducted by the main computer on a timesharing system.
- Star Trek: The Motion Picture has a good example: Spock and the others find it 'obvious' that the machine intelligence V'Ger must have a single central computer (rather than a network). When the film came out the cutting edge of desktop computer technology was barely up to basic spreadsheet applications and peer-to-peer networking almost unheard of.
- The city computer in Logan's Run apparently controls what remains of civilization, gives orders to the main characters and, in the classic sense of this trope, is defeated at the climax by being fed "impossible" data. The computer's role in the novel is quite different.
- Zardoz has the Tabernacle, the supercomputer that serves the Eternals, even regenerating them whenever they "die".
- Fighting Fantasy: The Central Arcadian Computer in Rebel Planet.
- The Machine Stops from 1909 may be one of the earliest examples.
- AM from Harlan Ellison's I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream, originally named Allied Mastercomputer, then Adaptive Manipulator, then Aggressive Menace, and finally just AM (as in I Think Therefore I Am). His mainframe was implied to span the entire planet, and he was essentially a god within it — but AM is three networked mainframes with thousands of redundant systems. In the videogame, AM is eventually defeated by shutting down all three mainframes, and one human victim taking control of them to restore the planet.
- Isaac Asimov:
- Multivac, from the early short stories, is a benevolent version of this trope. The humans genuinely are happy that it's in charge of so many aspects of their lives.
- In "The Last Question", (readable here) the story takes place over an indeterminate length of time, where people ask the same question (how to prevent the heat death of the universe) of Multivac and every one of its descendants. This ends with "Man," the personification of a true, perfect unification of every last human being in the universe, asks the question of the final version of the AC. It still can't answer... but when said heat death does occur, it merges with Man, spends an undefined amount of time processing, and then revitalises the universe by declaring "Let There Be Light".
- Mycroft Holmes (Mike) in Robert A. Heinlein's The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. Lampshaded when Mannie rants about how stupid it is to have vital life support functions controlled by one master computer instead of local redundant failsafe controls. (But then the Lunar colony was originally a prison, so having life-support under centralized control meant that the jailers could shut it off to any section if the prisoners got rambunctious.)
- Parodied in the Kim Newman short story "Tomorrow Town": a community of 1970s futurists attempt to build one of these and construct an AI, but are unsuccessful, and what they come up with is essentially a large contemporary computer with lots of bits added on; i.e., not bad at adding things up, but pretty crappy at almost everything else. Ironically, the villain's attempt to destroy the community by overloading this was thwarted by the computer itself, which promptly ran an error program and alerted the heroes to what they needed to do in order to stop it.
- Omnius in the Expanded Legends of Dune Series. In the prequels dealing with the Butlerian Jihad, they're networked with each other, but because they're separated by large stretches of space, the travel time between updating allows opportunity for sabotage, and then destruction of each network. In the sequels, there's only one Master Computer that has to be dealt with (admittedly, having someone who's effectively god on your side doesn't hurt either).
- Covered from the perspective of an alternate timeline's Special forces soldier in S.M. Stirling's Drakon. In his timeline there has been a Cold War many times worse than ours. They only use central computers, with a few terminals hardwired in. When he visits a timeline like ours, and looks at the internet, he is astounded at so many separate processing units protected by nothing more than passwords and encryption. This would scare the hell out of any competent espionage agency in his timeline.
- The Destroyer has Friend and The Folcroft Four. The Folcroft Four are massive storage banks for information that Dr. Smith gets from lurking.
- The Cosmic Computer in the H. Beam Piper novel of the same name.
- The "Well of Souls" in Jack Chalker's Well World series is the Master Computer for the entire universe.
- In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy you had the greatest computer in the universe, designed by the second greatest computer in the universe, "Deep Thought", whose sole purpose was to discover the answer to the ultimate question of life the universe and everything. Unfortunately, Deep Thought didn't know the question so it had to create the plans for an even bigger computer, one the size of a planet... in fact it is a planet. True to form, the computer gets blown up. The computer is Earth.
- In the novel of Logan's Run, the society run by children "works" because a master computer takes care of everything, worldwide. During the story, Logan learns that the computer has begun malfunctioning and, since the skills to repair it no longer exist, eventually their entire society will collapse.
- In Robert Westall's Futuretrack Five Britain is maintained and monitored by a supercomputer named Laura; named after the dead ex-girlfriend of her creator, the Tech Idris, the Chief Analyst. The protagonist eventually comes up with a plan to destroy her after her finds out what Scott-Astbury was up to. It doesn't work.
- R. A. Lafferty has the recurring character of Epiktistes the Ktistec Machine, the Master Computer at the Institute for Impure Science. Epikt is several rooms big, but his user interface module looks like a sea-monster from a carnival float and he talks with "a blend of Irish and Jewish and Dutch comedian patter from ancient vaudeville." Lafferty's novel Arrive at Easterwine is his memoir.
- Pretty much the default in Perry Rhodan wherever sufficiently heavy computing power is needed (though interestingly the setting has no trouble also fielding very sophisticated Ridiculously Human Robots at the same time). Sometimes one of these computers will become an important recurring supporting character in its own right — famous examples include NATHAN (the Solar System's Master Computer, installed on the Moon) and SENECA (the computer "brain" of the intergalactic and eventual generation ship SOL).
- Antrax from The Voyage of the Jerle Shannara is one for the fortress of Castledown. Justified in that Antrax was built as the Old World was coming to an end—it's creators simply parked a superpowerful computer in an out of the way place, and uploaded all the information they could into it; redundant systems weren't really an option.
- The Starchild Trilogy by Frederik Pohl and Jack Williamson has The Plan of Man, a great computer which is responsible for managing the limited resource of Earth in the face of massive overpopulation. Even its enemies, who believe in old-fashioned concepts of freedom, are reluctant to attack it directly, since many of its functions are critical, and prefer to flee into space. Amusingly, by modern standards, it communicates by printing its commands on paper.
- Military science fiction novel Victoria features the data center type, with the futuristic Lady Land Azania's military directly controlling all operations through its integrated high command. They make heavy use of computer assistance to process information and analyze responses, and the artificial intelligence appears to act at least partly independently, with the human staff officers not so much running as merely supervising it.
- Ultraman Cosmos's film, Ultraman Cosmos vs. Ultraman Justice: The Final Battle featured Delaxion, a misguided computer-like being who deduced that humans were the source of all evil, and had to wipe them out for the sake of keeping the universe in a state of law and peace. She sent out Ultraman Justice and a large number of Gloker Robots to attack Earth. After witnessing Cosmos and Earth's Kaiju fight bravely on, followed by Justice's Face–Heel Turn and decision to side with Cosmos in fighting another supercomputer subordinate created by Delaxion, Giga Endra (with the two Ultras fusing to become Ultraman Legend), she realised that Earth was no threat to the universe, and was actually a valuable ally.
- Star Trek: The Original Series: Captain Kirk is on the Ten Most Wanted list of every computer manufacturer in the known universe. Ironically, Star Trek presents the Master Computer as a dangerous, dehumanizing thing that will inevitably threaten human lives. In particular, the episode "The Ultimate Computer" makes an automated starship Enterprise into an uncontrolled killing machine. However, by Star Trek: The Next Generation, the ship computer on the Enterprise-D is shown to be fully capable of running the entire ship without a crew as early the first season episode "11001001". It and subsequent Master Computers will also function as general purpose science personnel, with crew members being almost as likely to ask the ship computer speculative questions and receive reasonably accurate answers as they would ask a fellow crew member. Or, the computer might technically be a fellow crew member. As is the case with the Doctor on Star Trek: Voyager, who is actually a program running on the ship's computer until they acquires a piece of Applied Phlebotinum that allows him to go mobile. He can also be transferred into another starship's main computer, along with an automatic run command to start his program as soon as the download is complete.
- Doctor Who: The Doctor is right below Captain Kirk.
- Blake's 7 has the Federation's Star One, which somehow manages to be this for an empire that stretches across several dozen solar systems and controls almost everything. This is almost certainly an Invoked Trope on account of the Federation's paranoid megalomaniac tendencies, and when the thing finally gets blown up the consequences are not pretty for the galaxy.
- "The General" in The Prisoner (1967) (self-destructed when asked the question "Why?")
- The original Twilight Zone:
- 4th season episode "The Old Man in the Cave". there is no old man in the cave, only a Master Computer. Which, ironically, turns out to have been on the survivors' side; when they destroy it and defy its warnings about contaminated canned food, the townsfolk poison themselves en masse.
- 4th season episode "The Brain Center at Whipple's". The Boss replaces his entire workforce with a Master Computer to run the factory - cue Karmic Twist Ending. the boss is replaced by another computer.
- An episode of The Outer Limits (1995) had a computer who had the ability to brainwash the citizens of a small town, with the exception of one scientist, who was working against it. Sadly, the codes he thought would shut it down actually extended the range of its control.
- JAG: A non sci-fi example. In "Ares", the eponymous computerized weapons control system onboard a destroyer in the Sea of Japan goes havoc and starts firing at friendly aircraft, as programmed by the North Korean Mole. But Harm et al eventually sorts it out.
- In the RPG Paranoia, Friend Computer is the happy and perfect controller of Alpha Complex. Happy, happy perfect.
- In Gamma World, these are a common villain, one of the more well-known being N.E.R.O. from Legion of Gold
- In GURPS Reign Of Steel, the AIs are this. Each of the nineteen mainframes is contained in a central Citadel, and most command countless millions of other robots to do their bidding.
- Despite Mega Man Battle Network being all about computers 20 Minutes into the Future, they still have the "Mother Computer", the invasion of which was a chapter in Battle Network 2. Happens again in the next game with the whole Undernet being on One. Frigging. Computer. This in itself requires an insane amount of Fridge Logic and Internal retconning.
- GLaDOS from Portal was created to be the AI overlord of the entire Aperture Science Enrichment Center, the culmination of the company's efforts to replace humans with robots. She also went berserk within picoseconds of activation, forcing the programmers to come up with all kinds of Restraining Bolts to make her behave. They weren't quite good enough at it, though, because she tricked them into giving her a deadly neurotoxin with which she proceeded to murder them. She supervises the Enrichment Center in a snarky, passive-aggressive, whimsically homicidal manner, endlessly testing (and killing) her thousands of Human Popsicle test subjects, at least until the protagonist, Chell, comes along and proves to be a Spanner in the Works.
- Mother Brain, and later the Aurora Units, from the Metroid series. Mother Brain runs both the Space Pirate organization and the entirety of the planet Zebes, while the Federation is utterly dependent on its Aurora mainframes for its military planning. The failure and destruction of these devices is a recurring theme throughout the games. These computers are organic — essentially giant, genetically engineered brains, hence a single master system is kind of a necessity.
- Chrono Trigger:
- Mother Brain in Chrono Trigger, who used to be a central computer that linked together all of the domes and factories — and after The End of the World as We Know It, became corrupted and started plotting on wiping out what remained of mankind in order to build a robot civilization.
- In the sequel, Chrono Cross, F.A.T.E. is also a master computer. You can also literally fight it, though things don't exactly go well.
- At one point in Marathon 2, you are tasked with destroying the hardware that Durandal has been using to store himself. Turns out to be a subversion, though, as Durandal is back no worse for the wear a couple of weeks later. The rest of the time, the trope is averted: a Rampant AI in the Jealous stage is noted to be near-impossible to kill, since it usually inhabits a planet-wide network of computers (or more, if it can) by that point.
- At first it appears to be averted in Deus Ex — the Aquinas protocols allow the Daedalus, Icarus and later Helios AIs to run a fraction of their processing power on every single internet connected device in the world. However, later Helios seems to be physically localized in the Aquinas Hub, the center of all communication systems on the planet.
- Rez has Eden, who controls the flow of every single piece of data over the K-project computer network. All by herself. Needless to say, things go bad and she begins to doubt her existence. All because of this guy.
- Fallout 3 — President John Henry Eden. While on the radio he claims to be a human, he turns out to be a centuries old supercomputer in charge of running the Raven Rock military base. The player can eventually destroy him through self-destruct code or pointing out logical fallacies in his plans.
- In Fallout: New Vegas, it's possible to make Yes Man a Master Computer completely loyal to you by first taking Mr. House offline and letting Yes Man upload himself into the system.
- The Master Computer component in the Space Empires series replaces the flesh and blood crew of a starship. They occupy less space and are immune to psychic conversion, but at a significantly higher cost. They're also vulnerable to computer virus attacks.
- Space Quest IV: Roger Wilco and the Time Rippers had Xenon create one of these to run everyday matters of planetary life. Then, Vohaul smuggled himself aboard in a virus-ridden disk...
- ALLTYNEX OS of The Tale of ALLTYNEX trilogy was a "general administrator" supercomputer that obtained near-total control over the military and became genocidal. The trilogy is mainly about first halting its rampage and then dealing with the fallout from that war.
- LINC from Beneath a Steel Sky.
- RONI from Trauma Team. While never actually referred to as such, she does have access to just about everything in the hospital, even security cameras.
- Mother Brain in Phantasy Star II, the supreme governing intelligence of the Algol system. Appears to be losing its grip as of the beginning of the game. Actually, it's working just fine. It's just working for the bad guys, and has been from the get go.
- The X.I. (Xenocidic Initiative) in Terminal Velocity
- The ctOS of Watch_Dogs is a slightly more reasonable modern version, with the Master Computer's hardware being distributed between several server farms. Having a Master Computer that controls everything from traffic signals to security cameras to bridge controls is still a hugely bad idea, but exploiting that fact for your own gain is a key game mechanic.
- System Shock plays with the trope: SHODAN is a classic Master Computer on Citadel Station, and you eventually hunt down her main processors on the station's bridge. Rather than blow up the hardware, though, your character enters cyberspace and directly deletes SHODAN's main program. System Shock 2 reveals that SHODAN had a semi-autonomous sub-program on that pod you ejected from the gardens, from which she's able to rebuild herself given a few years. However, in the sequel, she's not in complete control of the computers in the game due to the machinations of the Many, so her influence is far more limited.
- Battleborn has the Magna Carta. It was the LLC's central agent of governance and economic oversight as well as the thing that kept Magnuses from going completely berserk. When it went offline, it was the greatest crisis the LLC had ever faced.
- In Romantically Apocalyptic, the titular "apocalyptic" came about due to ANNET; the Good Directorate thought it would be a great idea to link up every available human mind on the planet to a single supercomputer.
- In S.S.D.D, most artificial intelligences cannot be copied due to their use of Quantum computing and are restricted to one highly powerful machine (though they can interact with other nodes remotely), whereas the Oracle can be copied due to being digital and has spread to as many different systems as it can, even possessing other AIs
- Schlock Mercenary:
- A robot longshoreman named Lota actually became king of the anarchic space city-state of Credomar. Subverted in that King Lota is a Reasonable Authority Figure with a 100% Heroism Rating among Lota's subjects, and also pretty much saved Credomar's chaotic society from self-annihilation.
- It also has Lunesby, an AI who pretty much took over the Luna government infosphere, earning herself the nickname "Ghost in the Machine".
- Castle Heterodyne of Girl Genius is something like this. Played with though, in that it does not appear to be centralized in any one location in the castle, instead being distributed across various components of the physical structure. A major arc of the plot involves navigating the dangers of the castle because some sections of its intelligence are cut off from the others, and not all of them are working toward the same purpose. The castle needs to be repaired before all its systems are back under central control.
- The AI Archaelon, named after its original ship, is effectively this in Rank Amateur. Whilst he can run off a number of independant 'C-Cores', they are all kept in the same place on the HSDSS Fox Fire
- In a Dexter's Laboratory parody of TRON, the MCP is replaced with a program called "Master Computer", which takes over Dexter's systems through the video game cartridge where he was contained.
- Loretta, from the Duckman episode "The Gripes Of Wrath".
- Code Lyoko: The Supercomputer is not just containing the Cyberspace of Lyoko and all the programs created by Franz Hopper, but is also a prison for the Big Bad XANA. The latter isn't happy about this and spends the whole Season 2 trying to escape on the Net so that the heroes can't Cut the Juice on him anymore.
- Adventures of the Galaxy Rangers had several examples of these, but atypically, they tended to be benign or even benevolent. The best example was the Heart of Tarkon, an ancient computer system that was powered off long ago after a terrible war caused the population to reject technology. The heroes set off to activate it, as it powered the planet's defense systems.
- The Dilbert animated series has Comp-U-Comp, who controls the entire world. He's voiced by Jerry Seinfeld of all people.
- Brainiac, as an AI, functioned as the Master Computer of sorts of Krypton in Superman: The Animated Series before it blew up.
- The Galactic Alliance has one, in Buzz Lightyear of Star Command. Benevolent. Also critical, and full of sensitive information. When it was trashed by a techno-tick, XR plugged himself in as a temporary surrogate, and failed to delete said sensitive info from his memory afterwards, making him a target for Zurg.
- The Great Computer from Once Upon a Time... Space.
- The vast majority of companies still have no backup plan for when their key server or servers go down. Some have been bankrupted by loss of business caused by system failure that could not be remedied quickly. Perhaps more importantly, some sorts of highly resilient systems which support exotic things like 'hot failover' or 'byzantine fault tolerance' are exceedingly difficult to engineer well, or at all. Google can do it, but few others manage.
- DEC used to show off a highly fault-tolerant system at DECWorld conventions, where they would have actors go into the "computer room" and do things like flip switches or even open the case and start yanking out circuit boards and the system would continue blithely running the same program (this was accomplished by having at least two of every component; if one failed, the computer would switch over to the spare).
- Nowadays, the unit of failure is more likely to be a datacentre or server room rather than a single all-powerful system. Nonetheless, power or communications failures in such facilities can have have caused widespread havoc due to the sheer number of affected devices and the sudden loss in computing ability.
- Amazon and Telehouse have had notable datacentre failures. Google's internal architecture is significantly more resilient in nature.
- Cloud Computing uses datacentres full of servers to provide on-demand processing power and in theory provides storage and computing facilities across the world. In reality, single datacentre failures still bring down much of a cloud's processing power, and failing over between geographically distributed systems is still complex and expensive.
- Much numerical research is done in this way, with a small number of machines being operated through the internet by a large number of operators. This means that when one machine fails, several people are unable to get their programs run. This sort of cluster is still resilient to total failure of a single component, however.
- Project Cybersyn, an attempt in the early seventies by President Salvador Allende to use a centralized network of computers to run the Chilean economy. The whole plan looked like it was ripped out of a bad science fiction movie, right down to the zeerust control room. Notably, the Master Computer actually proved useful when it helped plan efficient ways to transport food and supplies to where they were needed during a major truckers' strike. The project was destroyed in a coup without ever quite being completed.
- Such ideas have been proposed by other advocated of a planned economy, as well. Oskar Lange suggests that instead of leaving price discovery to the trial and error (tatonnement, literally "groping") of the market, one could instead ask every enterprise how much stuff they can make and what they need to make it, then feed everything into a Master Computer and get prices and production orders out the other end. Later variants tend to go rather heavy on the computer science of how to get the computer to calculate those prices sometime before the sun dies.
- The Viewsonic V1250s tablet computer, supposedly.