Krillin's Kienzan or Destructo Disk acts like a sawblade that cuts through anything. Only problem is that unless used at very close range, it often swerves every which way, missing the target as a result.
Frieza has a deadlier version. Not only does it cut through anything, but it chases after the opponent.
In Dragonball GT, Syn Shenron throws a clock tower's clock at Goku. Goku catches it and throws it back, with enough force to slice a building in half.
Eternal Sailor Moon does this with a pizza. Though it's technically a Shout-Out to her first attack, Moon Frisbee/Moon Tiara Action.
In One Piece, Doctor Hogback's zombie maid Cindry despises dinner plates and uses them as her preferred weapon because she enjoys breaking them.
In Gamaran we see a minor Muhou School minion using a chakram as his weapon of choice. Kashitarou correctly identified the weapon as a Chakram and explained that overall it was similar to a shuriken, but far more dangerous due to his size, sharpness and shape.
Spider-Man once used a manhole cover while battling a Sentinel.
In Buck Godot: Zap Gun for Hire, the TN notifier's wide-brimmed hat is in fact a seeker missile. It is unknown whether it returns to the wielder, since Buck tricked it into running into a destructive forcefield.
Films — Animation
Used twice in Toy Story 2. Buzz Lightyear throws discs at Emperor Zerg during the videogame opening sequence and the fight on top of the elevator.
Elasti-Girl in The Incredibles uses a manhole cover to take out the robot's laser. She doesn't have the super-strength to fling it normally (as evidenced by her effort to lift it), so she stretches her arm around a street lamp and sling-shots it at the robot.
In the former, it's an ashtray with star-like blades sticking out in Biff's office.
In the latter, it's an instance of creating a Stable Time Loop again, as the insinuation is that it's the original Frisby pie plate that inspired the phenomenon that led to the Frisbee.
In Wild Wild West, Dr. Loveless has a machine that fires high-speed homing saw blades.
The Batmobile in Batman Returns fires high-speed discus-style discs that Batman uses in the opening fight to unseat Skull Riders.
Jet Li's Super Soldier character in Black Mask somehow manages to critically wound his former commanding officer by throwing a CD at his neck. Said CD manages to cut into the neck and is halfway in.
The Predators, starting with the one from Predator 2 onward, have been shown to use a disc which can slice clean through multiple targets and return to the wielder. In the Alien vs. Predator films, the disc was changed to a shuriken, though the games typically stick with the Predator 2 incarnation.
Used in Twister, during the scene where the tornado hits the drive in theater. Jo, Bill and the team are mostly safe crouched down in the grease pit of a next door garage, but hubcaps go flying though the air and take a nice streak out of one guy's head. Partly his own fault for jumping up to grab a rogue hose flopping around.
The fundamental subject of 1990's movie I Come in Peace, where an alien with a flying killing disc gets on Earth and Dolph Lundgren gets to handle it.
Engineer Sam Kelly in Born to Run, part of the SERRAted Edge series by Mercedes Lackey, uses blunted sawblades to great effect, throwing them like a discus. It works in part because he's battling elves highly vulnerable to Cold Iron.
The the Star Wars Expanded Universe, a small and isolated Force-wielding order called the Zeishon Sha forgoes lightsabers in favor of discblades. The discblades are razor-sharp, imbued with the Force, and usually plated with cortosis to make them resistant to lightsabers. Their fighting style of throwing, guiding, and summoning their discblades makes them experts at telekinetic combat.
In The Infernal Devices, Charlotte Branwell uses two of these on the battle after Blackfriar Bridge.
Smallville season 9 episode "Savior". A Kandorian woman from the future uses blue kryptonite to negate hers and Clark's powers and attacks him. During the fight she throws a circular saw blade at him at high speed.
In Robot Wars, one of the most lethal robots was Hypnodisc, who's only weapon was a heavy high-speed circular saw. Unfortunately, it was very prone to failure from becoming unbalanced or unable to spin up, and thus rarely actually won tounaments.
Myths & Religion
Krishna has the ultimate badass version of this. Even other gods are afraid of it.
Forgotten Realms has a first-level spell named "Flamespin", creating a pinwheel of flame. Unattended, it only hangs where spawned and burns (good to block a window or hatch), but the caster is free to pick it up and beat someone with it, throw it down a corridor, and so on.
The trademark weapon is the Spinfusor — a handheld frisbee launcher. Glowing blue frisbees that EXPLODE. It's basically a Rocket Launcher in the list of Standard FPS Guns, with an actual Missile Launcher only used against vehicles and any infantry foolish enough to use their jetpacks enough to raise their heat signatures. Tribes Ascend added a variety of alternate spinfusor, including a hand-thrown spinfusor disc which the Juggernaut can throw like a frisbee at enemies.
Even better, the second game's physics engine allows spinfusor discs to ricochet off the surface of water bodies if fired at a narrow angle. And then we haven't even talked about the significant knockback which further cements its status as the rocket launcher equivalent in other ways as well...
One of the weapons in Vanquish is called the disc shooter. It shoots homing discs that boomerang. Luckily, they don't damage the player on return.
Dead Rising protagonist Frank West can make use of stacks of plates and CDs as weapons. They work about as well as you'd think too... Until you level Frank up.
Resistance 2: the Splicer's main fire mode launches circular saws that ricochets on walls and splices everything that gets in their way. And with the secondary mode, it can rev up the saw (which can double as a melee weapon during this phase) and when fired, it hits the enemy and splices it from within.
In the Half-Life 2 level "We Don't Go to Ravenholm", you can pick up sawblades in the sawmill with the gravity gun and use them as deadly discs. They instantly kill anyone they hit and lodge themselves into walls if meeting them with sufficiently high force.
In Revolution X, your best weapons against the New Order Nation are CDs fired in rapid-fire fashion.
Dead Space brings you The Ripper, good for when you want to cut a 2x4 from across the room.
The first game has the Disc Grenade, which has the added bonus of being a Sticky Bomb.
In Lost Planet 2, you also have the Shuriken, which does what the average Deadly Disc does in most games.
Destroy All Humans!: Features the Disc Launcher, which will catch a human on it, fly them into various solid objects to lower the health of the human, and rise into the sky towards the end of its run, exploding and dropping them from massive heights.
From Mega Man X2, we have the Spin Wheel that acts like the Wheel Cutter, and the Spinning Blade from X3 which launches two circular sawblades that curve behind X.
Rinoa of Final Fantasy VIII has a few weapons that function as this, namely Rising Sun and Shooting Star.
The Engineer from Ghouls Vs Humans has the Blade Launcher, which shoots discs that rip through enemies and land on the ground, harming anyone who passes over them. They can also be simply dropped down to make a trap.
Dwarf Fortress allows the dwarves to forge large serrated discs, a type of weapon that can only be used in weapon traps. Up to ten discs at a time can be placed in a single trap, and due to the way weapon damage is calculated, they are one of the single deadliest (and messiest) conventional trap types in the game, prone to causing Off with His Head!, An Arm and a Leg, Overdrawn at the Blood Bank, and Ludicrous Gibs all at once. In adventure mode, you can throw them, and they're every bit as deadly (though too heavy and hard-to-find to carry many.)
In The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword, Koloktos wields two circular axes during its first phase. If Link is out of range of its arms, it will throw the axes like frisbees, which will keep flying in circles until they hit the wall or floor.
Unreal Tournament has the Ripper, a weapon firing giant rotating sawblades that ricochets off walls and can decapitate opponents (or its wielder if fired perpendicularly at a wall) with a headshot. Its secondary function fires a blade that can't ricochet or decapitate... because it explodes on contact, flinging the unfortunate target into the air and potentially knocking them off ledges.
The Ripper itself evolved out of the Razorjack, a Skaarj hunting weapon featured in Unreal. The Razorjack launched small, rotating shurikens with the same function as the Ripper while the secondary function fires the weapon Gangsta Style and gives some control over the shuriken's trajectory when ricocheting off something. Emphasis on 'some' control.
Later installments removed the Ripper but some mods have restored it in some way or another. One such example is the C.U.T.T.E.R. from ChaosUT 2: Evolution. It has the same primary fire mode but the secondary instead launches a blade that shatters upon impact into around a dozen shards that all do damage to whoever they hit.
Transformers: Fall of Cybertron introduces a new weapon, the Gear Shredder, that fires up to three buzzsaw-style discs that ricochet off walls and visibly get stuck in the characters they hit.
Kagero: Deception II introduced saw blades as wall-based traps. They would knock a invader clear to the opposite side of where they were fired from.
Arcanum: Of Steamworks & Magick Obscura's throwing weapons included the chakram, serrated chakram, and a unique version called Azram's Star. The Aerial Decapitator was described as being more elaborate, but looked and functioned the same as the other thrown discs.
Birdman episode "Train Trek". The villain fires the "Guided Disc" (a giant spinning circular saw blade) at Birdman.
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: The Turtles do this constantly in the 1987 cartoon with manhole covers. Considering manhole covers generally weight about 150 pounds (likely much more on high-traffic New York streets) and the turtles were generally speed fighters, one would think that they would favor an easier-to-utilize weapon to throw...
Brainy Smurf in The Smurfs throws a clay discus into Gargamel's face in order to help the Smurfs escape from him in "Tattle-Tail Smurfs".