An event has left a villain severely injured or drained of power. It doesn't have to be a machine; it can be the inability to survive without attaching to another body.
This can be a way of creating sympathy for the villain by showing that he is weak or dependent. The weakness can be exploited by someone attacking him — the Evil Overlord may not have full strength because of what's happened to him, or may be stuck in one place. Dependance means that The Hero can destroy the support system to destroy his enemy. Frequently, the very thing that made the Dark Lord this way was done by the hero, sometimes in a battle that didn't succeed in completely killing the villain. This can be a sign that the hero wasn't ready to fight the villain, that he did so rashly, etc..
This may result in a Dragon-in-Chief. May or may not be an Evil Cripple. See also Man in the Machine, Brain in a Jar and No Immortal Inertia. May also be a trait of a villainous Symbiote.
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Anime and Manga
In The Vision of Escaflowne, Big Bad Dornkirk (actually Isaac Newton transported to Gaia) is perpetually hooked up to a massive life-support machine keeping him alive well past when he should have died of old age. In the last episode, he rips free of it and lets Folken kill him to set in motion his Thanatos Gambit.
Taopaipai of Dragon Ball and Frieza from Dragon Ball Z were both rebuilt as half cyborg, after Goku severely damaged them, in order to survive (both had several parts of their bodies replaced by mechanical components because of the damage sustained).
Full Metal Panic! The Second Raid: Gauron has been reduced to lying in a bed tied to a machine after he was defeated in the previous season, but still manages to ruin everyone's day.
After having his life saved by Heaven Canceller, Aleister Crowley from A Certain Magical Index has only once ever been seen someplace other than floating upside down in his tube. It's debatable if he was actually physically present at that one time.
Kagemaru, the Big Bad of Yu-Gi-Oh! GX 's Sacred Beast/Phantom Demon arc, is at first confined to a full-body life support mechanism.
Orochimaru becomes this after getting his arms sealed by the Third Hokage, and eventually he gets progressively weaker and more sickly when he has not transferred his mind to a new body every three years. Sasuke takes advantage of this, and defeats him in his sickly state.
Madara Uchiha was also this. After the First Hokage defeated him, he transplanted cells from the First into his own body. On the verge of death, he awoke the Rinnegan and was able to summon and control the corpse of the Ten Tails. Among other things, it was used as life support.
Episode villain Dr. Londes in Cowboy Bebop, who is revealed to be a teenaged hacker on life support who used his connection to the internet to become digitized and create a virtual persona.
Queen's Blade Rebellion has an interesting twist in this trope: The physical body of the Swamp Witch, the Bigger Bad of the series, is the one from a demon princess named Werbellia, who needs her for being able to survive in the mortal realm, since the Swamp Witch uses her body in a Grand Theft Me scheme, as Werbellia turns to be a Noble Demon at worst. When the Swamp Witch is defeated for good, Werbellia is forced to return to her realm, leaving her daughters Annelotte and Aldra behind her.
Dimitri of Sonic the Hedgehog was quickly drained of his Enerjak power and left decrepit. The Dark Legion was forced to turn him into a cyborg to keep him alive. Dr. Finitivus, seeking to learn the power of Enerjak, disassembled him, leaving him as just a head in a floating bubble.
Darth Vader is probably the Trope Codifier. Following his duel with Obi-Wan Kenobi on Mustafar, Vader had lost the rest of his limbs and suffered third- to fourth-degree (yes, those exist) burns all over his body and his lungs had collapsed from smoke inhalation. His sealed black armour contains life support systems and removing it for any significant period of time would be fatal (which is unfortunate for him, since it's relatively badly crafted and leaves him in constant pain). Incidentally, this is the reason he never uses "Force Lightning"; It would short out his systems. Hence his death at the end of Return of the Jedi.
General Grievous is Vader Up to Eleven: after an engineered shuttle crash nearly killed him, his brain and vital organs were transplanted into a robotic frame.
Bane in The Dark Knight Rises wears a metallic mask which constantly supplies him with anesthetic gas to keep the crippling pain from his old injuries at bay. It's frightening to say the least.
Jigsaw in the second through fourthSaw movies. His cancer has finally reduced him to the point that he's permanently bed ridden and relying on his assistants to carry out his plans.
Overdog in Space Hunter: Adventures in the Forbidden Zone is a cyborg who is linked to a life-support system that lets him suck the life force out of his victims and infuse it into his body. The apparatus also serves as a means of moving around in his lair as he has no lower body and instead is connected to a crane-like structure.
In "Donovan's Brain" a scientist recovers the said organ from an evil millionaire killed in a plane crash unaware that, freed of its physical body, the brain would grow and gain telepathic powers. The brain takes over the body of the scientist and even hypnotises someone who knows too much into crashing their car, killing them.
Voldemort lives off Quirrel in Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. Since he was nearly destroyed, he is too weak to survive alone and even has to have unicorn blood to stay alive. This means he's weak enough that he can barely talk; when Quirrel is killed, he flees like a ghost.
And even more repulsively when he's reduced to a helpless fetus that relies on Wormtail's care-giving and lives on snake-blood. Even then, he's still got an attitude.
Mason Verger in the film and book Hannibal is a depraved child molester who was attacked by Hannibal Lecter but survived as a disfigured paraplegic, and therefore utterly depends on his caretaker to carry out his scheme of vengeance against Lecter. As a result of what Lector did to him at their last meeting, he is now on a respirator, bedridden and relies on a machine to moisten his lidless right eye. In both versions, Lecter convinces his caretaker to kill the helpless Verger in retaliation for years of abuse.
In Otherland, Jongleur lives off of life support, due to being the oldest man alive and pretty much has to live in his program since his body is failing.
Ah Ling/Hendrik van Eeden/Tzaddik from the Sally Lockhart series is this. Although Sally shoots him in The Ruby In The Smoke, we find out in The Tiger In The Well that he survived, but her bullet had pierced his spinal cord, leaving him paralyzed.
The Limper spends most of The Silver Spike in this state. The events of The White Rose left him as nothing but a disembodied head, but a temporary alliance with the demon, Toadkiller Dog, see him resurrected as "The Wicker Man." In this state, he can walk and exercise the full force of his sorcerous might, but can speak only as a loud whisper (and that's an improvement over the first draft of his wicker body, which initially didn't let him speak at all) and is painfully aware of the threat that fire poses to his "toy body." Later in the novel, he gets a new body, this time made of enchanted clay, and goes full-on One-Winged Angel.
The James Bond novel Nobody Lives for Ever by John Gardner reveals that current SPECTRE head Tamil Rahani ended up on life support after his previous encounter with Bond in Role of Honor and is slowly dying. The conflict of the book stems from Rahani putting a price on Bond's head (literally) in the hopes of seeing him dead before he goes.
Variation in The Wheel of Time. Ishamael used the True Powerway more than was good for him, which did quite a number on his body (superficially, he may still look like a handsome middle-aged man, but those flames constantly coming out of his eyes and mouth? They're real). Apparently the only thing keeping him alive was his connection to the Dark One, and when he dies his body has burnt-out holes where eyes and mouth should be, and rots away almost immediately.
The Wizard King Ahm Y'Zir, youngest son of Xhum Y'Zir from The Psalms of Isaak is eventually revealed to be this; kept alive for more than two thousand years by a combination of Blood Magic and being turned into a cyborg. Of course, either the process or his great age has left him quite insane, and he's the guiding hand of the Empire of Y'Zir, the most powerful and aggressive nation on the planet...
Live Action TV
The Cigarette-Smoking Man of The X-Files was eventually confined to a wheelchair due to alien technologies implanted into his brain and heavy smoking.
All the Daleks. Inside those fearsome 'travel machines', they're just these helpless little squidlike things.
Davros, the creator and for a while the ruler of the Daleks, kept alive by a life-support system inside his high-tech wheelchair which can be turned off by pressing a button.
Dr. Lumic, the creator of the new series' Cybermen, due to an illness. He created the Cybermen partially as a way to help him find a way to extend his lifespan. When his machine is damged the Cybermen forcefully install him into their Cyber-controller
Max Capricorn in the Christmas special "Voyage of the Damned". Thanks to an almost two-century long lifespan, he's only a head attached to a machine.
Lady Cassandra O'Brien.Δ17 considers herself to be the last human being, but has undergone 708 cosmetic operations and is now nothing more than skin with a face, stretched over a screen, with her brain in a jar underneath.
Mobius from Team Knight Rider, who is left confined to a wheelchair and needing the use of tubes to talk due to an unspecified illness.
Samson Grey from Heroes was found by his son, Gabriel "Sylar" Grey, hooked up with tubes and IV because of his terminal disease. He reminisced on his younger days when he was a great hunter
also, another Father Figure in the series was Arthur Petrelli, bedridden until he managed to absorb the healing-factor of another superhuman.
Scorpius in Farscape. A Sebacean-Scarran hybrid, his body chemistry was literally at war with itself and so he required an extensive cybernetic cooling system just to maintain a functional condition. Enemies who learned of this weakness frequently tried to take advantage of it to kill or disable him.
The Goa'uld are a form of this, due to requiring a host body to do anything more complicated than swimming in a lake.
Anubis as well. Due to having ascended and then getting kicked partway back down to our plane of existence, he currently exists as an Energy Being that requires some form of assistance in order to interact with our world. From season 5 until "Lost City", that assistance was a force-field suit. After its destruction, he had to Body Surf between hosts whose bodies reacted to him as if he were a disease and eventually suffered immune system failure.
Hector Salamanca from Breaking Bad pretty much fits this trope, since he used to be a cruel killer for the Cartel and is now confined to a wheelchair and needs a nasal cannula.
Jackie "The Chemo-sabe" Aprile Sr. in The Sopranos, is a realistic example, until the cancer finally kills him.
Technically, GLaDOS falls under this trope, since she is bound to the facility and dependent on the emotion cores and the local power supply.
By the end of his life, Cave Johnson counted as this too, slowly dying from moon-rock poisoning.
Sludge Vohaul, the primary antagonist of the Space Quest series and an expy of Darth Vader, is permanently attached to a life support machine, as first seen in Space Quest II.
ICO plays with this. The Queen has been living in her own body, but she'll soon need to sacrifice Yorda and use her as a host to keep living.
In Sonic Adventure 2, the Biolizard, the original "Ultimate Life-Form", while Nigh Invulnerable, needs to be hooked up to a life-support system to survive. As such, the system itself is his Achilles' Heel, and is what you have to attack. Makes sense, considering it's the prototype ultimate life. The final product, Shadow, gets along just fine without any such equipment.
The Joker from Batman: Arkham City has to be kept on life support because he's dying from Titan poisoning. The Titan serum that mutated him and gave him superhuman strength at the end of Arkham Asylum actually had unforeseen side-effects; he has a sickness that is slowly killing him.
Resident Evil: Umbrella president Ozwell E. Spencer is reduced to being confined to wheelchair and life support system three years before Resident Evil 5 due to his old age. He expects Alex Wesker to reverse this condition by engineering an Immortality virus, although Albert Wesker kills him to become the Big Bad after Spencer reveals that Wesker was one of many Unwitting Pawns for Umbrella known as "Wesker children" in a project done to create the perfect breed of humans.
Extreme inversion: Mother Brain, big bad from the Metroid series is a giant brain in a highly impact resistant glass casing. After breaking through the shield you still have to fire multiple missiles (regular beams do nothing) directly at her bare grey matter in order to finish her off proving that the transparent casing is clearly for protective reasons only.
Mad Scientist Dr. Stanislaus Braun has spent the past 200 years in a VR/life support pod overseeing the Tranquility Lane simulation, and is terminally dependent on it, as he tells the Lone Wanderer in the sim.
The "Point Lookout" DLC features a feud between the ghoul Desmond and the Brain in a Jar Professor Calvert. Calvert is the more obviously villainous of the two (though you can side with him if you like) and is utterly dependent on machinery to survive.
Mr. House, who has managed to prolong his life by confining himself to a sophisticated life support chamber. Opening the chamber will ensure his eventual death due to being exposed to outside contaminants.
Caesar isn't technically on life support, but has a crippling brain tumor, hence Lanius being Dragon-in-Chief.
The six scientists of Big Mountain in the "Old World Blues" DLC are all little more than a Brain in a Jar, having being converted to "Think Tank" life support systems in order to continue their research long past their natural lifespans. Their "Dark Lord" status is a little nebulous, but in true Fallout fashion, the player can side with either group of them, or with neither.
The teams' owners, Blutarch and Redmond Mann, are (or rather were) among the closest things to evil overlords in this universe. Both of them are on life support/extender machines to try and outlast each other. Since the machines are about a hundred years old, they don't run perfectly, and thus the brothers die every now and then.
Gray Mann, the heretofore unknown third brother, has a life extender machine embedded into his spine. It works far better, as its is smaller, is never shown malfunctioning, and has left him ambulatory and in much better shape than his brothers after all these years. The Ring of Fire comic reveals that it runs off liquid Australium, which is why he seeks to retake Mann.Co and Hale's stash of Australium.
Zachary Hale Comstock in BioShock Infinite is revealed early on to be suffering from terminal cancer and is in the process of grooming his daughter Elizabeth to rule Columbia in his place and carry out his plan to destroy the world below. Later in the game, it's also revealed that the cancer, his apparent old age, and his sterility are the result of over-exposure to the Luteces' dimensional travel device; he's actually the same age as Booker.
Life support nothing...he's pretty much a vegetable!
Makaan in Homeworld 2 qualifies: He is Unbound, and as such requires machinery to keep his body alive and linked up. While it is entirely possible for an Unbound to be extracted the process is extremely difficult and potentially fatal.
Mr Hat in the Dishonored DLC The Brigmore Witches is unwillingly hitched up to one while his "nurse" usurps his leadership. To stop anybody from ending his life he's hooked up to a kill switch that'll flood the building with a deadly toxic.
Count Tarrorviene of Annyseed is hooked up to a blood machine which he is dependent on for survival. He also keeps his most capable servant at his side all the time, rather than sending her out to accomplish tasks that are difficult for his lesser servants, because he's incapable of defending himself and fears for his safety.
Vilgax must command his armies from a tank of goop until the first season finale of Ben 10 due to the space battle in the series premiere. Ultimate Alien also sees him needing to work through others while regaining his strength.