The antepiece is on the left. The associated setpiece is on the right. The antepiece lets you practice the skills you need to beat the setpiece. (From World 1-1 of Super Mario Bros.)

In Gyro Man's stage, there's these flying spiky dudes that fall down on you, but you kinda have a lot of space to avoid them so it's not really a big deal. [...] So you jump on these weird platforms, and since there's really nothing in your way, you're kinda like "Oh, okay, I'm just gonna keep going right", and then you see they're falling. So after learning about both those things, the spiky guys and the falling platforms, in a controlled environment, you're introduced to both of them at the same time. So now there's like this really big challenge, and you don't feel like nobody told you what's going on with the spiky dudes and the falling rocks!

Say a video game developer wants you to do some interesting, complex, impressive challenge. But they don't want to be too hard on you; they want to make the challenge as approachable as it can be without compromising its complexity. But what if it isn't enough to just streamline the challenge? What if lots of playtesters are still getting stuck on the cool setpiece? What can the game designer do to allow them to keep their cool thing, but not have to frustrate players? This is where an "antepiece" comes in handy.

An antepiece is a seemingly-innocuous task that precedes a great-big-difficult-challenge, and gives you subtle hints about how you should deal with the great-big-challenge that you're about to confront. It's present in the form of a challenge that is paired with a "version" of the same challenge that is in some way "easier". In architecture, a small room that acts as an entry point to a larger room is called an antechamber. An antepiece is an antechamber for a video game setpiece. Crucially, all antepieces are VERY easy/nonthreatening, often things the player simply breezes past and may not give a second conscious thought to.

This is a form of Instructive Level Design, allowing a game to maintain a state of "Show, Don't Tell"; instead of the game explaining through text or voice how something will work, the player experiences the semi-new thing directly. Compare with Training Dummy. Contrast with Recurring Boss, where you have a boss or maybe a certain set of challenges that are related, with some kind of quantitative change (like health, or number of moves). The change from an antepiece to a setpiece is different to that though; it is a qualitative change rather than a quantitative change in difficulty - the antepiece won't have anything resembling the same challenge involved in the setpiece it is paired with.

Valve developers, who use antepieces a lot, have things called "mechanic reminders", which are a subset of antepieces. An antepiece may tell you something quite new, while a mechanic reminder simply reminds.

Contrast Noob Bridge, where a newcomer to a game is forced to figure out a recurring, trivial design element of a game on their own without any obvious hints or instruction.


  • Portal was designed to have as many antepieces as possible. Test chamber ten is a three section chamber. The second and third sections are about throwing yourself down a pit into a portal at the bottom and flying out of a wall. But the FIRST section of chamber ten is barely a puzzle at all; it's just a panel and a staircase. All the player has to do to keep moving is make a portal anywhere and go into it. But it introduces a structure that is going to be immediately built upon to get more thoughtful puzzles. As a side note, the developers felt it was a failure that they had to explicitly tell you how to use momentum, since there was no way to convey it through an Antepiece.
  • In the developer commentary of Portal 2, they mention instructive level design about bombs. The final battle of the game requires creative use of taking the bombs the boss throws and portalling them back. However, the bombs show up one level before, ejected out of a pipe in a controlled repetitive fashion, so the player can get used to their trajectory.
  • The Mega Man (Classic) games have their share of antepieces. Egoraptor describes a bunch of them in this video - an obvious example is the flicky platforms in Guts Man's stage that turn whenever they hit a gap in their line. The first flicky platform is an antepiece - when it doesn't do any flicking at all, so being on it is trivial. It's clear, when you see a nearby platform flick, that the flick is caused by a gap in the line.
  • Super Mario Bros.:
    • According to Word of God, the entire first stage of Super Mario Bros. is designed to be this for the game as a whole, providing a sort of tutorial on how to play the game without the usage of words. One such example within the stage itself provides the page picture. In this case, the challenge is "jump up a staircase and land on the top step. Maintain enough momentum control that you don't over jump and end up in the pit". That is what you MUST do to get past the staircase on the right. Getting past the one on the left is easier, because you're allowed to fall in the pit without dying. So the first staircase is not any kind of challenge in itself, it's simply a stern warning about what's about to come.
    • In Super Mario Bros. 2, the very first screens of the game establish right off the bat that the game mechanics are different from the original Mario game in three visual ways: First, you drop down from a high vertical height down and scroll through several screens, unlike the original game, which only had horizontal scrolling. Second, you find out immediately that you can't hurt enemies by jumping on them, and since a player will be familiar with the run button (which worked as the Fireball button in the previous game), they will likely find out right away that you can pick up an enemy when you're moving or running on them, and since a second enemy is nearby, the player may realize they can attack him by throwing the Shy Guy they're holding. Naturally, this new discovery may encourage the player to see if they can grab other objects, such as the nearest patch of grass, which gives you a throwable vegetable. And third, moving left to right on the screen will loop you around to the other side, immediately tipping off the player that the Ratchet Scrolling of the original game has been dropped, and alerts the player that the only way to exit the screen is by figuring out how to use the nearby door.
    • Super Mario Land also has a few antepieces. In this image, you can see the third boss on the far right, who tries to crush you by throwing bouncing stones. On the far left, a positioned just before you will encounter him, you can see one of those bouncing stones. That anticipatory stone presents no real danger, because it only bounces beneath the question boxes, which you can jump onto. The purpose of the stone is to warn you about what is ahead and maybe give you the opportunity to practice dodging and jumping on them in an enclosed environment.
    • Yoshi's Island uses antepieces frequently. An example: Naval Piranha's castle features several rooms teaching the player how to ricochet eggs off walls to collect items. This is the only way to damage the boss at the end of the stage.
    • Super Mario 64 uses antepieces as well.
      • The Castle's "Secret Slide" (easily accessible from the lobby) is a very short and easy challenge, as the slide has barriers around most of it that keep you from accidentally falling off—the only "challenge" imposed on the player is a sharp turn and a brief part of the slide with no barriers midway through. Even then, the slide doesn't penalize you for losing by taking away a life—it just sets you back in the lobby. Later on, you encounter two more slide levels in Cool, Cool Mountain and Tall Tall Mountain, where the training wheels come off and you're forced to do slides over bottomless pits, with no safety barriers and plenty of sharp turns—one of them even has you do a penguin racing match! The first slide is also an indicator that there are many more secret stars hidden in the castle, including one hidden in itself—a second star appears if you beat it in less than 21 seconds, which is tricky for beginners, but far from unfeasible, and it allows you to practice before the aforementioned penguin race in Cool, Cool Mountain. And on top of all that, the slide has 80 total coins, and getting 50 nets you a one up on getting its stars, on top of a 1-up riding along the middle part of the course, encouraging the player to practice get used to the slides physics.
      • The Tower of the Wing Cap and The Secret Aquarium likewise prep you for the task of practicing flying and swimming, two aspects of the game with fairly high learning curves, by placing you in obstacle and enemy free environments where you only goal is to acquire Red Coins, which you can replay at any time, and they don't penalize you for falling or drowning.
      • In "Bob Omb Battlefield", even before King Bob Omb gives the idea that you have to pick up and throw him, players can discover that you can pick up and throw his minion Bob Ombs earlier, giving a hint on how to best him ahead of time.
      • Whomp's Fortress has three of these; first, a series of moving walls (Bomps) that just push you off the first ledge of the levels main route and onto the nearby ground, which is a warmup for the moving platforms above a bottomless pit straight ahead. Just after that, you'll find a small bridge that collapses as soon as you run across it, positioned at a height that isn't particularly dangerous for Mario (and getting back up there to retry takes mere seconds). It's a low risk challenge on it's own that you can skip via a thin ledge nearby, but it preps you for a similar collapsing bridge in Big Boo's Haunt, which is even smaller, locked in a tricky camera angle, and on top of that, sends you straight into the basement if you fall off it, forcing you to backtrack all the way back upstairs. And finally, you encounter Whomps shortly before you fight King Whomp, which show his attack pattern, although they are much smaller and easier to dodge than him, and only take one hit to kill.
    • Super Mario Galaxy 2 features a level that involves Yoshi spitting Bullet Bills at glass domes to break them. The concept is introduced with Bullet Bills firing in a slow, predictable pattern, and the glass dome being stationary. Later, the Bullet Bills are aimed, and Yoshi must spit out the Bullet Bills while on a moving platform. This leads up to fighting a boss using the same techniques, while in a hectic environment.
    • Super Mario 3D World:
      • The game has the Hisstocrat boss, which requires you to climb up his fellow snake monsters with the Cat Suit so you can jump from them onto his head. Before all this, there are stone pillars in non-boss levels that resemble the snake monsters and have arrows up their bellies that encourage you to climb up them, foreshadowing the boss fight.
      • Bowser's Highway Showdown is littered with bombs shaped like soccer balls that you can kick to light them and make them explode, either to defeat enemies or break open certain brick walls. Initially, there are a couple just laying in the middle of the path to be kicked, but are seen later being shot out of cannons already lit and rolling toward you. This foreshadows the more complex dodging and kicking of the bombs required to take down Bowser himself.
      • The level Cakewalk Flip in World 5 introduces the flipping platforms first seen in Super Mario Galaxy 2. The first set of such platforms are above safe ground, which helps the player practice with the concept of these platforms without any risk. The next thing shown is flipping platforms over a chasm, and by that point the player must be more careful with dealing with them to avoid dying. See here for a visual explanation of this example.
    • Mario Kart 7 features one in Rainbow Road: partway through the track, a glider launchpad leads directly into a large star ring that gives the racers a small speed boost. In the final third of the race, the track opens into an open gliding section where racers have to avoid floating asteroids and fly through a series of smaller, spread-out star rings to stay in flight.
    • Super Mario Maker has different ante pieces than usual; the tools in the game are unlocked gradually, day by day. Whenever a new set of tools in unlocked, the player gets the option to play a sample level which showcases the objects they just unlocked. Sample courses available via the 10-Mario Challenge are also partially designed to give players ideas as to how they can use the tools creatively.
  • In Montezuma's Revenge, the first screen is a low risk environment meant to instruct you on the games basic mechanics and jump physics. You can't leave the room without grabbing the key, and in your path is a rolling skull that you can't attack and will kill you instantly on contact, and it requires a very precise running jump to avoid it, since you can't jump on the treadmill above it, and jumping while standing still won't let you avoid it, since it moves too slowly. You can't simply drop down ahead of the skull from the upper floor, since any fall from more than a couple feet will kill you. The game does give you the option of using the ladder in the center of the room to let you bypass the skull by just climbing down, but since you can't jump back up to it, you're going to have to jump over the skull anyway. The little stairs near the key also give a subtle indication of how your jump and movement mechanics work, even in little situations like these that will pop up later on.
  • In an underground scene in World 3 of Braid, there is a puzzle about complex interactions between keys and doors, some of which are affected by your power, some of which aren't. There are two puzzle pieces: getting the first one can be done without thought or understanding, there are only two doors and one key. But solving the three-door-two-key puzzle that follows requires reflecting on the simpler situation. A picture can be seen here.
  • VVVVVV has antepieces. Here is an easy example. The player moves from left to right through it. When they go through one of those lines, the direction of gravity is reversed. To get through the red room they can just hold right. the next room is much trickier but the player has a pattern in mind to help them.
  • Half-Life 2:
    • An early setpiece: There are a bunch of barnacles on the ceiling with their tongues hanging down. There's an explosive barrel near you. If you pass the barrel to a tongue, the barrel will be pulled up to the ceiling, and you can shoot it, and it will explode near the barnacles, and they will all die in a satisfying way. BUT moving objects around and collaborating with a tongue is a pretty elaborate plan to be expected in an FPS...
      So, just prior to entering this room, there's a part where you must elbow your way through a bunch of (nonexplosive) barrels. When you do this, one of them will fall down a slope and slide into a small, non-threatening group of barnacles where, in full view of the player, it will be picked up by a tongue. The player now knows barnacle tongues pick up barrels upon touching them. This is described in more detail, with pictures, half way through this article.
    • A similar thing occurs during the airboat section. There are a number of rickety scaffolds that some Combine officers shoot down at you from. They collapse when you ram them. The first one you encounter is placed directly in front of a ramp at the top of a short hill, just low enough that you won't see it until you're already airborne, so you're likely to hit it by accident just because you wanted to take the boat off a sweet jump.
    • Ravenholm contains two examples. One, at the beginning, is a doorway that has sawblades in the frame, which you have to remove with the gravity gun. As soon as you pick one off, a headcrab zombie shuffles directly into your field of view. It could not be more of a sitting duck - you are likely to discharge the sawblade accidentally, teaching you to use the sawblade as a weapon. This is backed up by the fact the first room you enter has the top half of a zombie on top of an impaled sawblade.
    • The other example is a room containing a headcrab zombie trapped in a cage. You can fill this cage with gas and then cause sparks to appear - this introduces you to gas-expelling tanks and allows you to connect it to fire and sparks without the zombie, or the fire you create, presenting you with a threat.
    • During the Quiet Drama Scene in Black Mesa East, Gordon is given the Gravity Gun and instructed in its use in a variety of methods of varying levels of subtlety. One that fits firmly in this category is the game of "fetch" with Dog. Dog's "ball" is actually a Rollermine, a type of enemy that recurs later and can only be manipulated with the Gravity Gun.
    • Combine Snipers, a powerful but immobile enemy, are introduced by having Gordon sneak up on a sniper nest that's pointed the wrong way on a covered bridge — that is, it can only shoot on the far side of the bridge. This means the player can see the Laser Sight and learn the proper way of dealing with the sniper (grenades) without being exposed to any real harm.
  • Anna Anthropy used antepieces in Mighty Jill Off. There is a particular one-screen challenge which contains three individual, challenging, movements. Each movement has previously been presented to the player in isolation. This gif shows the room and the three previous parts of the game. Anna describes the whole thing in this lecture.
  • Metroid:
    • In the first Metroid and in Metroid: Zero Mission, there is a difficult shaft you must climb at the very end. At the start of this last level, there is a similar shaft with wider platforms where you are punished much less for falling.
    • The same shaft is revisited in Super Metroid without the time limit. The first time through, you just fall down as you explore the ruins of the old Tourian. But when you backtrack after getting the Morph Ball, said ruins are swarming with Space Pirates. Your initial fall through that shaft was meant to let you get a feel for the layout before you have to face enemies at the same time as you jump up it.
    • Super Metroid also features animal friends that show Samus how to do various moves, such as the Wall Jump and the Shinespark, typically in advance of when you actually need to use them.
    • A classic Metroid puzzle involves getting through an area with tough obstacles then getting an ability that trivializes such obstacles, such as the Speed Booster in Super or the Screw Attack in Fusion.
  • The Legend of Zelda:
    • The first floor of Dungeon 8 of The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Ages features a simple puzzle you must solve to open a tomb and descend to a lower level. One of the lower levels is a giant, sprawling maze where the puzzle is to eventually open a similar tomb to gain access to the final floor.
    • Since the 3D games are more complex in gameplay than the 2D ones, antepieces are used by necessity, especially when a dungeon or area introduces a new gimmick or theme. For example, at the start of The Legend of Zelda: Majora's Mask, Link is transformed into a Deku Scrub, which changes the control scheme. Thus, when Link enters the second room, Tatl teaches him about the Deku Flowers and how to fly with them. There's no bottomless pit here, so Link can practice the flight controls here safely; in the following room, there's a huge chasm, so Link will need to show he has gotten the hang of flying. This is repeated with the Goron and Zora transformations, as in the respective nearby areas where they're obtained there's plenty of space to practice their unique abilities (curling in the snowy slopes, swimming in the wide waters of Great Bay), so Link can subsequently venture into more dangerous areas that require them (curling to jump large chasms to reach Snowhead, swimming through the narrow underwater passageways in Gerudo Fortress).
    • A large part of Lanayru Province in The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword is based on how the concept of the Timeshift Stones gradually increases its complexity and importance: The first such stone, found in Lanayru Mine, is in a hazard-free area where Link can activate it to revive some robots and use the now-functional electric minecarts, so he can quickly familiarize with how time travel works with these devices; subsequent stones have to be activated to sort bigger obstacles like quicksand, pitfalls and spiky obstuctions. By the time Link reaches the Lanayru Mining Facility, he'll deal with stones attached to magnetic carts that move when they're activated, meaning that he has to perform the corresponding actions quickly to avoid being outrun and having to repeat the process. As the game progresses and more areas of Lanayru Province are unlocked, Link will face bigger challenges like navigating through a Sand Sea by using a motorboat that turns any nearby sand into water (which also brings back enemies and hazards that no longer exist in the present, so it's by no means a harmless ordeal), using a Timeshift Orb to make the surroundings of the Pirate Stronghold regress into their past form as Link walks past them, using only one Timeshift Stone available in the Sandship (by shooting it from different angles and locations) to change everything between past and present at once, and finally transporting a normal Timeshift Stone with a cart that moves through the gigantic loop of Lanayru Gorge (filled with all sorts of enemies, pitfalls, obstructions and hazards) to take it to the remains of the Thunder Dragon to revive him.
    • The Legend of Zelda: A Link Between Worlds revolves around a mechanic that allows you to merge into walls and travel along them. The boss of the Thieves' Hideout dungeon must be defeated by merging into his shield, waiting for him to hold his arms out while looking for you, and then emerging and hitting him in the back. This would seem unintuitive, since shields aren't walls. Fortunately, a hallway earlier in the dungeon is lined with those same shields, and they have hearts or rupees drawn on them, indicating that you can merge into the shield to collect them. Also, immediately before the boss, there is another shield moving back and forth across a gap, which you must merge into in order to get to the treasure chest containing the Big Key (required to even access the boss).
    • The first Guardians you encounter in The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild are stationary Decayed Guardians in the ruins of an abbey on the Great Plateau. After a brief cutscene showing one activating when you approach the area, you'll soon find that the walls of the ruins easily allow you to hide behind them to avoid the Guardians' lasers. This provides a relatively safe opportunity to get used to the attack patterns of Guardians before you encounter all the variants off the Great Plateau that aren't stationary and aren't blocked by walls or other things.
  • There is a level in Flower which sets up some challenges that try to convince the player to move in a spiral for a later challenge. First you move in a circle around some haystacks, then in a area-filling wavy curve on a flowerbed.
  • The puzzle game Music Of The Spheres uses an antepiece towards the end of the game. The final puzzle of the game involves a strategy that will allows you to detect the movement of an off-screen enemy. The levels before that final puzzle are very similar in structure to it, except that you CAN see the place that will later be hidden from you. This allows you to get accustomed to the structure of the challenge before the challenging part is actually introduced. Other examples of antepieces can be seen at the bottom of this article.
  • The mid-eighties puzzle game Pitman (aka 'Catrap') has very clear antepieces. In this image the left puzzle is the antepiece for the right one.
  • God Hand:
    • Stage 5-8 seems to be an interesting antepiece for the very difficult boss fight that is stage 5-9. The boss is an enormous entity compared with previous enemies, a ball-shaped thing that is very tall and wide, which is intimidating because your area of attack is really kinda small. You NEED some training, something to get you comfortable with the idea of an object so big that it requires several side-dodges to get away from. So they have you push a large metal ball the same size as the boss up a hill. You learn "hey, I don't have to be DIRECTLY in front of this thing to kick it!", for example.
    • There are doors with mustache faces and club hands which are an antepiece for the dodge cancel mechanic, and the weave dodge in general. They require the player to hit them quickly in order to turn the face from green to red, and if left alone will recover back to green, but while hitting them their arms will shake regularly and clap you, so you can't just hit them uninterrupted, and the weave dodge gives upper body invincibility to avoid this, but the sidestep doesn't give enough invincibility to get through the clap easily, leaving you in the way if mistimed and the backflip gives the door time to recover. This usually teaches players to use the faster weave dodge instead of the slower backflip like they might be used to since the backflip is very invincible, but also very slow. It can also help clue them in on the dodge cancel, since they will likely dodge in the middle of one of their attacks to avoid getting clapped, and dodge cancel by accident.
  • Mystery Quest for the Nintendo Entertainment System has a simple pit for unwary players to fall into. This pit is harmless, but requires Wall Jumping skills to get out of. This prepares for a mandatory Wall Jump later on.
  • The Floor is Jelly has no in-game tutorials, so first time players may have trouble getting used to the bouncy jelly physics of the game world. Four screens into the game, a jumping frog shows the player how to bounce high by timing their jumps.
  • World of Warcraft:
    • The game has many trash mob/mook encounters in its dungeons and raids that often, but not always, have a toned-down version of the next boss's "mechanics" or set of skills, introducing the group of players to some of the more crucial things to watch out for in the coming battle.
    • In one wing of Naxxramas, there exist several gargoyle enemies that spit out poison, and if you take too long to kill them once they've hit a certain percentage, they'll turn to stone and regenerate all their health. Because these mechanics combine to create a difficult encounter for the unprepared, the first gargoyle you encounter doesn't do the poison spit attack, so that you learn about the health regen move in a less strenuous situation.
  • In Faria, the only way to proceed from the first room in Gelve Tower is to move the stone statue, which demonstrates the importance of moving every stone statue in a tower. (There are three more statues in Gelve Tower after this one, which apparently doesn't count since a NPC says that the tower has three statues.)
  • Dragon Age: Inquisition introduces the player to (optional) Hamiltonian path puzzles in the Temple of Mythal, which consist of stepping on each floor tile only once, by requiring them to do a simplified version (where the tiles form a single ring, so the "puzzle" consists of just walking around the shrine once) in order to proceed with the mission.
  • Hotline Miami includes Elite Mooks who are immune to melee weapons and can only be hurt with guns. They are introduced surrounded by armed mobsters in a large room with one entrance and a nearby stash of guns, meaning the obvious tactic is to slowly pick off all the enemies using said guns from outside the room. Later on they are encountered in close quarters where they are far more dangerous, but by then you already know how to defeat them.
  • In Axiom Verge, the first use for any new weapon or coat powerup you find is usually to escape the very area you found it in.
  • Many Splatoon single-player levels are set up like this, with a new mechanic being introduced at the beginning of the level in a relatively low-risk environment, and then ramping up the difficulty and complexity as the level goes on. For example, one level's gimmick is sponge platforms that grow in size as you shot them with ink, but shrink if they're shot by enemies. The first sponge you encounter is sitting on a large platform next to a few weak enemies, giving the player plenty of time to learn how the sponge works. The last challenge in the level involves platforming over a series of sponges over a Bottomless Pit while being barraged by a dozen or so enemies.
  • A cutscene variation exists in Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, just before you battle the massive Metal Gear Sahelanthropus. The boss is kind enough to use each of its attacks on the XOF force arrayed against it, so that when you're fighting it yourself you aren't surprised, for instance, by the massive laser whip that causes spikes to jut out of the ground.
  • Something similar happens in the Tournament Arc in The Legend of Heroes: Trails in the Sky. You get to watch the other teams' matches play out as scripted battles, which give you an idea how their skills work before you have to deal with them yourself.
  • Bayonetta:
    • The game has you fight Fortitudo twice before battling him for real in Chapter IV. The first fight is in a flashback, and introduces fireball dodging and dodging the two heads as they try to eat you as well as dodging the tail. The second fight, while mainly another head fight, gives you a taste of what you're in for when you fight him on the ground, with lunging attacks being added to the fireball mix.
    • The two statues you encounter early on are a tutorial on how to use Witch Time, dodging the lightning at the very last moment in order to activate it and get across an expanse of water. Later, you will have to do the same thing in order to get through doors and cross bridges that don't stay up long enough for you to get across normally.
  • Undertale:
    • Several rooms in the Ruins are designed to prepare the player for the puzzles in following rooms.
    • Doggo is the first enemy in the game to use blue attacks. He uses them exclusively, and explicitly states that he can only see moving things, in order to clue players in that blue attacks don't hurt them if they're not moving.