In some areas, graverobbing is an honorable family business.
You rob the dead! The Prince:
It's a lot easier than robbing the living.
A grave robber (or tomb raider
) digs up a grave or breaks into a crypt or mausoleum to steal the corpse inside, whether it be for medical research
, profit by selling the body to medical researchers (which used to be done by shady professions called Bodysnatchers or Resurrectionists), resurrection of the dead
, or... whatever reason
. This also includes stealing treasure, valuables, and Artifacts Of Doom
that happen to be buried with the corpse, not just the corpse itself, especially if the tomb belonged to royalty. In some situations this can also include vandalism of the corpse if the robber is trying to make a statement or just feels especially spiteful
This practice is generally frowned upon, and modern archaeologists have been avoiding burial sites for some time now. Not only is desecrating the body
after death considered extremely offensive in the overwhelming majority of cultures, it's also kind of gross
. Either way, stealing a body from the grave and any items buried with it still counts as theft and is therefore illegal
This is often part of The Igor
's job description. This is the primary way of encountering a Mummy
If they happened to have fought Aliens and Monsters
before taking the crypt's stuff, it probably counts as Plunder
Do not confuse with Robbing the Dead, which is the taking of personal belongings from a corpse.
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Anime and Manga
- Yu-Gi-Oh!: Bakura, the Tombrobber. Some justification in that his start was robbing from the evil kings who sacrifice his village for dark magic. Besides, he was also the self-pronounced "King of the Thieves", and generally believed that it was within his right to steal whatever he wanted.
- How exactly did Madara get all those Uchiha eyes? And then he's actually shown stealing Nagato's eyes, from his tomb.
- And then Kabuto doesn't even pretend that he got the bodies and DNA samples that he uses for Edo Tensei, without doing so. He even states "I mean, I was basically grave robbing", and with a smile, no less.
- Used for a Stealth Pun/Cameo in Dan Abnett and Andy Lanning's DC Comics Elseworld The Superman Monster, which combines the Superman mythos with Frankenstein. Mad Scientist Victor Luthor is provided with corpses by a resurrectionist who is clearly this universe's counterpart of Mitch Shelley, the Resurrection Man.
- In a short Martian Manhunter story, J'onn is given the case of a presumed mass murderer in his role as police detective John Jones. A man has been found with his apartment full of dead bodies! J'onn pretty quickly figures out he's a grave robber, not a murderer. Among other things, all the corpses were obviously prepared for burial (wearing formal clothing and makeup).
- In the EC Comics story "Death Suited Him!" (Tales from the Crypt #21), a man robs the grave of the man whose death he made look like an accident so he could marry his widow in the same tuxedo, and is poisoned to death by the embalming fluid.
- The clone of the Red Skull that debuts in Uncanny Avengers demonstrates that he is every bit as vile as his source material when he steals Professor Xavier's body and rips out his brain so he can steal Xavier's Psychic Powers.
Films — Live-Action
- The 1945 film The Body Snatcher, directed by Robert Wise, starring Bela Lugosi and Boris Karloff. This was based on a Robert Louis Stevenson short story of the same that was Very Loosely Based on a True Story of Burke and Hare (body snatchers who sold the body of a dead tenant to pay his back rent, liked the money, and decided to increase their income by increasing their supply of the dead.)
- Repo! The Genetic Opera has a singing, dancing Mr. Exposition in the Graverobber (played by the fantastic Terrance Zdunich). He slinks around stealing Zydrate from dead bodies and telling us how this Crapsack World came to be. And does it really, really earwormily.
- Speaking of Indiana Jones, an instance of him being accused of being a grave robber was recounted at the banquet in Temple of Doom.
- Friday the 13th
- The Phantasm films feature large-scale graverobbing by the Tall Man, who animates and shrinks the dead to provide slave labor on another planet (or another dimension, other time, etc).
- Santo vs. la Hija de Frankestein opens with a grave robbing scene.
- Ed and Joey in Return of the Living Dead Part II are at the graveyard to open graves and take their owner's heads for selling. When the zombies start to rise, Ed believes that they sent by God to punish him.
- Jerry Cruncher's side job in A Tale of Two Cities.
- In The Bible, Mary Magdalene believes this is what happened to Jesus' body until she finds proof otherwise.
- In Lynda Robinson's Lord Meren mystery series, the tomb of heretic pharaoh Akhenaten is broken into, and his body dismembered, by his vengeful political enemies. Their intention is to deny him an afterlife.
- Played for Laughs in A Night in the Lonesome October: not only do all the Players, good guys or bad, engage in the practice, but one night they all raid the same cemetery at the same time, and commence trading the excavated body parts needed for their various rituals and schemes. By throwing them to one another, no less. "Oi, here's that liver yer wantin'. Catch!"
- In Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, this is what Dr. Robinson, Injun Joe and Muff Potter are doing in the graveyard (presumably for medical research, as the ringleader is a doctor) until Joe murders Robinson.
- H.P. Lovecraft:
- The antiheroes of "The Hound" are a pair of ghoulish guys who rob graves for fun.
- The actual Ghouls in his other stories rob graves for food.
- The Orcs, sorry, Shanka inhabiting the ruined city in Joe Abercrombie's ''Before They Are Hanged'' live on dead bodies from mass graves.
- In Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian story The Hour of the Dragon, necessary to revive the Big Bad.
- Committed a couple times by the protagonists of Dracula, since vampires sleep in their coffins. Some of them really take issue with it at first.
- Return of the Archwizards trilogy begins when an elven tomb guards' routine patrol detects what they think is yet another desecration by a bunch of human "adventurers". Things don't go well when these specific humans turned out to be extremely uninterested in the tomb stuffed with traps, magic and valuables, other than as a place marker.
- The Matthew Hawkwood novel Resurrectionist is about the grave robbing trade that supplied the medical schools in Regency England.
- The resurrectionist trade is also the subject of Robert Louis Stevenson's 1884 horror short story "The Body Snatcher", the basis of the above-mentioned movie of the same name.
- Doctor Evazam was doing this for his zombie experiments in Galaxy of Fear: City of the Dead. He's soon killed and buried. Later Tash wishes to exhume him, and her uncle and his droid agree, but local customs don't let that happen legally. So they'll just have to grave rob surreptitiously.
- In Andre Norton's Forerunner Foray, Yasa brings along Ziantha because of her readings that they could find a rich tomb.
- One of the tasks Mrs.White asks the four protagonists to do in The Candy Shop War. Granted the guy did leave a note granting permission to break into his tomb (he hid a valuable artifact there and gives instructions how to get in), but the kids are uneasy about it at the very least.
- In The Doctrine of Labyrinths, resurrectionists have their own Weird Trade Union in the city of Melusine.
- On Supernatural the most common and effective way to defeat the ghost is by finding the bones and burning them. This will almost always lead to a scene of the boys acting as grave robbers. Technically, they aren't robbing graves, just desecrating them. In-Universe however, they are accused and charged with grave robbing when the law caught up with them.
- House and his team did this once. Obviously a medical benefit, probably for the patient at the time. After all, they're a bit late to provide any benefit to the patient they're digging up.
- Night Gallery episode "Deliveries in the Rear". A doctor uses grave robbers to obtain bodies for dissection.
- Pushing Daisies:
- Dwight Dixon robs Chuck's father's grave in order to get his gold pocketwatch. Ned and Chuck later dig up Chuck's father and bring him back to life so that they can find out the truth about Dwight.
- The first season episodes "Pie-lette" and "The Fun in Funeral" has the Schatz brothers, who own a funeral home, and regularly steal valuables from corpses.
- Larry, Darryl and Darryl of Newhart were first introduced when they were hired to dig up a long-dead body.
- Obligatory Buffy the Vampire Slayer reference - when Giles hears about graves opened from the outside his academic curiosity is stirred:
Giles: Grave robbing - that's new...interesting!
Buffy: I know you meant to say "gross and disturbing!"
Giles: Yes, yes, of course. Terrible thing; must...must put a stop to it. ...umm, dammit!
- On LOST, Charles Widmore took this trope to extremes when he had 324 graves in Thailand dug up just so he could create a fake wreckage of Oceanic 815.
- On Babylon 5, a race called the Markab dies off and others start using the local jumpgate to strip their home planet bare, until Sheridan blows it up.
- Call of Cthulhu. In several adventures ghouls are noted as stealing grave jewelry and other valuables buried with the dead, and eating the dead.
- Many Magic: The Gathering cards are based around this, usually allowing the exhumed creature to be played again.
- Dungeons & Dragons has enough of it to make twists and subversions relatively common.
- The Ravenloft adventure Ship of Horrors pits heroes against a grave-robbing clan of reanimated corpses which provide bodies to a nasty necromancer.
- According to Van Richten's Guide to the Lich, there's even a high-level spell Ghoul Lattice that makes the work easy by digging a maze of tunnels that connects to all graves and other underground pockets in area that may be a mile or more wide.
- Robbing graves is one of many, many misdeeds that may warrant a Powers check in this game-setting.
- Forgotten Realms sourcebooks and novels has "fun" with long-dead (and sometimes un-dead) people's tombs. This includes things like...
- "Tomb robbers" turning out to be a bunch of ghouls, eating corpses but always ready to diversify the diet.
- "Tomb robbers" turning out to be there about a certain Sealed Evil in a Can, so a clash with tomb guards accidentally breaks the can, which they otherwise could avoid.
- Adventurers breaking and entering a crypt only to face a room seemingly empty except one old man with a pipe, who answered the obvious question by stunning everyone (as in "power word"), introducing himself as Elminster and stating that "despoilers of tombs" will leave him and his friends alone—right now. (Lords of Darkness)
- Tomb robbing is the Hat of the Yitek race in the Talislanta game.
- In Exalted, grave robbing is discouraged not only for cultural reasons, but also because desecrating a tomb/corpse will unleash a raging Hungry Ghost (one of the person's souls that remains with the body to protect it) on the local area. Powerful people often recieve highly secure tombs as much to reduce the chance of anybody angering the resident ghost as to protect their valuables and dignity (although lavish tombs also help keep the ghost placated).
- Talisman: The aptly named Grave Robber character has a special ability that allows him to encounter the top card on the discard pile instead of drawing a card for their space as normal. This presumably represents the character digging up graves for their treasure, though interestingly enough the power lets them encounter any type of card, including events, places, and previously killed enemies. The character can rob graves in a more traditional sense by visiting the graveyard space, which allows them to take one item of their choice from the top 8 cards in the adventure deck.
- Bender of Futurama apparently has a grave robbery kit, and by the end of the episode "The Luck of the Fryrish" is "one skull away from a Mouseketeer reunion."
- In the same episode he is seen emerging from an open grave saying that "no one can say that I don't own John Larroquette's spine".
- He also says that graverobbing isn't a crime in the 31st century...but knowing Bender that's probably a lie.
- In Disney's Atlantis The Lost Empire, when Vinny lists off the things the group isn't proud of, they include grave-robbing, plundering tombs -and double parking
- On Adventure Time, Finn needs to find princess hair to save his best friend from an evil, balding witch. He winds up in a cemetery and finds a grave belonging to "Princess Beautiful," whom he digs up. It turns out she died of baldness. Also, rather than her spirit being vengeful, her skeleton simply thanks him for freeing her and wanders away.
- In Scotland back in the day, selling corpses to medical schools could be quite lucrative as mentioned in the article. Thus, many were obtained through not-so-legal methods. Many graves had mortsafes - a sort of metal cage - installed over them to deter grave-robbers.
- Not just Scotland, the practice was common in many countries. "Doctor riots", mobs beating up medical professionals after a grave had been found desecrated, occurred in several US cities in the nineteenth century. Scotland is most famous because of those jolly chaps Burke and Hare who realised that waiting for bodies to be buried, then digging them up took longer than making fresh bodies out of unsuspecting boarders.
- Still true today, as a number of U.S. cases have been in the news lately. Not just selling to medical schools, but also body parts such as bone, skin, and other organs to be transplanted into patients.
- At the height of the British graverobbing trade, stealing the corpse itself wasn't actually against the law: officially, a dead body had no monetary value, so taking one wasn't a criminal offense. Stealing anything buried with the corpse was illegal, so graverobbers often stripped a body naked and threw everything it wore back into the coffin. This legal loophole existed because the government knew that medical schools needed bodies to study, so dragged their feet about closing it.
- Egyptian pyramids and mummies:
- Leonardo Da Vinci often resorted to this to advance his research, as did Michelangelo for his art.
- An Ohio congressman, John Scott Harrison, was the victim of grave robbers in 1878.
- The same thing happened to Alexander Stewart, a prominent New York businessman, although this time it was for ransom, not medical research.
- Charlie Chaplin, whose body was stolen two months after his death. The ransom was not paid and the body was recovered eleven weeks later.
- In late 2009, unknown grave robbers stole the corpse of former Cypriot president Tassos Papadopoulos for unclear reasons. It was found a few months later in another cemetery, but the case remains unsolved.
- In South America, "dentista da meia-noite" (midnight dentistry) is a common practice in which the grave robber breaks into mausoleums and steals gold teeth from the corpses.
- Ed Gein, the infamous source of inspiration for Norman Bates, Jame Gumb, and Leatherface, exhumed bodies from graveyards and created trophies out of their bones and skin. His own grave was a frequent target as well.
- The United States systematically plundered and destroyed many Native American sacred sites. This practice continued well into the 20th century until it was banned by the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act in 1990.
- Thanks to the approximately-2010 economic recession (combined with a strong lack of morals,) some morticians have developed a new form of grave robbing: Cremating blocks of wood or burying 150 pounds of concrete or garbage, leaving the real bodies to rot in a storage shed, and charging the surviving family members for services rendered. The fires used to incinerate wood (or garbage) aren't nearly as hot as crematorium fires (a few hundred degrees versus a few thousand—thus much, much cheaper to run).
- The homeboy just lit some trash on fire, gave the ashes to the bereaved, and threw the bodies in a mass-grave in a nearby swamp. The smell was how the dumb-ass got caught.
- A particularly chilling example occurred in 2002, at the Tri-State Crematory; they used fine concrete.
- Averted, or curiously procrastinated, by the archaeologists in charge of the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the First Emperor of China. The famous Terracotta Army surrounding the tomb-mound was discovered in 1974, thus indicating the long-lost site of the mausoleum itself, which contains magnificent treasures if ancient historians are to be believed — and which still has not been excavated. Ostensibly the archaeologists are simply being cautious about damaging its contents — but perhaps even after 22 centuries, including most recently more than 50 years of purportedly rationalistic, forward-looking, science-minded Communist rule, the Chinese retain some superstitious awe of the First Emperor.
- The fact that the soil around the mausoleum being polluted by mercury, and the legend that they made a sea of mercury inside the tomb probably also helps to preserve the grave from gravediggers.
- An Animal Wrongs Group did this to the corpse of the mother-in-law of a farmer they'd targeted in England. For many sympathizers, this was a Moral Event Horizon they did not want to cross...
- In the aftermath of the American Civil War, there was an unsuccessful plot to steal Lincoln's corpse and hold it for ransom. One of the first investigations ever carried out by the U.S. Secret Service was launched against the ring of counterfeiters, who were plotting to steal Abraham Lincoln's corpse and hold it hostage for the release of their imprisoned engraver. This is, in fact, one of the ways how a governmental department originally established to protect the nation's currency became responsible for guarding Presidents, living or dead.
- Necrophiles...well, they are not always murderers so this trope will be used to fulfill their urges and its better than killing the living but still....
- A man in Russia was found to have stolen 26 bodies of teenage girls and young women from their graves, dressed them up like dolls and in one case a teddy bear, and kept them at his home. No one seems to be quite sure why.