Basically this is when one of the good guys becomes a villain not out of choice, but because they were transformed into one one way or another (this makes it a supertrope to several tropes as outlined below). This can also apply to non-sapient entities, such as computers that go nuts, mons that are Turned Against Their Masters because someone else is giving them orders, and so on. As long as it was happy with its allegiance and something other than its own whims changed it, it fits.
Transhuman Treachery When the original personality is still there, but their allegiance has changed with their form.
Urameshi Yusukepretends this (v.1) has happened when he comes back from the dead the second time. Just to mess with the racist assholes from the Spirit World who'd been sent to vaporize his corpse to make sure he couldn't arise as a superpowered demon. The dub version ends his Face-Heel Turn speech with PSYCH! and in all versions he puts a shoe on his head and sticks his tongue out. Very funny.
Also worked. Freaked out Koenma very badly too, to a What Have I Done level for a couple of seconds over protecting the corpse. Also any viewers who couldn't keep ahead of the plot and predict the crazy man.
In One Piece, it's implied this happens to Bartholomew Kuma as he turns more and more into a robot, to the point that he says that he will technically die soon since his free will shall be taken away from him by the World Government.
Bruce Banner when he turns into The Incredible Hulk (particularly in the original comics where the Hulk started off as a power hungry sociopath who almost considered killing a teenager who knew who he really was).
Films — Animated
Aladdin. When Jafar finally gets his hands on the lamp thus controlling the genie (who has to obey his evil master even though he doesn't want to harm Aladdin).
In Were Back A Dinosaurs Story, when the dinosaurs sacrifice themselves to be part of Dr. Screweye's circus to allow the kids to go free. They get scary looking too...
Vakama in BIONICLE 3: Web of Shadows. While he was shown to be on shaky terms with his team even prior to his mutation into a half-beast, he only turned evil due to Roodaka taking advantage of his bestial impulses.
Films — Live-Action
In Van Helsing, the titular character gets bitten by a werewolf and turns into one. Although he fights and ends up killing Dracula, he is still a monster and ends up killing his female companion before she can cure him.
In Resident Evil: Apocalypse, a hero from the first is turned into Nemesis and sent to fight Alice and the heroes. Eventually she does manage to reach him and get him to break their control.
This happen in almost every zombie film, where even the most heroic character could turn into a villain after being bitten by a zombie.
The clone troops who were forced to turn against the Jedi by an implanted command in Star Wars.
In the Street Fighter movie, this is the goal of Bison's Super Soldier program, starting by turning Guile's friend Blanka into a green monster. Thankfully, while he was being brainwashed the scientist in charge switched the "Evil" off and turned the "Good" on, allowing for a 40 / 60 % mix of Evil to Good, respectively (more or less, it's been a while).
Star Trek: Voyager: in the episode "Equinox", when the captain of the titular ship deletes the Doctor's ethical subroutines, and then has him essentially torture Seven of Nine.
Subverted, inverted and played straight in the case of Angel from Buffy the Vampire Slayer: he was a jackass who was turned into a monster, was forcibly given back his soul and instead of returning to his jackass original personality, became a good guy, who was then turned back into a monster, and back into a good guy several times.
It's the reason he doesn't go by his former human name even when he's a good guy, he's NOT that person anymore. By the time he gets cursed with a soul, he'd been a vampire for about five times longer than he was ever human. He still considers himself a monster, just one capable of feeling guilt for his actions.
In Kamen Rider Kiva, a villain turns Wataru into a scary-looking CGI monster and brings him under his control. He eventually breaks free and uses the monster form to kick his would-be master's ass. We see "Kiva Emperor Flight Style" only once more after that, sadly.
In Resident Evil Outbreak File #2 the third series Tyrant helps the players at first (since it's been programmed to protect humans and destroy hunters). Then it gets damaged, loses its Power Limiter, mutates even more and goes crazy.
Also, if a player dies then they turn into a zombie (or a more powerful Roaming Enemy in one level).
Near the end he also transforms your friend Sue and his minion Misery into monsters to help him in the fight (Sue gets better, Misery's fate isn't explored but she was apparently able to send Balrog to help you escape from the Bonus Level Of Hell).
Already teetering on the edge of being utterly mental, Tragic Hero Siegfried Schtauffen in the original Soul Edge is completely consumed by the eponymous Evil Sword when he finally takes possession of it, turning him into the Soul Edge manifest; a rampaging demon-knight known as Nightmare.
In The Order of the Stick this has happened to Durkon, who Malack has transformed into a vampire. He currently has no free will (as per D&D rules, which state that newly created vampires are under the control of the vampire who turned them). Following Malack's unexpected demise, Durkon regained his free will and immediately switched back to his old team. His personality is mostly unchanged, although he's a bit more ruthless against his (evil) opponents. It remains to be seen how much his alignment has shifted, or what he'll do to satisfy his thirst, but he still seems friendlier than Belkar. Although the latest episode strips subvert this, the vampire is a new personality working for Hel and the original personality is caught in an And I Must Scream.
Blackarachnia from Transformers Animated actually turned to the side of the Decepticons after mutating into an organic spider.
Wasp also became a Decepticon after Blackarachnia mutated him into an organic wasp shortly after he vowed revenge on Bumblebee for (accidentally) sending him to prison, though he'd been trying to take Bee down for some time before. The Decepticon symbol his new form inexplicably has is basically there 'cause the toy has it.