While some works of fiction expose the "truth" about historical figures
, others expose the "truth" behind the events of earlier works of fiction. This is mostly confined to parodies or works that attempt deconstruction
of the work(s) they reference.
This is most common in Literature
, due to their ability to reference other novels hundreds of years old (and out of copyright
). Fan Fic
, of course, can and does cheerfully ignore the copyright issue, frequently merely to try to justify the source material's tropes
by means of Fan Wank
When very well done, this can result in interesting and thought-provoking works. When not done well (more often), it can turn into commercially-published Hate Fic
, or a shallow and irritatingly self-righteous attempt to impose contemporary moral or ideological standards on a work written in a different era.
Sometimes overlaps with a Perspective Flip
. Often a form of Twice Told Tale
. See also Fractured Fairy Tale
Related to Demythtification
, which applies this to Mythology
into Historical Fiction
by Doing in the Wizard
. The catalyst of an External Retcon is often a Been There, Shaped History
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- The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen: The version of the events of The War of the Worlds told in the second story arc reveals that what killed the Martians was not just Earth microbes, but a virus deliberately engineered by none other than Dr. Moreau, at the behest of a steampunkish The Men in Black organisation. Much of the premise of this comic is also an External Retcon: Most of the members of the league, who are all characters lifted from existing works of fiction, are revealed to have faked their own deaths before the beginning of the narrative. The prose at the end of each volume also fits this trope, since it contains many, many retcons of other works; for example, an explanation of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland as a trip to a horrible world where the rules of logic did not exist, and after Through the Looking Glass, Alice starves to death because the chirality of her body's molecules has been reversed and thus proteins from Earth food can no longer bond with her (which is also an obscure reference to the original work, where Alice considered the very possibility).
- The later Century series turned out to be a vitriolic attack on Harry Potter, in which Harry massacred all the other characters in his original story and turned out to be the Antichrist.
- The Black Dossier book revealed that the events of Dr. No never happened, and was instead an American coverup of James Bond's assassination of a British industrialist.
- In the Robotech fanfic Valkyrie Nights, detectives from the Macross City Police Department chase a serial killer into the under-construction SDF-1 Macross. The serial killer detonates a grenade, which damages the hyperspace fold drive, thus causing the fold drive to disappear when it is first used to escape the Zentraedi.
- It is also revealed that the United Nations does not have a death penalty, although some of its member states do. The United Earth Forces does have a Supermax type underground prison in Russia.
- In "A Rainy Night", Claudia mentions that she and Roy never spoke about their conversation that they had in that eponymous night. One reason for that, revealed in Valkyrie Nights, was about a minute later, Roy was arrested for the murders that were committed by the serial killer who had damaged the SDF-1 hyperspace fold drive.
- In the COPS-in-Star Wars parody Troops, Luke's foster parents weren't killed by Imperials. Aunt Beru, during a domestic dispute that the Storm Troopers were checking in on (and were quite familiar with), grabs a thermal detonator from one of the Troops and blows up herself, Owen and the farm house.
- The fanfiction The Renegades tries to show what really happened to the six Nobodies "killed" in Castle Oblivion during Kingdom Hearts.
- The Sliders fanfic The Slide Home reveals what happened to Rembrandt and Wade between Seasons 3 and 4, including their move to Los Angeles, the government funding sliding research, with the Earth Prime versions of Maggie Beckett and Angus Rickman involved, as well as the revelation that Elizabeth Mallory had a son named Colin who had died at birth.
- The TV show Alias fanfic halo is notorious for this, with almost endless external retcons trying to recast the character of Irina Derevko, played by Lena Olin, as a misunderstood heroine who just loved her husband and daughter, and meant well. The canonical evidence for loving her husband and daughter(s) is ambiguous, the canonical evidence for 'meant well' is essentially non-existent.
- The Snowflame fan comic gives a backstory to the eponymous character, originally a one-shot joke villain from The New Guardians who became ridiculously popular on the internet. Here he's a Columbian gangster named Fabian Orosco who was possessed by an evil spirit.
- The Total Drama Island reimagining, The Legend of Total Drama Island has elements of this, as is perhaps the nature of reimaginings. The Storyteller tends to depict the contestants more realistically and multidimensionally than the canon does, justified in-universe by her insider perspective. She also makes references to manipulative editing by the in-universe producers, who wanted the finished episodes to suggest that the teams don't get along as well as they do.
- Ace Attorney fanfic Dirty Sympathy, Daryan Crescend and Kristoph Gavin were framed by Apollo and Klavier. Daryan didn't kill Romein LeTouse and Kristoph didn't kill Shadi Enigmar.
- Room 237 is a movie about all of the theories regarding the symbolism and meaning behind The Shining.
- There is Without A Clue in which Holmes is a character Watson uses to make his stories more interesting, but public demand forces him to hire a clueless actor to play the part.
- A Series of Unfortunate Events: In explaining the difference between "denouement" and "end", Snicket "reveals" the distant endings of several different fairy tales, involving the rather non-fantastical deaths of the heroes.
- Several works have suggested that Sherlock Holmes's archnemesis Professor Moriarty (who, you will recall, nobody got to meet in "The Final Problem" but Holmes himself) was either entirely non-existent or an Innocent Bystander who had unwittingly become the focus of Holmes's delusions. (The full explanation usually brings up Holmes's drug habit at some point.) Possibly the most famous version is Nicholas Meyer's novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution, which was made into a movie.
- Speaking of Sherlock Holmes and The War of the Worlds, Manly Wade Wellman's Sherlock Holmes' War of the Worlds features Holmes and Professor Challenger discovering that the creatures H. G. Wells identifies as 'Martians' couldn't possibly have come from Mars at all. As part of the conceit something of a feud has developed between Dr. Watson and H. G. Wells over what the former believes to be the latter's deliberate efforts to distort the truth and cover-up Holmes' deductions.
- The same work also does something of a retcon on Mrs. Hudson, Holmes' widow landlady; although she's not described in much detail in the original stories, she's usually depicted in later pastiches and adaptations as a rather matronly lady around late middle-age. Wellman casts her as a young widow who is having an affair with Holmes. The reason Watson doesn't mention this in the original stories? He hasn't cottoned on, because he's a bit oblivious about these things.
- Another variation is Michael Dibdin's infamous The Last Sherlock Holmes Story, in which Holmes is completely insane and turns out to be both Moriarty and Jack the Ripper.
- In a short story by P. G. Wodehouse, a character propounds a similar theory that Moriarty is Holmes's evil alter ego. Nobody believes him.
- In Kim Newman's The Hound of the D'Urbervilles, the theory that Holmes is the alter ego of Moriarty is brought up. The only person who ever sees them together is Colonel Moran just before he assassinates Moriarty at the falls... Also, going back again to The War of the Worlds, one story involves faking a Martian invasion.
- Moriarty was there was an essay published Doyle’s Fandom trying to upgrade Moriarty from Break Out Villain to truly Big Bad estatus for the Sherlock Holmes book series by doing a Revision about Holmes cases and arguing that Moriarty was there as a Bigger Bad for various BigBads cases: after all, canon has established him as a Diabolical Mastermind, with vast criminal resources that can be exploited by minor criminals by a fee. For example, the essay proposes that the criminal of the very first novel, A Study in Scarlet, after losing his Memento MacGuffin and recognizing he is Lured Into a Trap by whoever put the ad in the paper to recover it (Holmes), then consulted Moriarty, who commissioned a Master of Disguise to pose as an elderly woman to get it (it worked!).
- Michael Kurland's "Professor Moriarty" novels propose that while Moriarty is still a dangerous crook, he's nowhere near as bad as Holmes believes, and has moral principles that go well beyond Even Evil Has Standards.
- The Dracula Tape by Fred Saberhagen, in which Dracula explains how the events described in Bram Stoker's novel resulted from a series of terrible misunderstandings.
- Similarly, Saberhagen's The Holmes-Dracula File reveals that one of the characters in Dracula, Jack Seward, became a criminal mastermind who planned to extort London, and other cities worldwide, with the Plague.
- Countless other settings in which Our Vampires Are Different feel the need to include Dracula under House Rules.
- Saberehagen's The Frankenstein Papers likewise deals with what "really" happened between Frankenstein and his creation: the creature wasn't created by Frankenstein, it was an alien who got Easy Amnesia and was told it was his creation, so he believed it. Frankenstein's attempt to create life was a failure, and was even more morally dubious than in the original: his research had been funded by slave traders who wanted to market his creations, hence his aborted attempt to create a breeding female.
- It's mentioned in Vampire High that this is one of the reasons that relations between humans and vampires aren't so great. Dracula (who was really a decent guy) agreed to tell Bram Stoker all about vampire society, and Stoker proceeded to ignore most of it and make the vampires all look like a bunch of baby-killing demons. This pissed off the vampire community so much that plenty of them wanted to off Stoker, and only didn't because Dracula had promised him protection. Even in present times, vampires call humans that they hate "stokers". They call humans that they're out to get "brams".
- The Phantom of Manhattan was written as a sequel to The Phantom of the Opera, which was only possible by retconning Erik's death out of the story. This was done in the introduction by explaining why Gaston Leroux's "sources" were unreliable and thus events must have played out differently from how he described them. It is probably no coincidence that the novel fits in continuity with the popular Andrew Lloyd Webber musical exactly.
- The Time Ships by Stephen Baxter continues on from the end of The Time Machine; among other things, it explains that the "dying sun" period near the end of the original book was earlier than current scientific estimates because the Morlocks had been messing with it, and that the time traveller had been given a helping hand in the early development of the time machine by his own future self.
- Wide Sargasso Sea by Jean Rhys is the story of how Bertha (Rochester's first wife) from Jane Eyre went crazy. Rochester is far less sympathetic than he is in Jane Eyre, even though part of the book is narrated by him.
- Grendel, by John Gardner, is written entirely from the perspective of the oldest villain in English literature. Beowulf scarcely merits mention. The most interesting passages of the novel concern Grendel's relationships with Hrothgar and the Dragon, who serves as The Obi-Wan to Grendel's Luke.
- The Wind Done Gone, by Alice Randall, was a retelling of Gone with the Wind, and telling of what happened afterwards, from the perspective of a Flat Character — Cynara, Scarlett O'Hara's mulatto half-sister. All of the direct references to the original are done as Lawyer Friendly Cameos — Scarlett's only referred to as "The Other", for instance. (Not Lawyer Friendly enough: The publisher was sued by the estate of the original author)
- Maybe the author would've gotten away with it if Cynara had not changed the pseudonym she was using for a critical character from "R." to "Debt Chauffeur" after a plot development involving both. That would not pass in a truly independent work.
- In the Thursday Next novels, crucial scenes from classic literature turn out to be caused by people from the "real world" entering the story (or vice versa). For example, Thornfield Hall in Jane Eyre was burned down by "real-world" criminal Acheron Hades, and Miss Havisham's death scene in Great Expectations is the result of a fatal car crash (in a drag race). Indeed, in Thursday's universe, Jane Eyre originally ended with Jane going away to India to do missionary work with St. John Rivers and wondering what could have been; it's only through Thursday's intervention that Jane ends up marrying Rochester, and that pisses off elements of Jurisfiction to no end.
- The Looking-Glass Wars starts out by revealing that Alice (actually spelled "Alyss") is a lost princess of the real Wonderland. When she ended up in our world, she told Charles Dodgson her plight in the hopes that he'd write a tell-all book, and he proceeded to get everything she'd told him wrong.
- Neil Gaiman has done this, most notably with Snow, Glass and Apples ("Snow White" from the stepmother's point of view) and the film adaptation of Beowulf.
- The Moneypenny Diaries novels and short stories by Samantha Weinberg (writing as Kate Westbrook) chronicle the life and times of MI6 mainstay and James Bond flirting partner Jane Moneypenny.
- The Anno Dracula timeline of several of Kim Newman's novels is an external retcon of Bram Stoker's Dracula, with the premise being that vampires around the world drop The Masquerade after Dracula defeats Van Helsing (who, with his offsiders, are revealed to be less virtuous than Stoker depicted them) and goes on to marry Queen Victoria.
- Lenore Hart's novel Becky is told from Becky Thatcher's point of view—apparently, Mark Twain lied about quite a few of the events in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Specifically, Becky was One of the Boys, and Injun Joe was framed.
- C. S. Lewis's Till We Have Faces is a retelling of the myth of Cupid and Psyche, told by Istra (Psyche)'s older sister Orual. Orual is inspired to write the story after hearing the myth and being angered by what she sees as the gods' self-serving version of the events. Turns out her version is somewhat self-serving as well, and the second part is itself a retcon of the first part, revealing that some events were closer to the original version than Orual's.
- Cthulhu Mythos stories constantly retcon each other.
- One of the most notable issues is Hastur, a name which H.P. Lovecraft dropped only once in his stories as a reference to Robert W. Chambers's The King in Yellow short story collection. In the original story, Hastur seemed to indicate a place, not person (it was almost always invoked along with the Lake of Hali and the City of Carcosa). However, Chambers himself borrowed the term from Ambrose Bierce's "Haïta the Shepherd", where Hastur was a deity of shepherds, and not a place. Derleth, likely knowing the reference, made Hastur into a Great Old One.
- Hastur, Hali and Carcosa later made an appearance in Marion Zimmer-Bradley's Darkover series.
- In L. Jagi Lamplighter's Prospero Lost, Miranda explains where William Shakespeare's The Tempest diverges from the facts. For one thing, she did not get married.
- Tom Holt does this in several of his books:
- In Flying Dutch, he does this to Wagner's version of the Flying Dutchman. It turns out that Captain Vanderdecker was not cursed by the devil to keep trying to sail around the Horn for eternity. He and his crew accidentally drank a magic potion that A) made them immortal, and B) made them stink so badly that people who get near tend to pass out. So they spend their time at sea; it's only polite. Also, it's not that he's allowed to come ashore once every seven years to seek the love of a pure maiden who can break the curse, or anything silly like that. Every seven years, the stink simply vanishes for about a month, and the crew can come ashore for supplies and such. Love has nothing to do with it.
- In Paint Your Dragon, it is revealed that St. George was actually a cheating, murderous bastard, and the dragon was, well, not exactly the good guy, but certainly a much more sympathetic and stand-up fellow than George.
- Gregory Maguire, author of Wicked (The Wizard of Oz), Lost (not that Lost - A Christmas Carol), Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister ("Cinderella"), Mirror, Mirror ("Snow White"), etc., has pretty much made a career out of this. The Next Queen of Heaven is his only novel for adults that isn't a revisionist take on an existing tale or setting.
- The Mists of Avalon is a retelling of the Arthurian legends with a feminist and neopagan slant.
- Confessions of a Teen Sleuth is an external retcon of the Nancy Drew series, narrated by Nancy herself.
- Both Daniel Levine's Hyde and Valerie Martin's Mary Reilly offer alternate takes on Strange Case Of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde. The former is told from Hyde's point-of-view, the latter from a servant's. Both warn that Jekyll's own account of events in the original novel is a product of an Unreliable Narrator.
- The common External Retcon for Holmes is given a nod in the Season Two finale of Sherlock, where Moriarty convinces everyone that he's an innocent actor and Holmes only cooked up the "Moriarty" arch-nemesis so that he could commit crimes himself, "solve" them, and look good. Since the Holmes of that series is such an extreme Insufferable Genius, it's plausible for so many people to believe it.
- The television adaptation of Confessions of an Ugly Stepsister (by Gregory Maguire, mentioned above) even lampshades the retelling, with the narrator saying that viewers who liked the magic explanations of the fairy tale aren't going to be happy with learning that the "true story" was more ordinary.
- A similar thing happens in the 2004 TV movie Frankenstein. When a main character mentions Frankenstein to the original creature, he says, "Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was a fiction based on fact. I am that fact."
- In the world of The Dresden Files, it is stated that the White Court of vampires convinced Bram Stoker to write Dracula in order to expose the weaknesses of the Black Court of vampires, one of several factions of vampires that each conform to different vampire mythologies. This resulted in the near destruction of the Black Court, as almost all of humanity learned their weaknesses.
- The licensed RPG, written by Billy the werewolf with help from Harry and Bob, has the three authors discussing this in margin notes as well as how this very book could likewise be used to help Muggles against other supernatural predators.
- According to Word of God, H.P. Lovecraft wrote his books to spread knowledge of Outsiders. Furthermore, Abdul Alhazred the "Mad Arab" was killed by the Gatekeeper and the Necronomicon was a book of rituals that was distributed by the White Council after his death to lessen its power (each ritual can only give so much power at once and when too many people try to draw on a ritual's power source, it is rendered so weak as to be harmless).
- Spike is miffed with the Buffyverse Dracula for much the same reason as in the Dresden series (See above), as he spilled the beans to Stoker on many of a vampire's weaknesses. Also, Dracula owes Spike eleven pounds.
- Jekyll starts by establishing the main character as a descendant of Dr. Jekyll and then elaborating on his powers and love-life.
- Once Upon a Time frequently combines this with Fractured Fairy Tales.
- The novel and Broadway musical Wicked shows the events behind The Wizard of Oz from the Witch's perspective.
- Horror anthology webcomic Nightmare World did a variation of the "Moriarty was imaginary" concept where Moriarty was actually a Hyde-like alternate persona of Holmes, created so he'd have an opponent who could match wits with him on even footing.
- The concept was also used in a stage play (with Jeremy Brett as Holmes) in the eighties.
- In the Global Guardians PBEM Universe, the H.G. Wells novel The War of the Worlds, as well as both the novel's 1953 and 2005 film adaptations, were actually fictionalized accounts of three separate but very real unsuccessful invasions by the alien Daribi.
- Wapsi Square has done this to a couple of stories from Greek mythology. There is an interpretation of the Medusa myth that makes most of the characters more sympathetic, as well as a version of the encounter between Oedipus and the sphinx (warning, some spoilers) that makes Oedipus out to be a simple pawn who padded his own story.
- One early Gunnerkrigg Court chapter gave this treatment to the minotaur story. The minotaur himself was actually a pretty nice guy.
- Starslip Crisis: the Cirbozoids take responsibility for Cloverfield.
- The Whateley Universe is a superhero world, so the retcons often relate to comic books. In-universe it is known that The Baroness of the G.I. Joe stories was a blatant ripoff of supervillainess Lady Hydra, but she was retired for long enough that the comic book authors didn't get killed. It is also recognized in-universe that the 'age one year every four years' Comic Book Time is in honor of the legendary Miss Champion (later Lady Champion) of the 40's and 50's (who is still aging so slowly that she looks like she is in her early thirties even though she is now a mid-seventies school headmistress).
- In Dragon Ball Z Abridged, the reason King Kai told Goku the planet Vegeta was destroyed by a meteor instead of the real reason was because Freeza vandalized the wiki page and Goku lost interest before King Kai could check the edit history.
- Goku questions Freeza's ability to tell time some time after he says Namek will blow up in 5 minutes.
- In the original Half Life, the fact that Gordon didn't have access on any of the retinal scanners didn't make much sense in the Anomalous Materials lab, where he worked and should therefore have had access. In Freeman's Mind, we learn that the reason for this is because he got caught playing racquet ball in the anti-mass spectrometer room. Management doesn't want Gordon going anywhere in the facility without permission.
- In the central book for the game Promethean: The Created, there is a prologue where a psychoanalyst interviews Frankenstein's Monster. The monster claims that his "bride" (a nightmarish creature he created by mistake) told Mary Shelley the story that became Frankenstein just to make him a figure of horror to humanity. The other books in the gameline are deliberately vague about whether or not he was right.
- The True Story Of The Three Little Pigs features the Big Bad Wolf (real name: Alexander T. Wolf) telling the real story of his hunting of the pigs: he only wanted a cup of sugar from each pig, but his sneezes had the unfortunate accidental result of demolishing their houses and causing their untimely deaths. No one's going to leave a perfectly good dead pig just lying around. So he ate them. As for the third pig, he insulted Al's granny, resulting in Al trying to break down the door by the time the cops came by...
- A single-panel cartoon had the wolf and the pigs sharing beer and sandwiches while they laughingly reminisce about "how I blew down your houses for the insurance."
- The recent Guardian advertisements about getting the story behind the story also has it as an insurance scam, but with the wolf as an innocent patsy. "I know that wolf! He's got asthma!"