In 1970, the Apollo 13 was launched, headed for the moon. But this ill-fated flight would never reach its goal. Instead, its crew would have to handle another crisis - one which endangers not only the mission, but their very lives. But this 1995 movie is no sci-fi epic. Based on actual events, Apollo 13 depicts real history.When an explosion rocks the service module, the crew soon realizes that the oxygen tanks aboard the Command Module Odyssey are leaking, forcing Mission Control to abort the landing. The crew shut down Odyssey and power up the Lunar Module Aquarius (which normally could only support two men for a few days) to act as a lifeboat as they slingshot around the far side of the moon. Only ingenuity and the ability to keep their wits about them will allow them to get home safely...Based on Jim Lovell's book on his experience, Lost Moon. In an interesting example, he shot the book idea past publishers, publishers got excited and sent it to filmmakers who immediately started bidding on it, and then someone called Lovell and said Imagine Entertainment was going to make a movie based on it. He hadn't finished the book yet!Director Ron Howard, producer Brian Grazer, and star Tom Hanks went on to produce the HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon.Make sure you listen to the commentary track by the real Jim and Marilyn Lovell.
This movie contains examples of:
Actually Pretty Funny: On day 6, a fit of cabin fever leads to the crew ripping off their bio-med sensors. While the flight surgeon was exasperated to say the least, Gene Kranz was rather amused.
Almost Out of Oxygen: Initially played deathly straight, as the Odyssey depends on the rapidly venting liquid oxygen for power as well as simple breathing. Inverted once Aquarius is online; due to multiple planned moonwalks (which would have required venting the entire LEM for each moonwalk, and repressurizing after each one as well), they have plenty of breathing oxygen, but they also have too much CO2 in their air. They need to MacGyver a carbon dioxide filter in order to avoid Hypercapnia. See Duct Tape for Everything, below.
Artificial Gravity: Inverted; zero-gravity sequences were filmed on NASA's KC-135 plane, nicknamed the "Vomit Comet." The three actors playing astronauts in this film have, in fact, more hours in the "Vomit Comet" than any actual astronauts!
Of course, there are a good number of scenes where they do it the old-fashioned way: standing on boxes pretending to float.
Ron Howard's initial idea was to film the weightless scenes on the Space Shuttle. This was understandably a logistical impossibility, but NASA allowed the use of the Vomit Comet as an alternative.
"For actors, being able to actually shoot in zero gravity as opposed to being in incredibly painful and uncomfortable harnesses for special effects shots was all the difference between what would have been a horrible moviemaking experience as opposed to the completely glorious one that it actually was." —Tom Hanks
Artistic License: The three astronauts remained surprisingly cool under pressure in real life (let's face it, you don't get to be an astronaut if you don't have nerves of steel), but the movie ramped up emotional tensions between them for dramatic effect. If you're the space-buff sort, you can read the flight's entire transcript and compare it to the film adaptation. In short, the film heightens what both astronauts and engineers were already contemplating before several of the film's crises actually occurred (such as C02 scrubbing).
The spacecraft sets and mission control sets were not artistic license. They were so period accurate that they can be mistaken for the real thing. The space suits worn by the actors were practically exact replicas of the space suits Apollo astronauts wore.
Badass: It's a movie about NASA, during a period in which the US government was serious about manned space flight. Nothing more needs to be said.
Badass Boast: "If they could get a washing machine to fly, my Jimmy could land it."
The guy who comes up with the design of the jury-rigged CO2 filter earns the title of "Steely-eyed missile man"...John Aaron, the original steely-eyed missile man from Apollo 12. His role in the movie is an expanded pastiche of himself and quite a few other people, but he really was there and played a critical role in coming up with the reduced-power bootup sequence for the CM.
There's the more traditional (trope-wise) big board at the front of mission control showing, at various times in the movie, plot-relevant status updates of the mission (i.e., status of the main engines, the current position of the astronauts, etc.)
After the explosion and Kranz calls a meeting in a side room, he uses a chalkboard to draw the Earth, moon, and the current position of the astronauts - for the audience, this is used to explain what is meant by "free-return trajectory" vs. "direct abort", as well as (later on) how far 45 hours would get the astronauts. (He first tried using an overhead projector, but, appropriately, it malfunctioned when he tried to use it.)
Billions of Buttons: So many, in fact, that NASA sent the commander of Apollo 15 as a button wrangler to make sure they did it right.
Bittersweet Ending: Apollo 13 was called a "successful failure", in that they returned home safely, but did not land on the moon as originally intended, making Jim Lovell the only Apollo astronaut who flew to the moon twice without landingnote John Young and Eugene Cernan were both on Apollo 10, a dress-rehearsal that flew to 50,000 feet above the moon, but both got to land on flights 16 and 17, respectively..
During the in-flight broadcast, Jack Swigert mentions that he forgot to file his taxes. Later, he's informed that the president granted him an extension on his taxes, since he is "most decidedly out of the country."
Ken Mattingly gets bumped from the flight of Apollo 13 because of exposure to the measles. Later, as they're preparing to reenter the Earth's atmosphere, Mattingly takes CAPCOM. Lovell asks him, "Are the flowers blooming in Houston?" Mattingly replies, "Uh, that's a negative, Jim, I don't have the measles," as he glares at the flight surgeon. The final narration states that Mattingly never got measles.
The crew 'mutiny' by ripping off their medical monitors. Guess what Haise can be seen throwing around later when the crew needs to adjust the weight on the ship?
The confusion over VOX (basically, a toggled-on mic). Early on, right after the initial catastrophe, tense shouting goes on aboard Apollo 13 over obvious things that Mission Control is telling them, and Mission Control tells them that they're hearing every swear word and yell that the crew is saying. Later on, during another tense moment caused by stir-craziness (and possibly low-level CO2 poisoning), Mission Control chimes in again, and the first thing Lovell yells is "Are we on VOX?!?!" remembering the last time. They weren't, and he immediately collects himself.
The Cameo: Aside from Ron Howard's relatives, he also put in movie producer Roger Corman (as the congressman who questions continuing the Apollo program) and Todd Hallowell, the film's Executive Producer, (as the guy that yells at Jim Lovell at a traffic light). Walter Cronkite does the prologue narration.
Gene Kranz at Mission Control is a model leader who commands respect. Unassuming but firm, he's cool on many levels; he's calm and collected, exactly what is required when time is at the essence, makes critical, unprecedented and right decisions on his feet and never fails to be assertive but polite. When the occasion requires it he's stingy without being smug and proudly shoots down any defeatism. His empathy solidifies him as the perfect captain.
Jim Lovell obviously, the savvy, competent and balanced commander of the Apollo 13. Fittingly, he was officially Captain James Lovell, United States Navy. Also fittingly, the real Jim Lovell wore his old Navy captain's uniform for his cameo appearance in the film.
Captain Obvious: CAPCOM, which was just doing its job, but the astronauts were understandably tense.
CAPCOM: Aquarius, watch that middle gimbal. We don't want you tumbling off into space.
Jim Lovell: Freddo, inform Houston I'm well aware of the God-damned gimbals!
Crazy-Prepared: Averted in the movie for dramatic purposes; in reality, even the off-the-wall stuff was largely dusting off prepared contingencies and stringing them together. The CO 2 scrubbers, for example, were a contingency developed during the preparation for Apollo 8; the terminator burn was likewise an existing contingency, one Lovell himself had *actually used* on the real Apollo 8 mission after accidentally deleting a navigational data entry. Lovell had also been part of an "LM as lifeboat" drill aboard Apollo 8.
Composite Character: Loren Dean is credited as "EECOM Arthur", but is given the role of several Houston flight controllers and engineers, most notably John Aaron, Mission Control's premier "steely-eyed missile man" who saved Apollo 12 months before when their Saturn V rocket was struck (several times) by lightning.
Conflict Ball: One arises by way of Jack Swigert trying to bring to the crew's attention to a prediction he made of the module not having a steep enough return trajectory, before hitting his head and cursing out of frustration. The ensuing argument tips them off that they were all thinking slightly less rationally than usual, by Houston alerting them to their high carbon dioxide levels, and Haise's math error in calculating CO2 ratios around two people's breathing, not three.
Continuous Decompression: The dream sequence, apparently based on a real dream Marilyn Lovell had shortly before the launch.
Conveniently Close Planet: The craft was launched in a way to make it easy to get back to Earth - however this was the first time in human history where people were in a crippled spacecraft and had to get back home, and had to deal with the challenges of getting back to Earth and not merely bouncing off the atmosphere or burning up or dying and mummifying in orbit. The fastest way home would have been to turn the ship around and fire the service propulsion system (SPS) engine, which was twice as powerful as it needed to be. Kranz nixed this option as no one was sure how badly damaged the service module had become, and igniting that engine (where its fuels ignite on contact) would likely turn it into a much larger bomb than the oxygen tank. (This assumed that the SM had enough electricity or integrity to accept an ignition command.) The SPS engine had likely been damaged in the explosion as implied when Lovell observes it tumbling away during the last preparations, so Kranz's choice and the use of the Lunar Module with its life support systems intact was the right thing to do. The film's depiction of the SM damage compared to a photo taken by the real astronauts◊, is spot-on.
Cool Car: Jim and Ken drive striking sport cars. Truth in Television, as auto makers at the time loved to give discounted (or even free) models to the astronauts so they could market their latest cars as "the choice of the astronauts!" Corvettes like Jim's were particularly popular with the astronaut corps.
Cyanide Pill: Lovell makes reference to the popular story around NASA regarding these in the memoir the film was based on. (They weren't real, though.)
Decomposite Character: The team of engineers who figured how to make the Command Module's air filters fit the (incompatible) slots of the Lunar Module were a decomposition of a single engineer who devised the solution while driving to work.
Walter Cronkite: ...And if anything else goes wrong, they'll be in real trouble.
As explained in the book, the actual mission included two other course correction burns and at least one additional serious problem, not shown in the movie. Ron Howard said he left these out for fear that the real story would be too melodramatic.
Disney Death: Communications black out during re-entry, and all the audience can see is Mission Control and Lovell's family awaiting for contact to be re-established. After three minutes (the longest a blackout had been sustained before a prior crew arrived safely), still no contact. After four minutes, still no contact. Eventually, there's contact, but the movie makes sure to make every character and every audience member sweat it out. In real life, the actual blackout lasted six minutes, nearly a minute and a half longer than expected.
Drowning My Sorrows: After he gets scrubbed from the mission so soon before liftoff, Ken Mattingly drinks heavily, switching off his TV in disgust at hearing a talk show host talking about his replacement Jack Swigert. He gets over that after learning about the accident. The real Mattingly was at Mission Control when the accident happened.
Duct Tape for Everything: Part of the solution for how they got home. It allowed the air filter for the command module to fit the (incompatible) filter opening for the lunar module, so that the astronauts would not choke on their own exhaled carbon dioxide. The duct tape was aboard the spacecraft in the first place simply as a means of stopping crap from floating around the cabin, a usage seen earlier in the movie.
Reportedly, when the real life engineer who eventually came up with that contraption learned that there was indeed duct tape aboard Apollo 13, he knew it could be fixed.
Everybody Smokes: Mission Control is stuffed to the vents with smokers and ashtrays are as prominent as flashing lights. Punctuated during the Go/No-Go sequence where the flight surgeon blows out a huge cloud of cigarette smoke.
Gene Kranz stated in a documentary that the "smell" of Mission Control was the mix of "cigarette smoke and boiled-over coffee pots."
Each station at Mission Control had a built-in ashtray. Enough said.
In the last few scenes, several flight controllers are smoking cigars to celebrate Apollo 13's homecoming. This was a real-life NASA tradition at the time.
Excessive Steam Syndrome, although the material being vented was oxygen rather than steam. As one of the flight controllers theorizes in the film, steam venting from a cooling system on the LM was responsible for the "shallowing" that threatened the re-entry. As water boils off into steam it takes heat with it, making it a pretty useful way of getting rid of excess heat in an environment where conduction and convection are out of the question. The LM was not meant to be powered up for the trans-lunar or trans-earth phases of the mission (it wasn't meant to be even attached any more for the trans-earth coast) so the effects of the steam vent had never been observed before.
Furthermore, the reason they ran out of electric power was because they ran out of oxygen to feed the fuel cells, a technology first used on the Apollo spacecraft. In the cell, hydrogen and oxygen are combined at high temperatures, producing electricity... and steam, which was condensed into water for drinking and cooling.
Facepalm: Several. The level of frustration in the film runs extremely high, from malfunctioning equipment to accidents to outright stupidity, and the characters show it.
At one point, Flight Director Gene Kranz reacts with a subtle one and some exasperated snarking on learning that the only available spare carbon-dioxide scrubbers on the stricken spacecraft (from the dead Command Module) are square, and the receptacle for the only working scrubber system (in the Lunar Module) is round.
Gene Kranz:(facepalm) Tell me this isn't a government operation... I suggest you gentlemen invent a way to put a square peg in a round hole. Rapidly.
Another one happens a little later on, when Mission Control macgyvers a solution, which includes using their spare urine bag. Which leads to this exchange:
Fred Haise: Shit, I tore it.
Jack Swigert: Shit.
Fred Haise: Houston, what do we do if we rip the bag? Can we tape it?
Andy (CAPCOM - WHITE): They just tore the bag.
Technician (facepalming): Oh, no.
Gene does this at the end just after Odyssey has reestablished contact with Mission Control after reentry. However, this one is not out of frustration, just relief that the ordeal for everyone is over.
Another case of Truth in Television. After the mission, Jack Swigert told LIFE magazine that if the crew had been given this type of scenario during a simulation, they would have complained about it "not being realistic."
Flatline: The flight surgeon at the control room freaks out when the astronauts' monitors flatline, but they hear their voices through the radios fine, and the director assures him that the astronauts simply took their medical leads off. They did so because they were tired of hearing the operators fuss about their heart rate.
Grasp the Sun: On Earth, Lovell closes one eye to 'cover' the moon with his thumb. Later, from his spacecraft, he does the same to the Earth.
Good Is Boring: All the networks dropped the Apollo 13 live broadcast - but took up coverage the moment things went bad.
Viewer and network coverage complacency about the launch was made worse because Apollo 12's flight was virtually videoless due to the accidental destruction of their only video camera while on the moon. Almost two years passed before viewers could care about seeing a man walk on the moon again.
Marilyn Lovell: (arriving at NASA to watch it) Where's their broadcast? Henry: All the networks dumped us. One of them said we make goin' to the moon as exciting as taking a trip to Pittsburgh.
Later, Marilyn is understandably angry when she gets a request from the news networks to put a tower for live broadcast on her lawn:
Marilyn: I thought they didn't care about this mission. They didn't even run Jim's show.
Henry: Well, it's more dramatic now. Suddenly people are...
Marilyn: Landing on the moon wasn't dramatic enough for them - why should NOT landing on it be?
Henry: Look, I, um, I realize how hard this is, Marilyn, but the whole world is caught up in this, it's historic-...
Marilyn: No, Henry! Those people don't put one piece of equipment on my lawn. If they have a problem with that, they can take it up with my husband. He'll be HOME... on FRIDAY!
Good with Numbers: Lovell, while under the pressure of the accident and threat of imminent death, performs the required calculations to activate Aquarius, in his head, while trying to keep himself and the rest of his crew alive. He asks Mission Control to double check his numbers, which they do with freaking slide rulers and pronounce his calculations accurate.
In real life, the reason Lovell asked for his figures to be checked from the ground was because he'd actually failed tests of his math skills in less stressful situations, so he sure as heck didn't trust them in the midst of a disaster, at least without another set of eyes to check his work.
Gosh Dang It to Heck!: "I don't need to hear the obvious, I've got the frapping eight ball right in front of me!"
Truth in Television on this one. The crew of a previous mission (Apollo 10) had been admonished for using somewhat harsher language on the radio, so all the astronauts were told to avoid using profanities in transmission.
In the audio commentary track for the Laserdisc/DVD, Jim Lovell protests the inaccuracy of this line, claiming he didn't use any profanity. (Most likely, he was protesting the use of "god-damned" a few lines earlier in the scene, since "frapping" was also in the official NASA transcript.)
Historical In-Joke: During the live broadcast, the CAPCOM notes, "When I go up on 19, I'm gonna bring my entire collection of Johnny Cash along." Sadly, Apollo 17 was the last mission to go to the moon. (This was also a reference to the fact that most of the CAPCOMs at the time were fellow astronauts, either members of past Apollo missions or in-training for future missions.)
During the watch of the Apollo 11 lunar landing broadcast, Pete Conrad jokes that it's a dress rehearsal of his Apollo 12 landing. Sadly the camera broke on the way to the moon during Apollo 12 and they were unable to broadcast its landing.
Hollywood Science: Mostly averted. One great example: After the explosion, pieces of debris surround and follow the spacecraft (as much of the drifting debris must share the same velocity as the spacecraft since there is no air to create drag). The debris logically disappears after the (off-screen) PC+2 burn to get the crew home as fast as possible.
Humble Hero: Lovell. When Swigert introduces him to Tracy, he starts telling her about Lovell's impressive NASA record, and Lovell acts mildly embarrassed. He also tells a tour group that "the astronaut is only the most visible member of a very large team" and that everyone involved with the Apollo program is honored to be part of it.
Kinda Busy Here: Jack's called about replacing Mattingly during shower sex.
Let Them Die Happy: A variation as the titular spacecraft is finally about to re-enter the atmosphere after so much has gone wrong, and mission control sees they are drifting off course.
RETRO: Flight, they're still shallowing a bit up there. Do you want to tell them?
Gene Kranz: Anything we can do about it?
RETRO: Not now, Flight.
Gene Kranz: Then they don't need to know, do they?
RETRO: Copy that.
Literal Metaphor: The carbon dioxide levels on the Lunar Module are rising faster than the LM's air filters can handle. But the Command Module's filters, which can handle it, are square, whereas the LM's filters are round. So NASA's engineers have to actually put a square peg into a round hole, promptly lampshaded by Kranz.
Lost Wedding Ring: This sequence was only slightly exaggerated for teh dramaz, though the initial Los Angeles Times review criticized this "invention." Marilyn Lovell did drop her wedding ring in the shower, but she was able to retrieve it; still, the experience was less than reassuring.
MacGyvering: The engineers and the astronauts had to do this to adapt the lander's completely differently designed air filters with the command module's before the crew suffocated. Unfortunately, the great scene where the engineers run in carrying all the gear that the craft would have and saying they have to make a filter adapter out of that pile didn't happen in real life; an engineer figured it out on the drive to Mission Control when called up for the emergency.
Manly Tears/Tears of Joy: Gene Kranz sheds some when they regain communication with the Odyssey after the ship has safely survived reentry.
Mass "Oh, Crap!": Lovell's report that the spacecraft is venting results in this, from his fellow astronauts and all of Mission Control.
An artifact of the filming process. The actors in the spacecraft really are in freefall, as mentioned in the Artificial Gravity entry above, but the set is attached to the KC-135; as the plane is buffeted by the atmosphere, the set actually bobs around the actors, making it look like they're shifting about even when they're not touching any walls.
A large portion of the spacecraft shots were done on a sound stage in normal gravity, with the actors required to fake weightlessness; however, because the actors had already filmed in freefall, they were able to adjust their behavior accordingly.
Missed Him by That Much: Marilyn Lovell did come to Mission Control to see the astronauts broadcast. The explosion happened between her leaving mission control and getting home. Good thing they waited until after the broadcast to stir the tanks.
Negated Moment of Awesome: The mission was going to be flight commander Jim Lovell's Crowning Moment Of Awesome. He was planning on retiring from NASA after this mission, and what better way to do it than by walking on the moon, after previously flying to it on Apollo 8. Unfortunately, an explosion in mid-flight means having to abort the moon landing, thereby making Lovell the only astronaut to travel to the moon twice without actually landing.
New Meat: The Saturn V launch scenes make it very obvious that Lovell is the only crew member who has flown in space before (specifically, Apollo 13 was his fourth flight overall and his second flight launched on a Saturn V). He knows what all the pre-launch background noises are, and he knows when to warn the crew about "a little jolt."
No Antagonist: The damage was accidental and not sabotage, the astronauts argue but cooperate, and NASA is honest and labors to get their men back. Characters such as the flight surgeon, the jackalesque media and the political liaisons come off unsympathetic or callous, but that's all.
Nobody Poops: Jim laments that they can't show how the bathrooms aboard the module work during their live broadcast. We then get a beautiful shot of his pee spraying out into space. They also have to resort to bagging their waste once the emergency occurs, as dumping it would only throw off their trajectory.
No Celebrities Were Harmed: Joe Spano's character is listed simply as "NASA Director" but was apparently loosely based on Chris Kraft. For dramatic purposes the character is a bit of a doomsayer (in contrast to Gene "Failure is not an option" Kranz), so they probably left him unnamed because Kraft is simply too highly regarded for NASA to tolerate him being portrayed negatively.
No Phones Tonight: Ken Mattingly takes his off the hook and goes to bed, forcing NASA to come wake him up after the explosion.
Nothing But Hits: Anytime anyone is listening to the radio, and "Spirit in the Sky" on tape during the mission.
Nothing Is Scarier: Three minutes of radio silence was the longest any previous mission had gone during a successful reentry. Apollo 13 was out of contact for four. With everything that had gone on up till then, this was the most nerve-wracking four minutes in NASA history.
In real life the radio blackout was six minutes, nearly a minute and a half longer than expected due to the reentry angle being significantly shallower than any previous mission. More time in the low density upper atmosphere meant it took them much longer to slow down to the point that the air ahead of them was no longer being heated by compression into a plasma (which radio signals can't penetrate).
Not Me This Time: Fred Haise has been using the cabin repress valve, which causes a sharp banging sound, to mess with the other astronauts. When the oxygen tank explodes and the entire ship starts shaking, he rushes in saying, "That's no repress valve!"
The moment that it really hits how screwed they are:
Lovell: Freddo, how long does it take to power up the LEM? Haise: Three hours, by the checklist. Lovell:We don't have that much time. Haise: Shiiiiiit... (hurries into the LEM)
A small one happens when Jim irately demands that Mission Control give them the command module power-up procedure only to have Deke Slayton cut in on the radio to tell him to be patient. The Apollo 13 astronauts knew full well that only the CAPCOM officer at Mission Control was supposed to communicate with the flight crew directly; so when their boss Deke broke protocol and personally got on the radio to talk to them, all three astronauts immediately realized the status of the power-up procedure:
Jack: They don't know how to do it.
One Steve Limit: Averted. There are two Johns, John Young and John Aaron. Sometimes they're in the same scene and both respond when people don't specify which John they're asking for.
Phlebotinum Analogy: News anchors describing how narrow of a window the Odyssey has for a safe reentry.
In order to enter the atmosphere safely, the crew must aim for a corridor just two and a half degrees wide. ... The reentry corridor is, in fact, so narrow that if this basketball were the Earth, and this softball were the Moon, and the two were placed fourteen feet apart, the crew would have to hit a target no thicker than this piece of paper.
Sy Liebergot: It's—it's reading a quadruple failure—that can't happen... It's got to be instrumentation.
Reality Is Unrealistic: A preview audience member criticized the "typical Hollywood ending", and even those familiar with the basic story have assumed that certain historically accurate parts of the film (most notably the scene where Marilyn Lovell loses her wedding ring) were invented for dramatic reasons.
The wedding ring shower scene was exaggerated somewhat. In real life, the ring did slip off her finger, but it was too big to fall through the drain cover and Marilyn was able to retrieve it.
On the other end of the spectrum, the astronauts were depicted more emotional than they actually behaved in order for the audience to connect with them easier. In reality the astronauts kept a cool head at all times (all three had been test pilots, it comes with the territory) and no one could afford to spend time worrying.
At first stage ignition, the Saturn V launch shows great balls of fire blooming out from around the engines, and then shrinking right back down again. Jim Lovell commented on this, saying that many people believed that the film was merely being run backwards; however, actual footage of the launches shows the fireball retreating in this way, as the initial cloud of flames is sucked back through the base of the launch platform by the ever-increasing velocity of the exhaust plume.
Much of the astronaut's dialogue and their reactions are greatly exaggerated for drama. In particular, many comments by the cinematic Lovell were actually said by Fred Haise, according to the transcript. Also exaggerated for teh dramaz were Swigert's rookieness (the real Swigert was a solid pilot that also trained in many Command Module disaster scenarios) and Haise (that pointed out many problems in the real mission long before they came to pass).
The real Jim Lovell has a role as the captain of the aircraft carrier that recovers the crew after splashdown. This role is doubly appropriate, as Lovell is a retired Navy captain. He was originally going to appear as an admiral, but he told the producers something along the lines of "I retired as a captain so I'll be a captain."
The real Marilyn Lovell also has a cameo as one of the spectators at the launch.
Reentry Scare: It didn't help Marilyn and family to see ABC's Jules Bergman demonstrate re-entry by putting a blowtorch to a sample of the spacecraft's ablative heat shield to show how it was supposed to work.
Reverse the Polarity: Justified. Shortly before re-entry they needed "four more amps" to power up the Command Module. They used a circuit intended to provide power from the Command Module to the Lunar Module to do the opposite. It's mentioned that a lot of power is lost this way, as the circuit wasn't built for this, but it's good enough for what they need it to do here.
Retirony: Narrowly averted; Jim Lovell announces that Apollo 13 is going to be his last mission.
Gene Kranz: I want you guys to find every engineer who designed every switch, every circuit, every transistor and every light bulb that's up there. Then I want you to talk to the guy in the assembly line who actually built the thing. Find out how to squeeze every amp out of both of these goddamn machines. I want this mark all the way back to Earth with time to spare. We never lost an American in space, we're sure as hell not gonna lose one on my watch! Failure is not an option!
Another great line from Kranz: "I don't care what anything was designed to do, I care about what it can do."
Science Hero: The three astronauts and most of the personnel at mission control. Their ingenuity turns a doomed scenario into one of NASA's finest hours.
Lovell: Freddo, how long does it take to power up the LEM? Haise: Three hours, by the checklist. Lovell: We don't have that much time. Haise: Shiiiiiit... (hurries into the LEM)
In fact, they had just 15 minutes to power up the lunar module before the command module lost too much battery power to survive for reentry. They only succeeded because they were ahead of schedule and LM was already partially powered up for a systems checkout.
Shoot the Messenger: Unsurprisingly, given the tense circumstances, those most aware of problems have to bear the brunt of others' frustration and impatience over things they have no control over. The astronauts get angry at the flight surgeon, who was simply doing what he needed to do to keep them safe (you really can't risk your command module pilot coming down with the measles during lunar orbit rendezvous). Of course, nobody wants to hear John Aaron tell they don't have enough power whenever they want to do something.
Shower Of Love: Where Jack Swigert is when he gets the call that he's become the new pilot.
Shown Their Work: There are some inaccuracies, but they were minor and primarily in service of the Rule of Drama. The greatest changes were in the mission dialogue. The real astronauts rarely quibbled, much less argued, per the mission transcript.
Space Is Cold: Justified as the real Apollo 13 did ice up. The spacecraft really did lose heat throughout the mission to the point where ice crystals were starting to form. The spacecraft designers knew that the electronics and fuel cells would generate a lot of heat, so they built the LEM and CM with plenty of radiator surfaces to dump the heat out into space. But with the fuel cells out of commission, and not enough power to run the electronics or cabin heaters...
Space Is Noisy: Lots of booming and hissing noises from the spacecraft, as shot from outside.
Techno Babble: An example of Real Life technobabble, as much of the dialogue was taken from the actual recordings of the conversations between the astronauts and mission control, and is used in a more-or-less correct way. Also counts as a Bilingual Bonus if you're an engineer.
Tim Taylor Technology: Inverted. The crew had to consume as little power as possible during the trip back to Earth, or they wouldn't have enough left to restart the Command Module. Furthermore, they had to ensure that their improvised CM power-up sequence didn't draw more than 20 amps (instead of the usual 65) from the CM's batteries, or they wouldn't have enough power to last through the whole reentry.
Waistcoat of Style: In both the movie and Real Life, Flight Director Gene Kranz' wife sews him a vest before each flight.
Jerry Bostick (FDO White): Mrs. Kranz has pulled out the old needle and thread again.
Technician: Last one looked like he bought it off a gypsy.
Jerry: Well, you can't argue with tradition.
(Later, after Gene finally puts it on, with applause from all the technicians)
Technician: Hey, Gene, I guess we can go to the moon now!
The Watson: Various characters serve as this to Jim Lovell in regards to space flight, particularly Jim's youngest son Jeffrey.
We Interrupt This Program: Quite often, to bring mission updates. Dramatically well-done by using actual footage from one of the era's most knowledgeable journalist experts, ABC's Science Editor Jules Bergman, with dramatic footage of Walter Cronkite during the drama. A fictitious series of network coverage filled in any other needed dramatic commentary.
Wham Line: "Houston, we have a problem" is the most notable, but also "Houston, we are venting something into space," and "a whole panel is blown out, right up. Right up to our heat shield," which really makes everyone worry that all their efforts may have been for nothing.
What Happened to the Mouse?: Marilyn's lost wedding ring in the shower at the beginning of the movie is never brought up again nor resolved. In reality, she did get it back.