"They left our planets long agoAlso known as "ancients." They are a standard fixture of much science fiction and fantasy: an ancient race whose culture and knowledge rose to its pinnacle in ages long past but which is now extinct or Ascended to a Higher Plane of Existence. In science fiction settings, they are usually considered the first race to have gained sentience in the universe or galaxy, giving them a noticeable leg up on everybody else; in fantasy settings, they will usually be the original, pinnacle sentient species created by the gods/God. At their height, they are usually rumored to have been capable of doing (and have done) just about anything, up to and including creating intelligent species and reworking entire worlds with a snap of a finger, and almost any strange and persistent mystery in the story's 'verse is usually laid at their feet. They may have been sufficiently advanced, or just much better than everyone else with technology/magic, but either way they left their mark, a mark that remains to this day. Then they vanished into myth, leaving behind nothing but tantalizing ruins and rare, sometimes incomprehensible artifacts and dangerous weapons. Just why, no one knows. Perhaps they Ascended To A Higher Plane Of Existence, or were wiped out by a disaster or war, or maybe they just relocated en masse to somewhere else where they haven't been found yet. Whatever the reason, they set the stage for the modern world, left behind a few MacGuffins and surprises for the heroes and villains to find, and then got conveniently out of the way. And then there are the times where they themselves are the reason everything's gone to hell, and they intend to keep it that way. If the Precursors implemented a plan, whether they still exist or not, that still influences outcomes then they are also Powers That Be. Sometimes the Precursors can be rediscovered; usually nobody — especially not the Precursors themselves — is happy with that. This also applies to the audience: the romance of Precursors can be easily shattered by giving too much away. Bonus points if Earth Humans are Precursors and their incredibly human descendants try to rediscover their heritage — or, conversely, if Earth Humans are the only descendants. If Humans are the Precursors, that's Advanced Ancient Humans. If everyone's scared of them, that's Humans Are Cthulhu. If they pick on their descendants, that's Abusive Precursors; if they couldn't care less about anyone else, it's Neglectful Precursors; if they help their descendants, it's Benevolent Precursors. If there's one or more race that played Precursors to the Precursors, then they're Recursive Precursors. Any and all of these are susceptible to Awakening the Sleeping Giant. If they gave their tech or it's being used by another race, it's Low Culture, High Tech. Very often, their most powerful technology will appear deceptively primitive and/or ceremonial. If everyone gets into an argument over their leftover toys, you have an Archaeological Arms Race on your hands. Very commonly used to justify Rubber-Forehead Aliens: everyone was made from a common template by the Precursors, so they look pretty similar. Not to be confused with the space flight sim, The Precursors.
The Elder Race still learn and grow
Their power grows with purpose strong
To claim the home where they belong."
The Elder Race still learn and grow
Their power grows with purpose strong
To claim the home where they belong."
— Rush, "2112"
And now, young one, behold the legacy of those who were here before you:
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Anime and Manga
- In Heroic Age, the precursors (known as the "Golden Tribe") was the source of many wonders; giving birth to stars, discovering the Star Way which connects all stars, as well uplifting several races. In time they eventually undertook a journey out of their home galaxy and into a new one. The story is about how the lesser races cope with the "Golden Tribe's" absence.
- In the Soul Hunter manga, five aliens, The First People, came to Earth millions of years ago after their home planet self-destructed. All but one merged with the earth and its life forms to spread their blood, leaving behind the first seven paopei (magical weapons used in the series) from which all others would be copied.
- In Last Exile, this turned out to be the answer to all the mysteries (and there were plenty). That one gets full bonus points, too.
- The Macross series has the Protoculture, who are apparently responsible for everything that happens in the universe: humans and Zentradi were both created and seeded by them, and the Birdman was made by them in an attempt to mimic the Vajra. Moreover, they "created" (it's a bit more complex than that) the Protodeviln, who pushed them to the brink of extinction before being defeated.
- About the only thing the Protoculture didn't have a hand in creating are the Vajra, and that's because the Vajra are even older. The Protoculture based some of their most advanced technology (such as Space Folding) after the Vajra's biological systems. The Vajra themselves seem to primarily take a "live and let live" attitude towards other intelligent species; the fact that they don't have a clear means of communication probably has a lot to do with this.
- In Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha, the lost civilization of Al Hazard/Alhazred, whose artifacts and technologies were considered Lost Logia even back in the era of Ancient Belka.
- In The Mysterious Cities of Gold the Mu Empire and Atlantis developed highly advanced society and technology but were wiped out, along with (most of) their technology, by a nuclear war.
- In Neon Genesis Evangelion, the First Ancestral Race (FAR) dropped Black and White Eggs (Adams and Liliths) on several planets. No planet was supposed to get more than one Egg, but because we got two, we got the inter-egg wars that compose the series proper (Lilith's children vs. Adam's children). The First Ancestral Race were never mentioned in the show itself, but is referred to in the early scripts and gets a bit more fleshed out in the Neon Genesis Evangelion 2 PlayStation 2 game that served as supplemental material.
- A precursor race is vaguely alluded to in episode 21, where Gendo points out to Fuyutsuki that "someone, who was not us" left behind the geofronts found under Antarctica and Japan.
- What allows them to escape being considered neglectful is that they sent a contingency against "inter-egg wars" - the Spear of Longinus, which can best be described as some sort of control rod which deactivates the egg it is attached to. Both Eggs had a Spear but Lilith's was lost on impact; since Lilith was first to find Earth, upon Adam's landing, his Spear activated and sealed him; so, technically, everything worked just as expected. It's not their fault the Lilim decided to yank Adam's Spear.
- The reason they aren't around anymore? They sacrificed themselves to provide the souls needed to create new life.
- In Outlaw Star, an ancient race is revealed to be responsible for the Galactic Leyline, yet another of the many Sequel Hooks in the last episode.
- The Vision of Escaflowne — The people of Atlantis created fate-altering technology and the "zone of absolute fortune". They were responsible for the creation of the world of Gaea. In the end they were destroyed by the "zone", so it did not quite live up to its name.
- The as-of-yet unnamed Ancient Kingdom in One Piece fits this bill. Dating back from the Void Century, they were incredibly powerful, but later fell to the alliance which later became the World Government. Nonetheless, they left their Phoneglyphs all over the world, chronicling the events of the Void Century, which has become Nico Robin's goal.
- In the Marvel Universe, the race of giant Celestials have influenced many planets, including Earth. They wear strange suits of armor, giving the impression that they are mechanical, but that's not the case. They also test races and civilisations according to their standards to see who are worthy. In addition, there are also the Elders of the Universe, a loose associations of beings who all are The Last of Their Kind, and who hail from the first intelligent races to develop in the universe. They are less active, though, since they are all obsessed with one narrow hobby which apparently is the only thing that keeps them from dying of sheer boredom. The Grandmaster may be interested in the gaming and gambling habits of various lesser races, for instance, but couldn't care less about any aspects of their culture that has nothing to do with his obsession with games.
- There is also the race know as the Watchers, who started to do something similar, but got cold feet when early interference with a much more primitive race led to horrible wars. They have sworn to not interfere with their nigh godlike powers, only record what happens. (The Watcher appointed to Earth is a juvenile delinquent who breaks this rule regularly, but surreptitiously, so as to not get in trouble with his kind.)
- In the DC Universe, the Malthusians were one of the earliest sentient races in the universe. They went on to become the Guardians of the Universe. And the Controllers, and the Zamarons, and Krona. They run the gamut of precursor subtropes.
- There's also the Old Gods, precursors of Jack Kirby's Fourth World beings. They are actually older than the DC Universe, and are said to have caused the destruction of the one before.
- The Merk in Nexus are or were a race of extremely psychically gifted and technologically advanced aliens who left the galaxy and, apparently, their bodies, behind. One of them remained behind, however, and empowered the eponymous hero.
- The High Ones of ElfQuest surely qualify (even though they have known descendants), because none of the protagonist elves know much about them, and their powers and origins are a great mystery when the series begins.
- It is hinted that Dr. Manhattan will go on to do this after the events of Watchmen somewhere else in the universe, or in another one of his own creation.
- In Gold Digger, finding the various precursor civilizations is Gina's job. Of course, she usually ends up encountering the stuff left behind, and occasionally bringing it home.
- It is common in My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic fanfiction to speculate about some sort of precursors. Frequent culprits are a long since destroyed dragon civilization, a civilization full of alicorns, and humans.
- The Writing On The Wall features Adventurer Archaeologist Daring Do and a team of workers excavating an Ancient Tomb built with extremely advanced masonry, far in advance of even what ponies could do in the present - but the building has been dated back thousands of years before ponies first built buildings out of stone. Surrounded by metallic spikes to keep out intruders (which are, alas, easily circumvented by someone with wings) and with a room full of writing in dozens of long-lost languages, Daring Do naturally assumes that all of the rigmarole is meant to dissuade would be grave robbers. She's absolutely right. Too bad that the building isn't a tomb, but a nuclear waste storage facility built by humans, and the attempts at dissuading future people from breaking into the place was for their own good.
- In the Pony POV Series, there are several:
- The Centaur Empire, which was once the biggest and most advanced Empire in it's heyday and predated Ponykind as a sapient species. Sadly, Lord Tirek is the Sole Survivor of the Empire because he destroyed it, and he is most certainly an Abusive Precursor. The Empire as a whole may count as Benevolent Precursors to a degree, as they treated the then nonsapient Ponies fairly well.
- The Age of Myths was this to the Age of Wonders, being all of G1. The Paradise Estate Ponies in particular count as Benevolent Precursors, as they actively defended Ponyland from any threats that may come up, including defeating Grogar every five hundred years if they couldn't keep him locked up.
- The Age of Wonders was this to the current age being the My Little Pony Tales society, until it was destroyed by a Class 2 Apocalypse. To a degree qualifies as Benevolent Precursors, as some of them genuinely DID try to make the future brighter for the civilization to succeed them. Also count as Benevolent Precursors to the Lost Age, which they used their wish spell to create.
- The Gray of Star Trek: Hidden Frontier are set up to be precursors of some kind, but it turns out they're actually artificial life forms built by actual precursors, of whom Siroc, the Big Bad, is the last one left.
- In Shepard's R&R, when Commander Shepard asks Princess Celestia about the fantastical abilities of the Equestrians, Celestia smiles and cryptically states that "their Mother shaped them that way." When Shepard learns the fact that Equestrian DNA is shows almost-impossible levels of genetic engineering, Shepard concludes that this "Mother" must have been one.
- Mega Man Recut has the Vannu'bi, an ancient civilization that existed on a small remote island and were apparently destroyed by a volcanic eruption. They may have been Abusive Precursors, since they're architecture describes them as constantly warring with other civilizations and making deals with an Eldritch Abomination.
- One of the most widely known Precursor stories is 2001: A Space Odyssey, where they are also (presumably) Energy Beings who guided human evolution.
- In AVP: Alien vs. Predator, the Predators are retconned to being responsible for teaching humans how to build, farm and write, all so they could have people to sacrifice as part of their barbaric rites of passage.
- Contact. The alien says that the Portal Network used by the protagonist was not built by them, but by a long-disappeared race.
- The Mondoshawans in The Fifth Element based on their representation apply to this trope aswell, at least to a certain degree.
- Alien has the barely-featured Space Jockey's species, which the Expanded Universe claims is responsible for the creation of both humanity and the Xenomorphs. Prometheus clears this up a bit: the "Engineers", as they are called, apparently seeded life on Earth in prehistoric times. Whether this was done by just one Engineer or a collective is not clarified; the characters think it was all of them. They also intervened in some ancient cultures, leaving clues in bas-relief and cave-painting form, pointing to a planet in a certain star system, about 34 LY from Earth. The movie makes it clear that about 2000 years ago, they changed their mind about us for some reason and decided to exterminate humanity; the planet in question was one of their outposts, from where ships carrying biological weapons (much like the Xenomorphs) were to be sent to cleanse the Earth of life. The only thing that saved us was the fact that the monsters escaped captivity and killed the Engineers at the outpost. All except one...
- The implication is there that they did indeed create the Xenomorphs as the perfect biological nuke.
- The Krell of Forbidden Planet, who created the huge machine powered by near limitless energy beneath the planet's surface. The machine was meant to read their conscious thoughts and create or manipulate everything they wished so that they could be free from dependence upon instrumentality. They were all killed in a single night by their own primitive subconscious thoughts which they'd unknowingly let loose with the machine's completion.
- A.I.: Artificial Intelligence has a twist on this in its final act, in that humans have become extinct and are now viewed as an ancient and wise precursor race by the robots who have inherited the planet.
- Roughly a third of all the Hugo Award-winning novels involve Precursors or their works.
- Andy McDermott's action-adventure novels. The first is called The Hunt for Atlantis and is centered around, oddly enough, a hunt for Atlantis. As the series goes on, other mythical items are 'explained' as advanced technology stemming from the Atlanteans. As the series goes on even further, the characters stumble across the Garden of Eden, which is the final resting place of a pre-human civilisation which was driven to extinction by their human slaves, who stole certain technologies and fled. The Atlanteans are then revealed to have been the result of cross-breeding between those pre-humans and the humans, causing the reader to re-evaluate the "it came from Atlantis" explanation.
- The Ancients of Piers Anthony's Cluster series.
- Also the demons of the Xanth novels, including of course Xanth himself.
- There was a (unfortunately) short-lived collection of short stories, edited/inspired by Isaac Asimov called Asimov's Universe, which was notable for featuring space-faring humans alongside five other non-humanoid races. (One was something like sentient bacon.) A recurring background theme/sub-plot were the ruins and remnants left behind of an earlier, seventh space-faring species that had since vanished.
- The Elderlings in Robin Hobb's Realmofthe Elderlings.
- The Martians in the Takeshi Kovacs books. Note: not actually from Mars; it just happened to be the first planet on which humans found their stuff.
- In David Brin's Uplift universe, every intelligent race in the galaxy was Uplifted (engineered to sentience and given access to the Great Library) by a previous one, save the first. The Progenitors (self-evolved, now extinct) are considered the next thing to gods. A race's clout in the galactic hierarchy is in part determined by how close they are to having been created directly by the Progenitors. Then along come the Humans, who have reached the stars alone, with no patron race and a complete fossil record that indicates they evolved naturally. It's practically heretical! It doesn't help matters (from the galactic standpoint) that humans have already Uplifted chimps and dolphins, too.
In the second novel set in the Uplift Universe, Startide Rising, the first dolphin-captained Earth ship discovers what is assumed to be a fleet of the fabled Progenitors, and must try to return to Earth while being hounded by bickering alien battle fleets after the transmission of their findings is intercepted; the most active (and warlike) of the alien races/alliances are not happy that the wolfling Humans might have the key to the fate of the Progenitors (which could prove most or all of their belief systems wrong. The idea that humans may be the descendants or direct product of the Progenitors is also examined.
- In C. J. Cherryh's Morgaine Cycle the Qhal left behind a Portal Network of Cool Gates, which they themselves copied from a still older alien species. The humans who discovered this, rather than copying it like the Qhal did, are systematically destroying the network left behind by the Qhal. That's because the Gates can be used for Time Travel, and any Temporal Paradox caused by the Gates will trigger a Time Crash which will destroy civilization on each planet with a Gate. Such a Time Crash is precisely what wiped out the Qhal, leaving behind their Gates for humans to discover.
- Alan Dean Foster's Humanx Commonwealth series has humanity and its allies expanding into a significantly used universe, with a wide variety of species at various stages of development from primitive to superadvanced to completely extinct. Several of these, most notably the Xunca, the Tar-Aiym, and the Hur'rikku, had a profound impact on the earlier history of the galaxy and left numerous artifacts lying around after they variously departed. The Xunca are actually still around, but they packed up and moved to a different galaxy to avoid an encroaching Eldritch Abomination that the modern day protagonists now have to deal with.
- The Cthulhu Mythos, by H.P. Lovecraft and others, features the Elder Things, who colonized the Earth two billion years ago and sowed the seeds of all advanced life on the planet. Among the many monstrous elder races of the Mythos, the Elder Things are portrayed as less alien and less inimical than most. They feature most prominently in Lovecraft's At the Mountains of Madness and are sometimes called the "Old Ones" (but that term is notoriously ambiguous in the Cthulhu Mythos). In The Whisperer in Darkness, the Mi-Go are hinted at being even older, possibly coming from outside the known universe.
- In Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle's novel Footfall, the aliens who invade Earth are actually at a caveman level of social development; the Forerunners left carved blocks on their planet which detail everything from simple metallurgy through advanced laser weapons and Bussard ramscoops. As a result, there are many technological paths they never even thought of.
- In Larry Niven's Known Space universe, there are two sets of precursors. First there were the Thrintun (AKA "Slavers"), who seeded the galaxy with the ingredients of life so it would grow and evolve into unique delicacies for them to eat (being hypnotic slavers, they were defeated by the Tnuctipun in the inevitable Turned Against Their Masters, and they took all sentient life with them. Talk about bad parenting). Then there were the Pak, a race of more recent aliens with three life stages (child, breeder, Protector) only sentient in the third stage, and programmed to be homicidal to anything that could conceivably threaten their descendants (mutations were not recognized). Earth was a Lost Colony of them who couldn't advance to Protector stage when their supply of tree-of-life root ran out due to a lack of thallium in Earth's soil. They left behind lost colonies and random apelike animals all over, including the Ringworld, which they had built and abandoned.
- Andre Norton worked with this trope in both her science fiction and fantasy novels. She wrote a lot of space opera novels featuring relics of various lost civilizations, collectively called "Forerunners". She was one of the early developers of the abandoned-gateway-between-worlds idea that the Stargate films and TV series are based on; one of her Forerunner cultures left behind such a network, which younger species, including humans, have started to explore.
In her Witch World fantasy novels, humans migrated to High Hallack centuries ago only to find that the Old Ones had been there before them; these Neglectful Precursors left behind quite a few ruins and dangerous artifacts.
- Frederik Pohl's Heechee Saga set many of the standards for this trope. Humanity has stumbled on an space station abandoned by the local Precursors, the Heechee, and try to use the Faster-Than-Light Travel spacecraft left behind to search for alien artifacts to reverse-engineer. The destinations are pre-programmed and can only be accessed randomly, making exploration a dangerous crapshoot. Some of the survivors return rich; many return dead, if they return at all.
- In the Carl Sagan novel Contact and the movie based on it, an unknown ancient race of aliens built the "cosmic subway system" of wormhole transportation used to bring a single human to meet the successor aliens who inherited the system.
- In Charles Sheffield's Heritage Universe novels, the Builders left behind artifacts the size of planets — e.g. Cocoon, the first such artifact discovered by humans, was so named because that's what it looks like if you're far enough away from the planet it surrounds. A whole discipline of Adventurer Archaeologists exists to study Builder artifacts.
- In the Strugatsky Brothers' Noon Universe series, the Wanderers may or may not be still active, but they fit this trope closely enough because the humans only ever find the traces of their continued and enigmatic work. They seem to be "progressing" the other civilisations, but their activities often enough utterly screw over local civilisations, though it might be for their ultimate good in some way anyway.
- J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and Lord of the Rings has several.
- Some elven kingdoms are precursors to the people of Middle-Earth.
- Númenor and Arnor. Even though Gondor still exists and so Númenórean civilization is not completely gone.However, it is much reduced, occupying only a small southern corner of Middle-earth. Its northern counterpart Arnor is almost entirely gone, existing only as the Shire and Bree.
- From the perspective of the modern day, the Elves of Tolkien's Middle-Earth are a Precursor race. Humans did not descend from them, but they've been in the world longer than anyone and have really long-lasting artifacts. Gandalf, Thorin, and Bilbo's swords in The Hobbit are all artifacts from Gondolin, a city that was destroyed roughly 6,000 years before the events of the book. Not only are they unrusted and sharp, their orc proximity alert is still active.
- And then there are the Woses, who are implied to be the original humans who built the first civilisations in middle earth.
- The Reynard Cycle: Three major civilizations have come and gone by the time period of the novels (and possibly more if the fan theory that the series is set long After the End is ever confirmed.):
- The golden skinned Telchines, a matriarchal culture that coexisted with Giants. The castle of Maleperduys was built by them. Their rule came to an end rather abruptly due to . . .
- The Demons, who enslaved the world in seven days. They created the Chimera, built functional robots, and would have ruled for an eternity were it not for their apparent inability to get along with each other. A civil war (implied to be nuclear) weakened them to the point that the last of them was slain by the founder of the Kingdom of . . .
- Aquilia, a kingdom that eventually splintered into several dozen countries after the last member of the royal family drowned at sea a thousand years prior to the beginning of the saga. They built some truly impressive structures using the technology of the Demons, but seemingly forgot how to use it as the years went by (either that, or the technology stopped working and they had no idea how to fix it.) Duke Nobel claims to be a direct descendant of the royal family, but it's unclear if this is just part of his public relations policy.
- The Valheru in Raymond E Feist's Riftwar series.
- Iain M. Banks's Culture novels are practically littered with Precursors, numerous advanced civilizations that existed in aeons past until they variously died off, Sublimed, or just plain mysteriously disappeared. These Precursors are the Sufficiently Advanced Aliens of Sufficiently Advanced Aliens, since most of Banks' protagonists themselves belong to a civilization that can casually travel across the galaxy, build gigantic habitats in space, and use the fabric of the Universe itself as a weapon — and they are occasionally awed by the Precursors.
- In Terry Pratchett's novel Strata, the Precursors built the titular strata machines reverse-engineered by humans for building planets, and other techology that humans didn't already develop themselves. In The Dark Side of the Sun, the Precursors called "Jokers" were known only for the mark they made on the universe of building blatantly impossible things for no known reason but the lulz.
- Every known non-human race in Andrey Livadny's The History of the Galaxy series can be considered a precursor, as four of them are at least 3 millions of years old, while several others are billions of years old. Humanity is the youngest known race, even though their technology level means they are strong enough to kick everyone else's backsides should the need arise. It helps that most of those races have long ago passed the peak of the civilization. In fact, two of them spent several million years as slaves, degrading their technology to the point where they forgot about their former greatness.
Ironically, the race that is actually known as the Precursors (or Forerunners, as there is no official translation to English) are non-sentient proto-lifeforms which have been created by an energy being (supposedly, the first being to ever gain sentience in the universe) to serve as seeds for its copies. The Precursors contained within themselves the first ever DNA molecule. The unintended side effect of this was the creation of all known organic life in the galaxy.
- Sergey Lukyanenko's A Lord from Planet Earth series features the Seeders, mysterious ancient beings who have left highly-advanced artifacts, some of which are Black Boxes, while others are understood and adapted fairly well. They have also left mysterious spherical temples on every inhabited world (except Earth). It is eventually revealed that the Seeders are humans from the future, who have seeded their past with humanoid races and advanced technology to create an army to fight an extragalactic enemy (Earth was left undisturbed to avoid messing with history).
- In Robert E. Howard's Conan the Barbarian story "Shadows In The Moonlight" Olivia thinks a god had been there in times she dreamed of, even though absent now.
"The nameless, forgotten ones. Who knows? They have gone back into the still waters of the lakes, the quiet hearts of the hills, the gulfs beyond the stars. Gods are no more stable than men."
- The Arisians feature predominantly in the Lensman series. As well being the ancestors of all species (save one), they devise a multi-eon spanning plan leading to the birth of the Children of the Lens. These five psychic superpeople will not only be able to help vanquish the enemy (a race of malevolent being hailing from another space-time continuum), but will grow in power to become greater then the Arisians themselves.
- Subverted in many of the books and stories by Ursula K Leguin. The "Hain" are precursors who created humanoid life forms on many worlds (including earth), but they are still around and still a dominant species in interstellar society.
- The ancient race that created the warp drive in Into the Looking Glass by John Ringo and Travis S. Taylor after the first book. They also created a space station that can control the output of an entire star. Why? A systemwide concert venue!
- In Michael Flynn's The January Dancer, "the folk of sand and iron."
- Steve Perry's Matador Series had the Zonn, a race that died out thousands of years before humanity achieved FTL. They didn't leave behind much other than interesting ruins on a number of worlds.
- The Star Wars Expanded Universe has several features that are attributed to Precursor-like races. The two most prominent are the Rakata and the Celestials. The Rakata created the first modern hyperdrives, built a vast empire (though it had relatively few planets since their dark side-powered hyperdrives could only travel to worlds with a large Force presence) and created a massive orbital factory called the Star Forge which could build enough materiel to supply their entire empire. The Celestials lived much further in the past, circa 200,000-50,000 BBY. They created Centerpoint Station (a giant repulsor beam that created the Corellian system and is so advanced that a 25,000-year-old Galactic civilization cannot replicate or even understand how it works!) as well as the Hyperspace Triangle that bisects the galaxy (which makes galactic civilization possible), the Maw Cluster of black holes, the hyperspace anomaly that seals off the Unkown Regions and much more.
- According to cut content from the 2012 Star Wars Essential Guide to Warfare the Rakatans wiped out the Celestials. Little is known about their biology but it has been confirmed that they were shapeshifters. and they're related to the Ones...somehow.
- The Psalms of Isaak has three levels of this, each filling a different precursor niche. Earliest were the Younger Gods, who were so far in the past little of their works remain, but generally come off as Benevolent Precursors. They were followed by the Weeping Czars, Neglectful Precursors who are mainly remembered for bringing the third group down on the world. That would be the Wizard Kings, very much Abusive Precursors, though they still have worshippers in the present day of the series. The last Wizard King, Xhum Y'Zir, used a spell called the Seven Cacaphonic Deaths to devastate most of the world to avenge his dead sons, giving rise to the contemporary civilizations. The Younger Gods themselves were descended from the Elder Gods, who are hardly ever mentioned and so far into the past that they're little more than a mythical footnote, but are implied to be modern humans, or maybe our direct descendants (though Earth All Along is averted- the books are set in what is eventually revealed to be a Lost Colony, not Earth).
- In Robert A. Heinlein's Between Planets we have the First Empire which originated on the Fifth Planet and which became the asteroid belt. Its ruins could be found on Mars and Venus and beneath the oceans of Earth. Don Harvey's parents were doing archaeological work in ruins on Mars while Don was at Boarding School on Earth. While its technology was not immediately viable, records left behind contained hints to a new physics that through difficult research led to 20 g spaceships and artificial gravity. The story gave the example of reading a treatise on modern electronics being written in Sanskrit poetry being lucid in comparison.
- The Dolbrians In SA Swann's Terran Confederacy universe terraformed an unknown but large number of worlds, several of which still have star maps and/or megalithic artifacts on them. The Face on Mars is one such artifact. They vanished from the galaxy millions of years ago, for unknown reasons.
- The Quyans from The Stone Dance of the Chameleon, whose civilization preceded that of the Chosen. They are later revealed to actually be still around, as the Chosen's slaves called "sartlar".
- In Commonwealth Saga, the Planters are an apparently long gone race who seeded a planet with "plants" strange combinations of organic and machine which come in ground, aquatic and orbital varieties. The humans who discovered the planet are secretly studying them - non-invasively, in case the Planters come back and are displeased that the humans have damaged their creation.
- Played with in the world of The Prince of Thorns, with the beings referred to as "the builders", who created incredible works of technology and then disappeared. It becomes increasingly apparent that the world is not your average Medieval European Fantasy, but is actually After the End - "the builders" were us, before we nuked each other and lost most of our knowledge.
- Malazan Book of the Fallen has several in the form of the four founding races: the Jaghut, Forkrul Assail, T'lan Imass, K'Chain Che'Malle; as well as the dimensional immigrants, the three Tiste races.
- The Eldraeverse is littered with Precursor artifacts, there's considerable evidence that the eldrae homeworld itself is one, at the very least it was terraformed by them. There's not much indication of what happened to them, and some eldrae are a bit disturbed that they're apparently the oldest extant sophont species.
- The first Noob novel mentions that another sentient race, the Keosamas, existed before the Olydrians, the race that all Player Characters incarnate. Keosamas reached a high level of progress in terms of magic due to the fact that Olydri was much more hostile at the time, so they Had To Be Sharp. Suriving Keosamas can be found in a legendary underwater settlement near Piratas Island.
- The Shattered Sea takes place in a Norse Fantasy Counterpart Culture within a Medieval fantasy setting, which has been built on the ashes of a previous Elven civilization, which built with materials that cannot be replicated and had strange magical devices. However, it's heavily implied throughout and more or less revealed that the setting is Earth All Along (it's actually not a Fantasy Counterpart Culture- it's actually in Scandinavia), the Elves are modern/slightly futuristic humans, and Elf Magic is just technology.
- In "A Colder War" by Charles Stross, Stephen Jay Gould is presenting some recent paleozoic fossils and artifacts to members of a top-secret government agency that, unknown to him, deals in eldritch abominations straight out of HP Lovecraft, and has been trying to keep this stuff secret from the public. When he shows them a fossil of one of the 'Old Ones' from Atthe Mountainsof Madness, the protagonist thinks "he's found a Predecessor, god help him."
- Babylon 5:
- The "First Ones", who have all mostly emigrated "beyond the rim of the galaxy," although some remain lurking about in known space. Lorien, the "First One," is literally the first sentient being in the galaxy.
- the Vorlons and the Shadows, which drive the main plots of the entire series, have meddled extensively in the affairs of younger races.
- In an homage to Forbidden Planet, Epsilon 3 (the planet which Babylon 5 orbits) houses many super-advanced artifacts of a long-dead alien race.
- the humans and the Minbari, who will become precursors to the future races, as shown at the end of Season 4.
- Doctor Who sometimes paints the Time Lords like this. At the dawn of their civilisation, they sent a star supernova, and caged the resulting black hole to fuel their time travel. They fought several wars against other primordial races (notably the Great Vampires), driving them to virtual extinction. They were even worshipped as gods on at least one planet, until their technological gifts backfired, and they instituted a policy of non-interference. The Expanded Universe attributes the widespread presence of Human Aliens in the setting to them (offering multiple versions of the reasons why).
The unseen race (otherwise known as the Disciples of the Light) who caged the Beast also qualify. Bonus points for having done this before the beginning of time. Extra bonus points for the Doctor pointing out that this is both stupid and impossible. But that doesn't stop it from still being true.
- The Eidolons from Farscape, who once controlled an entire galaxy through their power to induce "rationality and tranquility" in others before their near-extinction several millennia ago. For good measure, they are actually responsible for the creation of the Peacekeepers and the Sebacean race as a whole, having abducted primitive humans from Earth and altered them to act as bodyguards.
- Subverted in the case of Farscape's Ancients, who, despite the name and their status as a Dying Race, aren't precursors at all. In fact, in spite of their impressive technology, they've actually gone out of the way to make sure that nobody knows about them unless absolutely necessary: this is because they were sent from another dimension to monitor the development of wormhole technology.
- Red Dwarf postulates that all life originated on Earth; after three million years, there are many variations on sentient life — creatures descended from genetic experiments, animals that evolved into sentient humanoids, self-sustaining races of androids, "pan-dimensional liquid beasts," etc. etc. etc.
- The Stargate Verse has no less than five different precursor races. The gate network itself was created by one such race, named (creatively) the Ancients, though they later are discovered to have called themselves the Anquietas (formerly the Alterans, later the Lanteans after the planet on which Atlantis resided). They eventually ascended and adopted a strict non-interference policy on the lower planes. The other side of that coin is the Ori, also ascended beings but with a very different policy; they are eventually revealed to have driven the Ancients from their home galaxy to the Milky Way. Also in the precursors category are the Asgard, Goa'uld, and Wraith. The Goa'uld use humans as hosts, and the Wraith farm humans as food, while the Asgard placed several worlds in the Milky Way under military protection from the Goa'uld.
- Star Trek
- The Preservers and the Iconians, amongst others:
- Some TOS examples would be the Fabrini, and (from "Return to Tomorrow") the race from which Sargon, Henoch and Thalassa are the only survivors.
- The Ancient Humanoids in Star Trek: The Next Generation, though it seems to be a given in the Expanded Universe that the Ancient Humanoids are the Preservers.
- Slight subversion: the inconceivably ancient Morphin Masters of Power Rangers themselves worshipped their "Ancient Ancestors" who watched down on them... Apparently from Rita's similarly super-ancient lunar palace.
- Andromeda's lead character Dylan Hunt was a (half-Heavy Worlder-half-) member of a highly developed culture which was at the heart of the old Commonwealth. In later seasons, the series begins to pursue those "lost people" because of their amazing advancements which have since been lost, only to learn they intentionally closed themselves off from the outside barbarism.
- The "First People" from Fringe.
- They're actually Walter and Peter (mostly Walter) in a Stable Timeloop sending the artifacts to the different universes.
- In Battlestar Galactica (1978), the Cylons were originally a race of lizard people. They built robots to act as their servants, but the robots rebelled and wiped the lizard people out. Eventually, these robots ran into humanity. Humans have already been at war with these robots for a thousand yahrens when the series opens.
- In the The Sword song, "Fire Lances of the Ancient Hyperzephyrians", the Precursors are humans from roughly the current era. After a presumably nuclear war screws up the planet, the survivors idiotically decide that they need to find and launch more of our missiles.
- The Jimi Hendrix song "Up From the Skies" has an alien revisiting Earth after a long hiatus: "I have lived here before/ in days of ice/ and of course this is why I'm so concerned/ and I come back to find/ the stars misplaced/ and the smell of a world/ that's burning." Maybe a precursor, maybe not, but he'd been here a long, long time ago.
- Some of Doctor Steel's music and videos, most notably his song "Planet X Marks the Spot", deal with the Ancient Astronaut theories of Zechariah Sitchin.
- According to Loony Labyrinth, the ancient Minos were masters of time travel, genetic engineering, and other amazing feats.
- Mutants & Masterminds have this in the form of the "Preservers" in Freedom City.
- Forgotten Realms:
- In the campaign setting for Dungeons & Dragons, a saurian race ruled the world in the days when the world was warm. They are not entirely gone, though. The reptilian creator race, the sarrukh, was only one of several races that dominated the pre-human Realms. Others included the dragons, the amphibian batrachians, the birdlike aeree, and the fey.
- The Creator Race term. The exact listing is sometimes discussed, but the rule seem to be 'Precursor, and native to Abeir-Toril'. This means humans are a Creator Race (because at least some of them developed on Toril, and built mighty civilizations now gone), but elves aren't (they built mighty civilizations now gone before the humans did, but they immigrated from elsewhere first).
- After the arrival of humans, the empires of Netheril, Imaskar, and Illefarn flourished before they disintegrated in nasty ways.
- In the Planescape setting and later (3rd edition) sources, it's heavily stated that the baatezu (devils), yugoloths (daemons), and tanar'ri (demons) were each predated by three primordial races of fiends: the ancient Baatorians, the baernaloths, and the obyriths, respectively.
- The rhulisti, or ancient halflings, were the first civilized race in the Dark Sun campaign setting; all other humanoid races are descended from them (including humans and giants), while those who retained their original form are now mostly cannibalistic savages.
- Mystara's past history is chock full of this trope, including the Carnifex, the Blackmoorians, and the Nithians.
- Subverted in the Ravenloft setting: while many societies have legends about Precursors, it's all false history imposed upon the memories of natives, as their world's only a little more than four centuries old.
- GURPS Space, includes Precursors as a potential element a Game Master might want to weave into his game world.
- The Ancients of Traveller.
- The Mnoren of The Fantasy Trip. Actually, the Mnoren are probably precursors of Precursors for the above two examples, given that TFT was published first and involved a lot of the same people.
- The Old Ones in Warhammer (both fantasy and 40k) created most sentient races. In Fantasy they just left, never to return, but in 40k their backstory is given out in more detail. Apparently they had a massive, galaxy-shaking war with another old race, the Necrontyr (which later became the robotic Necrons), and created many races to help them fight. They (as well as most life in the galaxy) were nearly wiped out in the aftermath of the war, when the psychic disturbance caused by the massive amount of warp-fueled power used by them and the races they created caused the reality to tear apart and horrible creatures to spill through.
These may or may not be the same race, and the two collapses may be parts of the same event. The 7th edition Warhammer core book and Lizardman book hint heavily at this, and the 40k Necron book suggests using Lizardman models to represent the last refuges of the Old Ones.
The Warhammer world (un)officially used to be an isolated world in the Eye of Terror of 40k, but had been drifting from that idea for a while before Word Of God revealed them to be separate but parallel 'verses (similar to the split between Warhammer Fantasy and Blood Bowl), sometime around '98. Of course, the references noted above are not the only hints: the Amazons of Warhammer have weapons left over from the Old Ones which bear a startling resemblance to wargear from 40k, not to mention Chaos champions with chainswords, and the second half of each volume of the in-universe Liber Chaotica
- The Thran in Magic The Gathering.
- Iron Crown Enterprise's Spacemaster has the Sianetic Harbingers, a long dead (?) race of beings that seeded the Galaxy with humanoid life. They were powerful telepaths and had a level of technology that dwarfs modern Terran equipment. Their artifacts and ruins are both desired and feared.
- Privateers campaign setting. The Architects seeded life on many planets 4 billion years ago and guided the evolution of the seven major races until quite recently, then disappeared. Very little is known about them in-universe.
- Exalted does this several times with its First Age, Second Age, and possibly the Sixth Age. It even has 0th Age and 1st Age civilizations that few inhabitants are aware of.
- The history of The Realm from the game The Splinter stretches back 100,000,000,000 years and includes potentially thousands of precursor species/civilizations. This results in a tremendous range of (some very bizarre) Schizo Tech that can be scavenged by players.
- The entire premise of Numenera involves discovering the unfathomably advanced technology of eight previous civilizations, some of which were capable of moving stars and bending the fabric of reality to their whim. One civilization was responsible for extending the lifespan of our Sun, which would have become a red giant and scorched all life from existence on Earth, a fate completely unknown to all the inhabitants of the present day.
- The world of Atlantis: The Second Age is destined to be dominated by seven different races throughout its entire existance. Humans are the fifth of these races, making the Jinn, Ophidians, Lemurians, and Atlanteans all Precursor races. Somewhat unusually, none of these have gone extinct yet, but their numbers and powers have been greatly diminished. The Atlanteans are still trying to cling on to their power, but humans are already in the process of taking over.
- The Alien Overlords in Race for the Galaxy. They were apparently a very advanced race of aliens who were the dominant civilization in the Milky Way at some point in the past, but who have now vanished. They did leave behind many artifacts, including some very advanced technology. They also seem to have uplifted and genetically engineered several servitor races. Since the backstory in Race for the Galaxy is told only in the sketchiest fashion, however, very little is known about the Overlords.
- BIONICLE toyed with this idea a lot, but eventually subverted it with the Great Beings: hailed in the story's early years as powerful, mythological figures responsible for creating the Matoran Universe and its creatures, but then moved to other projects, and chaos ensued. Later it was revealed that these Beings were a highly eccentric group of scientist governors, and can only be seen as the precursors to the Matoran Universe's inhabitants — whom they themselves viewed as expandable machines. Otherwise, they were just one of Spherus Magna's (the planet which they once ruled over) several species. They are also still around someplace, but are hiding, as the inhabitants of their world hated their guts.
- The Remnant system in Achron (where the game largely takes place) has ancient alien ruins scattered throughout. The technology found in these ruins has become them basis of humankinds most advanced tech, most notably teleportation. The system is then invaded by aliens that use the exact same tech as those found in the ruins. And that technology includes Time Travel. Hmmm...
- Assassin's Creed: The premise of the series' Meta Plot is that an advanced Crystal Spires and Togas civilization preceded our own, but was devastated by an apocalyptic event 75,000 years ago. This civilization was ruled by The Ones Who Came Before, a long-lived, hyperintelligent species that regarded humans as inferiors at best and slaves at worst, enforcing their rule with Mind Control technology. After the End, dying of underpopulation, they seeded the world with artifacts programmed to Fling a Light into the Future so that humans in the 21st century could save themselves from a recurrence of the same catastrophe. They also created Half-Human Hybrids in an attempt to pass on their "sixth sense" of "knowledge", which was only partially successful, but resulted in a line of humans who were able to interact with their artifacts and use their powers. Our concepts of gods, in this world, are distorted remembrances of The Ones Who Came Before.
- In EVE Online, we are the precursors. We used the EVE wormhole to travel to the Galaxy of New Eden, but when the wormhole collapsed, so to did civilization in New Eden, and as new civilizations formed, their origins faded into myth and legend.
The Apocrypha expansion has given us a glimpse of some of the old technology which the precursor humans left behind: the sleepers. Ancient drone ships guarding long forgotten structures packed with technology that makes the most advanced player ships and weaponry look like we're using BB guns to fight enemies with nukes. The technology that has been scavenged so far has allowed the playerbase to build relatively small cruisers with the firepower and defenses equal to and even beyond battleships. It will be a terrifying day when we can finally build new kinds of battleships with sleeper tech.
- The Sky People were the once powerful ancestors of the Lufenian race of Final Fantasy I. After mastering the power of the Wind Crystal, they constructed many ancient wonders such as the Airship, the Mirage Tower and the Flying Fortress. Their civilization was eventually destroyed by the Fiend of Wind, Tiamat.
- The Zilart of Final Fantasy XI. A few of them still remain but most of them are relatively insane and/or genocidal. Only two Zilart favor the current civilizations at all, and one of them Ascended to a Higher Plane of Existence.
- The "Ancients" from FreeSpace fit this trope, although for once we actually get a detailed history of their annihilation at the hands of the Shivans. (They recorded this so that later races would be warned not to piss the Shivans off... or, having failed that, would have some insight into the Shivans' weaknesses). The Shivans themselves qualify as Precursors in some respects: while not extinct, their technology is far more advanced than humans' and they've been that advanced for at least 8,000 years. There are Epileptic Trees both in-game and out about the origins of the Shivans (whether they were created as weapons by an even older race), and exactly how long they've been at their xenocidal mission (one character muses that there might be multiple Precursors extending far back in time, each annihilated by the Shivans when they grew too powerful and the later ones founding empires on the ruins of those that came before). None of this has been confirmed nor denied by the authors.
- Bungie is fond of this. In most likely the earliest first-person shooter example of this trope, the Jjaro from Marathon were an advanced species that created the S'pht and left a host of technological artifacts on many worlds. They are considered by many to be mythical beings, but since All Myths Are True, Durandal does everything that he does in Marathon 2 to find them. In Marathon Infinity, their technology might be what's for responsible sending the player through different points in time and space to find a way to stop an Eldritch Abomination (which they had previously sealed) from destroying the entire universe.
- In the Halo universe, the Forerunners are very much a precursor race, who believed that they held the "Mantle of Responsibility" for all life in the galaxy. All that's left of them are artifacts such as the titular "Halo" rings. They purposely destroyed themselves activating the rings as a last resort to prevent a traveling parasite called "The Flood" from consuming all life in the galaxy, but not before leaving measures for the reseeding of life afterwards. Oddly, humans seem to have a unique connection to them — much of Forerunner technology, including the Halos, can only be utilized by humans, and the major Forerunner installation on Earth is located in East Africa, right next to the area where modern humans are believed to have first evolved (since Forerunners were contemporaries of Original Man).
- In fact, the Halo 3 terminals reveal that this connection was because the high-ranking Forerunner known as "The Librarian" felt that humans would be the rightful "reclaimers" of the Forerunners' legacy. Later, The Forerunner Saga books add a twist to this by revealing that most Forerunners felt otherwise, due to a long and bloody war they fought with prehistoric humanity's own highly advanced interstellar empire, which was invading Forerunner space in order to flee the Flood and cleanse infected planets; it ended with the victorious Forerunners completely dismantling all traces of human technology they could find, devolving the survivors into a primitive state (who would quickly (re?)evolve into many of the various hominid species we know about today, including modern humans), and shoving them back to their homeworld of Earth.
- In Halo 4, we find out that at least one Forerunner still survives; "The Ur-Didact", the former supreme commander of the Forerunner military, who also happens to be the Big Bad. The game also provide evidence, namely a speech given by the Ur-Didact in The Stinger, that there are many more Forerunners living outside of the galaxy, which was confirmed by the audio epilogue to Halo: Silentium.
- The Forerunners believed that they inherited the Mantle from a long-gone race of even more advanced beings they called "The Precursors", who are revealed in the Forerunner Saga to have played a major role in the creation of both the Forerunners and humanity, among many other species. They ended up being almost completely annihilated when they tried to wipe out the Forerunners for being unworthy of the Mantle. Most of the survivors turned themselves into powder with the plan of eventually re-constituting their original forms, but they all Came Back Wrong and became the Flood. They then apparently decided to eliminate the Forerunners, "unite" all life in the galaxy, and test whether humanity was worthy of the Mantle... or maybe they just wanted their creations to suffer for all eternity. Either way, their technology (which seems to have been made of thought) was completely destroyed when the Halos (the only things capable of destroying Precursor relics) were fired. The prisoner of Charum Hakkor, a scorpion-like creature with 4 arms and an impossibly ugly face, was a Precursor-turned-Flood-Gravemind, while the Forerunner Domain, an immaterial and self-aware galaxy-wide information network older than the actual universe, is revealed to be one of their many creations.
- In the Neverwinter Nights community module series The Bastard Of Kosigan, the precursor race were early humans who lived on Atlantis, but after the natural disaster that resulted in its sinking split into the 'control' faction and the 'free will' faction. The 'control' faction, led by Gabriel, eventually won the ensuing war with the 'free will' faction, led by Elisa Than (read Satan, though she wasn't actually that bad). Their war was primarily fought by using their advanced technology to mimic deities and create religions among lesser humans, so the 'control' faction are the 'angels' of modern Catholicism (the game is set in approximately 1300, but with magic and monsters and such (the King of France has standing pacts with several red dragons)) while the 'freedom' faction became the 'demons'. Ironically, Jesus was actually manipulated by the 'demons' (and you even get to meet the 'demon' commonly known as St. John), and the 'angels' created the Catholic church to subvert his message.
- Homeworld 2 featured the aptly-named Progenitors, who left behind various relics including several Wave Motion Guns which the player and the enemy fight for control of. One of the Wave Motion Gun ships gave its name to a deity that the current races have been worshipping for several thousand years.
- In Iji, the Komato are the ancestors of the Tasen, and, although it's not clear how close they are to humans, first evolved on Earth, leaving without a trace some time before the halocene period.
- The Jak and Daxter franchise has an ancient race called "The Precursors". They leave deep-voiced oracular statues and various giant robots scattered about, and depict themselves as glowing Energy Beings, but that's just a Wizard of Oz act; they're really ottsels, otter-weasel hybrids like Jak's sidekick Daxter. In fact, he becomes one because all eco contains their essence.
- The Legend of Zelda:
- In The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess, the Oocca are suggested to be the Precursors of the Hylians — as one Adventurer Archaeologist tells us, the goddesses may have made the Oocca first, then the Oocca made the Hylians before retreating to the City in the Sky. Some fan-speculation surrounds these creatures, probably not the least because of their appearance: primitive harpies with ugly breasts and blue nipples! Many think that they originally looked a lot different than they do when Twilight Princess takes place, because it's very unlikely that the weird harpies we see are physically able to have made some of the stuff they're credited with making, such as the City in the Sky, the Dominion Rod, and the Sky Cannon.
- In The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword, a race of Ancient Robots can be found in the Lanayru Desert. They are all old and worn away. Once you strike a nearby Timeshift Crystal however, it is revealed they are part of a civilization that takes place 100 years before the present. Their joints, and almost every single device within the premises is powered by electricity. This could justify where all of the Schizo Tech in the Zelda series originates from.
- The Protheans in Mass Effect, at least until Dr. Liara T'Soni joins your party and suggests that they probably weren't the actual precursors.
- Turns out she's right, as the real precursors are the Reapers, which are robotic Eldritch Abominations that are out for everyone's blood. Though the Protheans must have been interested in early humanity, since as the big silver unexplained ball explains; the Prothean research station on Mars would routinely abduct and mess with early humans. Mass Effect 2 eventually reveals that the Collectors are genetically and cybernetically-modified Protheans. In Mass Effect 3, there is one Prothean still alive, named Javik, in suspended animation.
- It's also revealed that the Protheans themselves had their own Precursor race to learn from. And so on, and so forth. Each cycle leaves something behind for the next one to find. The ultimate artifact appears to be the Crucible, whose construction started millions of years ago and was continued each cycle by a new race culminating in humanity and their contemporaries in its cycle (possibly) finishing the Crucible and using it to wipe out the Reapers.
- The "Leviathan" DLC provided something new: the Leviathans (true name unknown) are the first species, the original intelligent life that preceded the Reapers. The Reapers were made in their image, and they have mental domination abilities that the Reapers used to create their indoctrination ability. They were the ones responsible for creating the Catalyst, and therefore are indirectly responsible for the Reapers. Their kind was harvested and used to create Harbinger, the first Reaper. A few of them are still alive, deep under the ocean on an aquatic world, where they have been hiding from the Reapers ever since the cycles began. Shepard can find them and convince them to give their aid in the current war against the Reapers.
- In the Refusal ending, the contemporary major races fill this role - Shepard and everyone s/he cares about get killed or worse, but the records you leave behind prove vital in a future cycle, allowing them to defeat the Reapers.
- Although they raised Samus to adulthood and had extensive contact with faraway races like the Luminoth, Elysia, and even the Federation, the Chozo have vanished from all known space. Their entire legacy consists of decayed ruins, cryptic messages for Samus, and the odd upgrade module for her Power Suit. And, of course, the Metroids themselves.
- The Alimbic race in Metroid Prime: Hunters went extinct long before the events of the game containing the Eldritch Abomination Gorea in the appropriately named Oubliette. They are said to have created incredibly advanced technologies, including an "ultimate weapon".
- The Ancients from the Might and Magic universe (at least when it was in the hands of New World Computing) were creating various worlds out of the four elements and seeding them with life as part of a great experiment. Their true agenda is never entirely revealed but there are hints that they had a specific outcome in mind for most of their worlds, before the Creators and the Kreegan interfered. And between VI, VII and VIII, it was established that whatever their original agenda was, their current goal is 'Stop the Kreegans'. The settings of the games (and the novels) just happen to be in the galactic arm that was cut off from the Gateweb, and the Ancients are a bit too busy with the Kreegan to bother restoring it (especially as the cause of the breach was Kreegan infiltration of the gate network).
- The Myst series of games gradually reveals that the long-lost civilization of D'ni was actually located on Earth; its founders originally came from an alternate universe, but they founded a city Beneath the Earth. However, the D'ni are not the ancestors of humans; the existence of a nearly identical race on the surface appears to be pure coincidence (although the Earth was specifically chosen because it was known to be hospitable to our kind of life).
- Pac Man World 3 features the Ancients (possibly members or ancestors of Pac-Man's spherical race), about whose lives little is known, although their deaths comprise a well-known story 'of greed, of tampering with unknown forces, and of running and screaming and dying', to quote an in-game archaeologist. As it turns out, the Ancients were wiped out when they tried to siphon energy from the Spectral Realm (the Pac-Man universe's afterlife), which is exactly what the game's villain is trying to do in the present.
- Appropriately for a series where ancient ruins are one of the most populous level types, the Sonic the Hedgehog series is jam-packed with different precursors, whose ancient weapons/relics/monsters set the stage for the world-threatening terror of the game. Interestingly enough, although absolutely all of them are shown to have possessed and utilized the series' recurring MacGuffins, none of them claim responsibility for creating any of the Emeralds.
In Chronicles a race referred to as The Precursors.
- In the Star Control games, there is a race explicitly called "The Precursors" which vanished but left behind many artifacts and installations across the galaxy. The second one is notable for containing artifacts and mysteries which are not explained away with the Precursors. The third one attributes everything to them to the point of retconning previous reveals. The Precursors are heavily hinted to having created at least one of the major alien races in the game, namely the Mycon, genetically engineered fungus who were apparently designed to (or malfunctioned into a state where they) do the opposite: return lush planets to a molten and unstable state. The third game posits that they also left a race of robotic caretakers to make sure things stay orderly while they're gone, although yeah, fans really really don't much care.
- In StarCraft the Xel'Naga, who created the Protoss and Zerg, take this role, although the reason for their disappearance is less mysterious than most, or so it seems at first. In the sequel and its associated books it is hinted that they aren't really gone, and they might well make a return before the end of Starcraft 2. Oh, and there's an Eldritch Abomination out there that hates their guts, wants to Kill 'em All and destroy the Universe.
- The Star Ocean series plays with this trope. The games are filled with Out of Place Artifacts, mystical technologies such as the time gate on the apparently sentient planet Styx, and near the middle of the third game, there's even a precursor-like group of beings called the Executioners who rain havoc upon ALL the races of the galaxy. It turns out that the universe is actually a video game called the Eternal Sphere, and all the Precursor like artifacts, including the Executioners, were planted by the programmer. They're basically debugging tools and easter eggs, Styx basically works like the mother of all hearthstones. The series also has more traditional precursors such as the Nedians and Muah.
- Sword of the Stars Morrigi are actually still around — and very smug about it — but until the last expansion, they had to quietly limp into hiding thanks to the efforts of the rather less nice variety of Precusors. And then the Liir had to go and kill off the bad kind of Precursors, allowing the Morrigi to return. Still worse, the pre-release information for the sequel suggests strongly that the Liir didn't finish the job.
- The dragons, giants, and elves from Tears to Tiara and Tears To Tiara 2, whose civilizations were destroyed by the heavens, but evidently a not insignificant population of each remains. The more powerful lineages of these races are worshiped as gods by humans.
- The Thief series has the long-gone civilization from the ancient ruined city of Karath Din (a.k.a. "The Lost City"), which is known only under the colloquial moniker "The Precursors". The environments of their ruins and various readables imply that at least part of The City's society and technology has very early roots in the survivors of this bygone civilization. Most of the details on the reasons behind the Precursors' demise are deliberately left open to speculation, given the series' elliptical approach to revealing the history and inner workings of its setting. One of the more notable facts revealed is that the Precursors had much more sophisticated technology than does the present-day civilization, in a way. To quote the Keeper faction's opinion on the Precursors :
When we looked at the relics of the Precursors, we saw the height civilization can attain.When we looked at their ruins, we marked the danger of that height.— from the Keeper Annals
- The lore features the Titans, who ordered all the worlds in the universe and seeded them with life, then left to go pursue their unimaginable goals, leaving all kinds of stuff behind. One of them, Sargeras, is also the Big Bad of the mythology. There are strong hints throughout the lore that they may be coming back some day (possibly in a future expansion).
- Also fitting this, yet to a less extent, are the ancient Night Elves: They were ruling the whole supercontinent, fought off any competing race and had access to unlimited magic - until they attracted the Burning Legion, which resulted in the Sundering, destroying most of their race, a huge part of the continent, and all of their magic-based civilization. Their ruins are still everywhere to be found and, of course, contain most powerful artifacts.
- Even before the Night Elves were the trolls who, while being less advanced than most other races, built gigantic cities and temples that were abandoned after the Night Elf takeover. Modern trolls live in these ruins today, worshipping their ancientry, but unable to achieve their greatness - the ancient trolls are their own race's Precursors.
- On Filgaia, the world from Wild ARMs, a race of Precursors left behind a vast array of Lost Technology. In the anime series Twilight Venom it was revealed that the precursors were from Earth, but left due to the annoyance of Random Encounters.
- The Steltek, from Wing Commander Privateer, were Precursors of the neglectful variety, though they did make an effort to clean up after themselves once made aware of the problem.
- The as-of-yet unnamed race from Sins of a Solar Empire who built the Phase Jump Inhibitors and, presumably, the other obtainable artifacts.
- The Ancients from Panzer Dragoon qualify, having made many, many technological breakthroughs, most notably the many, many Towers, the drones to control them, the dragons to protect them, the monsters the Towers create to sustain the environment (or so Craymen claims), and Sestren to tie it all together. And then they conveniently vanished, leaving virtually nobody who understands any of the crap they left lying around, just that it's powerful and needs to be reclaimed. Of course, the Towers keeping the environment in its status quo means removing any factor that could be a detriment. Including humans, should they overpopulate. Thus, the Ancients are kind of the reason the series takes place in a Crapsack World. It's never really stated what the true nature of all of the above is, really, just that it's bad and you have to stop it (which you ultimately do in Saga, leaving it on a somewhat triumphant note - and then in Orta, it's implied that the consequences to the environment afterwards were hardly worth the effort).
- The Super Robot Wars series mention several names. Shin Super Robot Wars had the Mu, who are aliens in this game. The Super Robot Wars Alpha setting has the "First People", Super Robot Wars W has the "E's" and Super Robot Wars K has the "Crusians". Some titles like Super Robot Wars Destiny or Scramble Commander 2 have relics left by a nameless race. This is a source of Epileptic Trees in the mythos.
- La-Mulana has several iterations of Precursors, although you only ever learn much about one of them. And then there's The Mother...
- The Chodak from Star Trek: The Next Generation -- A Final Unity.
- Star Trek Online:
- It's quite likely the Iconians are being built up as the precursor race; the scant few times they are seen, they disable your ship completely to demonstrate their godlike power, and later they obliterate Borg cubes effortlessly. Demons of air and darkness, indeed.
- At the end of the Deferi/Breen story arc, the Ancient Humanoids/Preservers are revived and decide to once again explore the galaxy and meet their descendants, making it one of the few cases where the Precursors come back.
- In The Elder Scrolls:
- There are both the Dwemer in Morrowind, and the Ayleids in Oblivion, as well as many others in lore. The Dwemer were technically advanced (enchanted steampunk-style tech) whose reasons for disappearance can be put succinctly as being a race of atheists in a universe where godlike beings are very much real (that and they had a penchant for futzing around with the inner workings of Existence). The Ayleids were wiped out in a much more mundane way: a combination of societal hubris, heavy political infighting, a belligerent neighboring nation to the north, and a slave revolt supported by said belligerent northward neighbors (which possibly had divine backing as well).
- The Dunmer, a.k.a. dark elves, were formerly the Chimer, enemies of the Dwemer. They were transformed either as a curse from the Daedric Prince Azura for the Tribunal's betrayal and murder of their leader Nerevar, or as a result of his generals' use of the heart of a dead god to become physical gods.note The only remaining images of Chimer are the aforementioned Tribunal of Morrowind, who appear as Chimer (well, two of them).
- The Snow Elves, who originally ruled Skyrim. After the arrival of the Nords, they were driven deep underground and sought refuge with the Dwemer, only to be betrayed and enslaved, leading to their devolution in the mindless and feral Falmer. The Dawnguard DLC for Skyrim reveals that some of the Snow Elves survived this and took refuge in hidden sanctuaries, only to be later massacred by their feral cousins, leaving only one survivor.
- Valkyria Chronicles has the Valkyrur, a now extinct (mostly) race who learned to weaponize Ragnite and who possessed weapons with seemingly magical abilities that can't be replicated by modern science. Although not the first humans, all non-Darcsen inhabitants of Europa are descended from them and they are credited with starting the proto-civilization from which all others on the continent grew. Many people even worship them as gods. It turns out they were kind of dicks.
- Luminous Arc 2 has the Navillian race, who had advanced knowledge in magic and were the ancestors of humans and witches/wizards. 4,000 years ago, a catastrophe ended their civilization and it is believed that the modern world rose from their demise.
- In the space stage of Spore:
- You can purchase "Monoliths" which, when placed upon a planet with life at any stage of development, will cause that planet to develop quickly to the space stage, and gives you a relationship bonus with the resulting empire. Of course, after that you're free to do whatever you like to the poor guys, including conquering their cities by force and enslaving them to extract the planet's resources for your own empire's benefit.
- Your planet can be visited by spaceships earlier in your own development, although they rarely do more than abduct a member of your pack or a livestock animal.
- The Grox empire, which is violently opposed to your existence by default. They occupy 2400 systems around the centre of the galaxy, guarding the Galactic Core itself, which contains a robotic member of an unknown race (possibly from Earth). His name is Steve, and he gives you the most powerful terraforming tool in the game, although it is limited to 42 uses.
- The Orions and Antarans in the Master of Orion series fought a hugely destructive war which led to the Antarans becoming Sealed Evil in a Can, and the Orion homeworld abandoned and protected by the enormous Guardian of Orion. Also, some planets have Artifacts property — contain ruins of ancient civilizations, which boosts local scientists' performance; races with "Artifacts World" have one of these as the homeworld.
- The Eridians fill this role in Borderlands. They had created an incredibly advanced civilization on the wasteland planet Pandora, but it all mysteriously vanished millenia before the game's events. Remnants of their civilization are all over the place, and simple artifacts of their technology hold immense power. But by far the most legendary aspect of their legacy is The Vault, a container for...something, no one really knows what, that is the most sought after power on Pandora. The Vault is revealed to be [[spoiler:the Tailor-Made Prison for The Destroyer, an Eldritch Abomination which nearly wiped out the Eridians. They sacrificed everything to contain The Destroyer within The Vault, leaving "Guardians" to ensure that no idiot would open the vault and cause the apocalypse. It doesn't work. It's noted that the various corporations' interest in Pandora is due to alien relics being found on a different planet nearby, so either the Eridians were space-faring, or there is more than one Precursor civilization.
- According to Journey's confluences, the White Robes are implied to be this to the Red Robes.
- The world of Mega Man Legends features robot-human creatures similar to the Reploids of earlier series. Too bad they're (mostly) under the Kill 'em All directive of the vast computer system that controls them.
- The Mega Man Star Force series also has the lost civilization of Mu.
- In Galactic Civilizations II:
- The unimaginatively named Precursors and their enemies the Dread Lords (who have become Sealed Evil in a Can). The campaign in the original revolves around you fighting the latter, and if the player is unlucky enough to encounter them in a standard game...
- According to the game's expansions, the "Precursors" mentioned above were called the Arnor, and were the same species as the Dread Lords, but were ideologically opposed: the Arnor wanted to guide and look after new intelligent life, while the Dread Lords wanted to exterminate it. It isn't clear what happened to the Arnor after they defeated the Dread Lords, although one survivor is found in the Twilight of the Arnor campaign.
- There are also the mysterious Mithrilar, a group of five immortal beings that were precursors to the Arnor and Dread Lords (indeed, they created the Arnor and Dread Lords). What happened to them is unknown, although it is known that one of them, Draginol, was a time-travelling ascended human.
- Vega Strike Back Story has the Ancients, "Those Who Have Only Names" (species Ancients' records mentioned) and later "Alphan and Betan". They left lots of ruins, their "lab monkeys" who now rob blind everyone else for access to the best of said ruins, and... the nano-plague that breaks nanomachines, but ignores most lifeforms and non-construction nano scale devices.
- The "Ancients" and their adversaries in Legacy of Kain.
- The Eldeen in the Ys series.
- The Remnants of Star Ruler, leftovers of a now-fallen space empire. At the start, their artificially intelligent ships are better than anything you'll have, and even if you can blow through those, they have even better (and bigger) ones. Fortunately, Remnants are content to guard systems without acting aggressively. The Galactic Armory mod makes the Remnants much more aggressive, making them send out routine missions to cull the lesser races, using even more powerful ships than in the base game, and the Remnant will keep pace with the player, causing them to eventually start sending planet-sized ships to cull systems.
- Ultimately subverted in Galaxy Angel at no surprise to the viewer but the Precursors who created all the lost technology used in the games come from Eden, another name for Earth. Which makes us the Precursors and the people in the game merely our descendents.
- The Kingdom of Zeal in Chrono Trigger which in 12,000 BC (during the Ice Age) built floating cities in the sky and an "Ocean Palace" under the sea. Their civilization was powered originally by the Sun Stone (which harnessed solar energy) and then by the more abundant (but of course, more dangerous) Mammon Machine which extracted energy from Lavos the Big Bad from outer space.
- In Escape Velocity Nova, the precursors are known as Those Who Came Before (no relation to Assassin's Creed's precursors). Very little is known about them, since they merged with the universe en masse centuries (if not millennia) before humans achieved space travel. They left behind bizarrchitecture like artificial rings around the planets Kont and Kel'ar Iy, and a ringworld called Tre'ar Helonis. And in four of the six mission strings, humanity ascends and becomes precursors in turn to an unnamed alien race.
- There are the Solon in Haegemonia: Legions of Iron. You only really find their starbases protected by advanced defenses, which can blow up any ship you have. Presumably, they're meant to hold off their ancient enemies. Once you manage to get past the defenses, though, you get some nifty technology, which helps in your own war against a powerful enemy who turns out to be working for those who have wiped out the Solon. Despite the name, the Expansion Pack The Solon Heritage doesn't explain anything, since it lacks a campaign mode.
- In Ascendancy Xenoarchiological Ruins pop up all the time, sometimes giving access to a technology far up the Tech Tree, though these are not always useful without adequate advancements in production capability and/or power sources.
- The Ancients in the X-Universe series built the games jumpgate network and currently exist as a gestalt consciousness who have surrendered their individuality to become in effect a single entity. They use another precursor race, the Sohnen, as an intermediary to the young races. Their objectives are to preserve intelligent life throughout the universe, retard the heat death of the universe, and to become Type VI on the Kardashev scale, a civilization one that uses the energy of several universes and can alter the physical laws of universes. Basically, gods.
- Subverted in the first Star Flight. "The Ancients" were thought to be a race that left behind several artifacts and ruins. However, it's later revealed that they are unlike any other form of life, in that they are in fact sapient crystals. Modern civilization has been using these crystals as the fuel Endurium, and in self-defense "The Ancients" began causing stars to flare, setting the game's events in motion.
- The Azran from the Professor Layton series, most notably as the focus of Professor Layton and the Azran Legacy.
- The Endless of Endless Space. Unlike most precursors, the denizens of the galaxy know exactly what happened to them; they ended up fracturing into factions (the Concrete and the Virtual) and wiped themselves out in a massive interstellar pogrom millenia ago; the frozen survivors can be counted on one hand. Before that happened, though, they nurtured species into sapience (including the Drakken of Endless Legend), terraformed worlds with their artificially intelligent robots (who are still around after completing their mission), and built vast megastructures; planetary core taps, orbital shipyards, et cetera. The Pilgrims, a human nation of scientists and mystics, seek out the Endless's lost homeworld, Tor.
- Warframe features the Orokin, who created the Tenno to fight a race known as the Sentients in the Great Offscreen War. The Grineer pursue Orokin technology in their quest to conquer the solar system, while the Corpus are more interested in selling the tech for profit; the Tenno don't particularly want either side finding anything. If the Stalker's Codex entry is to be believed, the Tenno were the ones who killed off the Orokin in the first place. Some of the Orokin's towers escaped into the Void, where their technology was preserved, but others were left behind to become filled with the Infested.
- Pillars of Eternity has the Engwithans, a civilization that existed thousands of years before the time in which the game is set. Their understanding of how souls function was leagues ahead of what modern animancers have learned and their ruins still dot the lands, most prominently in Eir Glanfath. The Glanfathan culture is based around protecting these ancient sites, a task supposedly given to their ancestors by the ancient Engwithans, presumably to prevent anyone from discovering the origin of the gods.
- Dragon Age: The ancient elves serve as this setting's precursors, despite the fact that their descendents are still alive and kicking. Much of the magic that made ancient Tevinter so powerful is implied to have been stolen and reverse engineered from elven artifacts, and modern Dalish elves spend most of their time combing through ruins for scraps of history left behind by their ancestors. Interestingly enough, even though they were once immortal and capable of incredible feats of magic (such as creating entirely new species, physically walking in the Fade, and constructing the Veil between the waking and dreaming worlds), ancient elves don't inspire any of the awe that usually accompanies this trope from their human successors - probably because their descendants are now scrubbing floors.
- In the Furry Webcomic Jack, the furries that currently live on Earth are the descendants of furries created in a lab by humans, making humans the Precursors. They were wiped out in a war started by the first furry, Jack. The furry version of the United States government knows about furrykind's origins, and is (probably wisely) keeping it a secret.
- In Unity, the creatures living in the ship are all distant descendants of Earth life. Humans built the ship, but disappeared long ago.
- In Homestuck, universes are created by sessions of Sburb. And the trolls created ours.
- In Impure Blood, they are the Ancients. Roan is a Half-Human Hybrid descendent. The Watchers think they are evil.
- The Cyantian Chronicles have at least two species, the Rumuah who created the Cyantians as servants and heirs, than died out from a genetic disease. And the "Squids" who came along centuries later and enslaved the Cyantians, until Alpha Akaelae led a successful rebellion and wiped them out.
- In Iothera, the ancient Seb attained spaceflight, then apparently vanished.
Cassandra: We still don't really know who the Seb were — or how they built the Red Towers — or why they were on the moons — or even what all the stuff they left behind does.
- Harbourmaster has the Qohatoth, who were tormented by the loneliness of being the only sapient lifeform in the galaxy. Although their quest to find other species to befriend (the Yogzarthu didn't want friendship) led them to journey into other dimensions before humans could become spacefarers, they terraformed many other planets to be Earth-like in hopes of sparing humanity that same pain. Ironically, they made the terraformed planets too paradisial; nothing was subjected to the kind of pressures that would select for sapience, until a comet strike altered Tethys's climate, allowing the entomorphs to evolve to sapience.
- Open Blue has the Iormunean Imperium, a once glorious empire that prospered thanks to their goddess. When a new religion started encroaching on the fringes of the empire and the local Church Militant did nothing to stop its growth, aforementioned goddess turned her back on them while they were in the middle of a war with invading barbarian hordes. Suffice to say, it led to their destruction, and their blessed weapons and artifacts being scattered across the world for the present nations to search for.
- In Orion's Arm abandoned ruins with highly advanced technology are considerably more common than living aliens with technology even close to the level of Terragen civilization. Many find this somewhat disturbing.
- The Whateley Universe appears to have at least two Precursor races - the Telemap, whale-like beings that explored the Universe through Astral Projection, followed by the humanoid Isokist, who did so in person and colonized several galaxies before they began experimenting with the dimensions outside our Universe, which quickly led to them being nearly annihilated by Eldritch Abominations. Somewhere along the way, one Isokist Mad Scientist created the Scourge - a sentient Ultimate Weapon in the form of a female Isokist - as a last-ditch defense against the invaders. The rest is hidden in the mists of time, but it is known that the Scourge survived, until eight billion years later it merged with a human teenager, becoming the character of Tennyo.
- The Drylon from Beyond the Impossible. They disappeared five billion years ago but they left behind technology so powerful that the gods will do anything to put their hands on it.
Five billion years ago, the Drylon disappeared. The legend goes that the Drylon waged war against the universe and lost. They lost so bad that hardly anybody remembers them.
- In Gargoyles, the First Race, while never directly referred to in the show, has been revealed by Greg Weisman to have preceded the Three Races.
- In Shadow Raiders, a mysterious race created world engines (if not the planets themselves). This allowed the natives to not get consumed by the Beast Planet. One has to wonder who they were and why they did it.
- The French series Once Upon a Time... Space (the sci-fi and prevalently entertaining installment of the Il était une fois... educational series) has at least two of these races. The two confirmed races were at war with each other, with one composed by human lookalikes (some of which landed on a primitive planet inhabitated by other Human Aliens and taught them better science before nuking them for attacking them in order to steal their technology) and the other implied to have normal-sized starships capable to blow up a planet (the asteroid belt is believed having been one such planet, where this race believed some of their enemies had taken refuge). The inhabitants of Atlantis are a subgroup of another race of Human Aliens, known for having interbred with Earth humans (with Psi's Psychic Powers implied to be the result of descending from them) and who are possibly connected to the first group, and a fourth, who actually appear, is a Sufficiently Advanced Species that may be the same who sent the Atlanteans on Earth and have some connection to Psi. The protagonist themselves become this from time to time, acting as teachers to less developed species.
Real Life and Mythology
- An Older Than Feudalism topic is Atlantis:
- It was first recorded by Plato, and may be an allegory he dreamed up to serve his conception of a utopian society by providing it with an enemy. Another possibility is that the legend of Atlantis grew out of stories about the civilization on Bronze-Age Crete, long before classical Ancient Greece. Another candidate is Santorini, which was once Thera, an island city-state in the Aegean Sea, very advanced compared to its neighbors, even possessing indoor plumbing, but erased (along with the middle of the island) by a volcanic explosion about 36 centuries ago.
- Theories on the origins of Atlantis are far ranging and include everything from islands in the Mediterranean to the continents of North and South America. Proponents of the latter theories, however, are not taken seriously because no such civilisation could have existed and left zero trace or record of its existence whatsoever.
- The story includes a second set of precursors in the ancient predecessor of Athens (in another location in Greece which no longer exists), which embodied all of the traits of Plato's ideal state. After the war between the two ended in victory for Athens, it was also destroyed in the same calamity as Atlantis. Oddly enough no-one ever seems to believe that this culture was real, even though it gets much more focus in the story and the claims about it are much more modest.
- Medieval and Renaissance Europeans often thought of the Roman Empire this way. Adventurer Archaeologists in Central Asia often thought of the various Silk Road Civilizations this way, too. Similarly, the early Iron Age civilizations of Greece, Anatolia and Mesopotamia which emerged after the Bronze Age collapse and subsequent "Dark Ages" viewed their predecessors as such, most notably the awe in which the Hellenic Greeks held the Mycenaeans.
- One serious solution proposed for the Fermi Paradoxnote is that we humans are the Precursors — we are the first intelligent race. Or at the very least, our elders are too recently emerged to have expanded universe-wide yet. If this is true, uncounted billions of civilisations are depending on us not nuking ourselves or sinking to pre-industrial levels via climate change and resource exhaustion. No pressure.
- This is also a favorite theme with Conspiracy Theories, where the role of the Precursors is filled by ancient, vanished technological empires like Atlantis or Lemuria, or by alien visitors who founded humanity's ancient civilisations (the Pyramids and other structures made by brown-skinned people are particularly prone to built-by-aliens claims).
- To be fair, all human accomplishments were apparently built by aliens.
- The mysterious Indus civilization (Bronze Age) reached levels of technology, health and urbanism not reached again until the Middle Ages (in India) or later. For just a bit of perspective, the ancient city of Mohenjo-Daro had a better sewage system than nearby Karachi does today.
- Ancient Phoenician-influenced Sardinia could count. They had iron weapons, conquered Italy and southern France, and had huge stone fortresses long before the middle ages. The end of the Sardinian civilization also coincides with an eruption of Vesuvius, plus the geography and political state of the island could match the description.
- Any ancient state ended up either as this or a Vestigial Empire. The best examples would be the six "cradles of civilization" where writing, urbanization and features of modern society first developed independently of older civilizations: Mesoamerica, the central Andes, Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, the Indus River Valley and China.
- Homo Erectus. They inhabited Africa and most of Eurasia for over 2 million years, and are believed to be the first species of human, and the first in Earth's history, to make complex hunting tools, control fire, and cook their food. They were so widespread that they gave rise to many different subspecies of humans, including Homo Heidelbergensis, the ancestor of both modern humans and Neanderthals. There are ongoing debates about whether some known groups of early humans are actually Homo Erectus or a subspecies descended from them.